Horned God

Great horned hunter godhornedKarnaynaMay Lordthe horned god
The Horned god is one of the two primary deities found in Wicca and some related forms of Neopaganism.wikipedia
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Wicca

WiccanWiccansEclectic Wicca
The Horned god is one of the two primary deities found in Wicca and some related forms of Neopaganism.
These are traditionally viewed as the Moon Goddess and the Horned God, respectively.

Wiccan views of divinity

Goddessdivine coupleduotheistic theological system
The Horned god represents the male part of the religion's duotheistic theological system, the consort of the female Triple goddess of the Moon or other Mother goddess.
Wiccan views of divinity are generally theistic, and revolve around a Goddess and a Horned God, thereby being generally dualistic.

Witch-cult hypothesis

Witch-Cultan ancient pagan Witch-cultWitch Cult
The pioneers of the various Wiccan or Witchcraft traditions, such as Gerald Gardner, Doreen Valiente and Robert Cochrane, all claimed that their religion was a continuation of the pagan religion of the Witch-Cult following historians who had purported the Witch-Cult's existence, such as Jules Michelet and Margaret Murray.
According to its proponents, the witch cult revolved around the worship of a Horned God of fertility, the underworld, and is also the god of the hunt and the hunted, whose Christian persecutors referred to as the Devil, and its members participated in nocturnal rites at the witches' Sabbath in which they venerated this deity.

Margaret Murray

Margaret Alice MurrayDr. Margaret Alice MurrayM.A. Murray
The pioneers of the various Wiccan or Witchcraft traditions, such as Gerald Gardner, Doreen Valiente and Robert Cochrane, all claimed that their religion was a continuation of the pagan religion of the Witch-Cult following historians who had purported the Witch-Cult's existence, such as Jules Michelet and Margaret Murray. Following the writings of suffragist Matilda Joslyn Gage and others, Margaret Murray, in her 1921 book The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, proposed the theory that the witches of the early-modern period were remnants of a pagan cult and that the Christian Church had declared the god of the witches was in fact the Devil.
Unable to return to Egypt due to the First World War, she focused her research on the witch-cult hypothesis, the theory that the witch trials of Early Modern Christendom were an attempt to extinguish a surviving pre-Christian, pagan religion devoted to a Horned God.

Cernunnos

KernunnosCernosCernunnous
Doreen Valiente, a former High Priestess of the Gardnerian tradition, claimed that Gerald Gardner's Bricket Wood coven referred to the god as Cernunnos, or Kernunno, which is a Latin word, discovered on a stone carving found in France, meaning "the Horned One".
Cernunnos is the conventional name given in Celtic studies to depictions of the "horned god" of Celtic polytheism.

Theriocephaly

eagle-headedanimal-headbeast men
Whilst depictions of the deity vary, he is always shown with either horns or antlers upon his head, often depicted as being theriocephalic (having a beast's head), in this way emphasizing "the union of the divine and the animal", the latter of which includes humanity.

Dualistic cosmology

dualismdualisticdualist
In traditional Wicca (British Traditional Wicca), he is generally regarded as a dualistic god of twofold aspects: bright and dark, night and day, summer and winter, the Oak King and the Holly King.
This is centered on the worship of a divine couple, the Moon Goddess and the Horned God, who are regarded as lovers.

Gardnerian Wicca

GardnerianGardnerian traditionGardnerian Witches
Doreen Valiente, a former High Priestess of the Gardnerian tradition, claimed that Gerald Gardner's Bricket Wood coven referred to the god as Cernunnos, or Kernunno, which is a Latin word, discovered on a stone carving found in France, meaning "the Horned One".
In Gardnerian Wicca, the two principal deities are the Horned God and the Mother Goddess.

Charles Cardell

In the writings of Charles Cardell and Raymond Howard, the god was referred to as Atho.
Cardell's tradition of Wicca venerated a form of the Horned God known as Atho, and worked with a coven that met in the grounds of his estate in Surrey.

Green Man

Green MenCeltic embodiment of natureGreen George
Other examples include the Green Man and the Sun God.
In Wicca, the Green Man has often been used as a representation of the Horned God, a syncretic deity that appropriates aspects of, among others, the Celtic Cernunnos and the Greek Pan.

Horned deity

horned godbull's hornshorned deities
The term Horned god itself predates Wicca, and is an early 20th-century syncretic term for a horned or antlered anthropomorphic god with partly pseudohistorical origins, partly based on historical horned deities.
However, many neopagan groups worship some sort of Horned God, for example as a consort of the Great Goddess in Wicca.

Raymond Howard (Wiccan)

Raymond HowardCoven of Atho
In the writings of Charles Cardell and Raymond Howard, the god was referred to as Atho.
By the latter part of that decade he was running an antiques shop in Field Dalling, Norfolk, where he stored a wooden carving of the Wiccan Horned God, known as the "Head of Atho".

Pseudohistory

pseudohistoricalpseudo-historicalpseudo-history
The term Horned god itself predates Wicca, and is an early 20th-century syncretic term for a horned or antlered anthropomorphic god with partly pseudohistorical origins, partly based on historical horned deities.
In her books, starting with The Witch-Cult in Western Europe (1921), English author Margaret Murray claimed that the witch trials in the early modern period were actually an attempt by chauvinistic Christians to annihilate a secret, pagan religion, which she claimed worshipped a Horned God.

Stregheria

StregaStregheArician Tradition
In the neopagan tradition of Stregheria, founded by Raven Grimassi and loosely inspired by the works of Charles Godfrey Leland, the Horned God goes by several names, including Dianus, Faunus, Cern, and Actaeon.
Stregheria honors a pantheon centered on a Moon Goddess and a Horned God regarded as central, paralleling Wiccan views of divinity.

Robert Cochrane (witch)

Robert CochraneRoy BowersRoebuck (Wicca)
The pioneers of the various Wiccan or Witchcraft traditions, such as Gerald Gardner, Doreen Valiente and Robert Cochrane, all claimed that their religion was a continuation of the pagan religion of the Witch-Cult following historians who had purported the Witch-Cult's existence, such as Jules Michelet and Margaret Murray. In Cochrane's Craft, which was founded by Robert Cochrane, the Horned God was often referred to by a Biblical name; Tubal-cain, who, according to the Bible was the first blacksmith.
The Clan of Tubal Cain revere a Horned God and Fate, expressed as the Pale Faced Goddess, named Hekate.

Cochrane's Craft

Clan of Tubal CainCochranian traditionCochranian Witchcraft
In Cochrane's Craft, which was founded by Robert Cochrane, the Horned God was often referred to by a Biblical name; Tubal-cain, who, according to the Bible was the first blacksmith.
As in most forms of Neopagan Witchcraft, Cochranians worship both a Horned God and a Triple Goddess.

The Witch-Cult in Western Europe

Following the writings of suffragist Matilda Joslyn Gage and others, Margaret Murray, in her 1921 book The Witch-Cult in Western Europe, proposed the theory that the witches of the early-modern period were remnants of a pagan cult and that the Christian Church had declared the god of the witches was in fact the Devil.
Her theory, also known as the witch-cult hypothesis, suggests that the accusations made towards "witches" in Europe were in fact based on a real existing pagan religion that worshiped a horned god.

Wheel of the Year

SabbatMaboncross-quarter day
In Wicca the cycle of the seasons is celebrated during eight sabbats called The Wheel of the Year.
The Goddess, in turn, ages and rejuvenates endlessly with the seasons, being courted by and giving birth to the Horned God.

Dorset Ooser

Murray claims that various depictions of humans with horns from European and Indian sources, ranging from the paleolithic French cave painting of "The Sorcerer" to the Indic Pashupati to the modern English Dorset Ooser, are evidence for an unbroken, Europe-wide tradition of worship of a singular Horned God.
The design of the Ooser has also inspired the production of copies which have been used as representations of the Horned God in the modern Pagan religion of Wicca in both the United Kingdom and United States.

The Sorcerer (cave art)

The SorcererSorcererthe Shaman of Trois-Frères
Murray claims that various depictions of humans with horns from European and Indian sources, ranging from the paleolithic French cave painting of "The Sorcerer" to the Indic Pashupati to the modern English Dorset Ooser, are evidence for an unbroken, Europe-wide tradition of worship of a singular Horned God. The so-called Sorcerer dates from perhaps 13,000 BCE.
Hutton's theory led him to conclude that reliance on Breuil's initial sketch resulted in many later scholars erroneously claiming that "The Sorcerer" was evidence that the concept of a Horned God dated back to Paleolithic times.

Triple Goddess (Neopaganism)

Triple GoddessGoddessGreat Goddess
The Horned god represents the male part of the religion's duotheistic theological system, the consort of the female Triple goddess of the Moon or other Mother goddess.
In various forms of Wicca, her masculine consort is the Horned God.

Herne the Hunter

HerneHernHerne, the Hunter
In this neopagan concept, the god is also referred to as Brân, a Welsh mythological figure, Wayland, the smith in Germanic mythology, and Herne, a horned figure from English folklore.

Krampus

Krampusnachteponymous characterhuge demon
There seems to be little doubt as to his true identity for, in no other form is the full regalia of the Horned God of the Witches so well preserved.

Pan (god)

PanPanesPans
The popular image of the Greek god Pan was removed from its classical context in the writings of the Romantics of the 18th century and connected with their ideals of a pastoral England.
In 1933, the Egyptologist Margaret Murray published the book, The God of the Witches, in which she theorised that Pan was merely one form of a horned god who was worshipped across Europe by a witch-cult.