Hornbostel–Sachs

Hornbostel-SachsSachs-HornbostelSachs–Hornbosteltube zither111.22121.2321.322box-shaped luteHB# 421.22Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments
Hornbostel–Sachs or Sachs–Hornbostel is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914.wikipedia
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Musical instrument

instrumentsmusical instrumentsinstrument
It is the most widely used system for classifying musical instruments by ethnomusicologists and organologists (people who study musical instruments).
Instruments can be classified by their effective range, their material composition, their size, etc. However, the most common academic method, Hornbostel–Sachs, uses the means by which they produce sound.

Erich von Hornbostel

Erich Moritz von HornbostelErich M. von HornbostelHornbostel
Hornbostel–Sachs or Sachs–Hornbostel is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914.
He is remembered for his pioneering work in the field of ethnomusicology, and for the Sachs–Hornbostel system of musical instrument classification which he co-authored with Curt Sachs.

Drum kit

drumsdrumdrummer
In essence, this group includes all percussion instruments apart from drums, as well as some other instruments.
A drum kit consists of a mix of drums (categorized classically as membranophones, Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 2) and idiophones – most significantly cymbals, but can also include the woodblock and cowbell (classified as Hornbostel-Sachs high-level classification 1).

List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number

111.231
(List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number)
The Hornbostel–Sachs system of musical instrument classification defines idiophones as all instruments in which sound is produced primarily by way of the instrument itself vibrating without the use of membranes or strings.

Idiophone

idiophonesidiophonicshakers
Idiophones primarily produce their sounds by means of the actual body of the instrument vibrating, rather than a string, membrane, or column of air.
It is the first of the four main divisions in the original Hornbostel–Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification (see List of idiophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number).

Percussion instrument

percussionpercussionistpercussions
In essence, this group includes all percussion instruments apart from drums, as well as some other instruments.
The Hornbostel–Sachs system has no high-level section for percussion.

Organology

organologistorganologicalorganologically
It is the most widely used system for classifying musical instruments by ethnomusicologists and organologists (people who study musical instruments).
One of the most important organologists of the 20th century was Curt Sachs, who, as well as writing Real-Lexicon der Musikinstrumente (1913) and The History of Musical Instruments (1940), devised with Erich von Hornbostel the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of instrument classification, which was first published in 1914 in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie(Hornbostel–Sachs).

Musical instrument classification

André SchaeffnerPlasmaphoneQuintephone
Hornbostel–Sachs or Sachs–Hornbostel is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914.
Their scheme is widely used today, and is most often known as the Hornbostel–Sachs system (or the Sachs–Hornbostel system).

Struck idiophone

Percussion idiophoneConcussion idiophonedirectly struck idiophone
Struck idiophones is one of the categories of idiophones (that is, any musical instrument that creates sound primarily by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes) that are found in the Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification.

Rattle (percussion instrument)

rattlerattlesankle rattle
Rattles are described in the Hornbostel–Sachs system as Shaken Idiophones or Rattles (112.1).

Lithophone

lithophonesStone marimbalithophonic
In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, lithophones are designated as '111.22' – directly-struck percussion plaques.

Curt Sachs

Sachs
Hornbostel–Sachs or Sachs–Hornbostel is a system of musical instrument classification devised by Erich Moritz von Hornbostel and Curt Sachs, and first published in the Zeitschrift für Ethnologie in 1914.
It is today known as the Sachs-Hornbostel system.

Lamellophone

lamellaphoneLamellophonesplucked idiophone
Plucked idiophones, or lamellaphones, are idiophones set in vibration by being plucked; examples include the jaw harp or mbira.
The lamellophones constitute category 12 in the Hornbostel–Sachs system for classifying musical instruments, plucked idiophones.

Drum

drumsBass Drumdrummer
This group includes all drums and kazoos.
In the Hornbostel-Sachs classification system, it is a membranophone.

List of membranophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number

List of membranophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number
The Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification groups all instruments in which sound is produced primarily through a vibrating membrane.

Membranophone

Directly struck membranophonemembranophonestubular drum
Membranophones primarily produce their sounds by means of the vibration of a tightly stretched membrane.
It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Chordophone

chordophonesChordaphoneSimple chordophone
Chordophones primarily produce their sounds by means of the vibration of a string or strings that are stretched between fixed points.
It is one of the four main divisions of instruments in the original Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification.

Metallophone

metallophonesbass metallophonemetal
Metallophones are a subset, made of metal, of Hornbostel-Sachs category 111.22 Percussion plaques, which is a subset of percussion idiophones.

List of chordophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number

List of chordophones by Hornbostel–Sachs number
The Hornbostel-Sachs system of musical instrument classification defines chordophones as all instruments in which sound is primarily produced by the vibration of a string or strings that are stretched between fixed points.

Timpani

tympanikettle drumkettledrum
This includes most types of drums, such as the timpani, or kettle drum, and the snare drum.
In the Sachs–Hornbostel classification, this makes timpani membranophones.

Piano

grand pianopianistacoustic piano
This group includes all instruments generally called string instruments in the west, as well as many (but not all) keyboard instruments, such as pianos and harpsichords.
Although an acoustic piano has strings, it is usually classified as a percussion instrument rather than as a stringed instrument, because the strings are struck rather than plucked (as with a harpsichord or spinet); in the Hornbostel–Sachs system of instrument classification, pianos are considered chordophones.

Lute

lutenistluteslutanist
This includes most western string instruments, including lute-type instruments such as violins and guitars, and harps.
The term also refers generally to any string instrument having the strings running in a plane parallel to the sound table (in the Hornbostel–Sachs system).

Standing bell

singing bowlsinging bowlsrin
They are often played by striking, in which case they sound a bell note as a struck idiophone (Hornbostel–Sachs classification 111.242.11).

String instrument

stringsstringstring instruments
This group includes all instruments generally called string instruments in the west, as well as many (but not all) keyboard instruments, such as pianos and harpsichords.
In the Hornbostel-Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification, used in organology, string instruments are called chordophones.

List of musical instruments by Hornbostel–Sachs number: 321.31

spike fiddlespike lutespike lutes
This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel–Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 321.31 under that system.