A report on Horses in warfareStirrup and Knight

Scotland Forever! [crop] depicting the cavalry charge of the Royal Scots Greys at the Battle of Waterloo.
A modern working stirrup on an endurance riding saddle
A 14th century depiction of the 13th century German knight Hartmann von Aue, from the Codex Manesse.
A soldier in World War I with his mule.
Depiction of a Kushan divinity using an early platform-style stirrup, circa AD 150. British Museum.
A Norman knight slaying Harold Godwinson (Bayeux tapestry, c. 1070). The rank of knight developed in the 12th century from the mounted warriors of the 10th and 11th centuries.
Chariots and archers were weapons of war in Ancient Egypt.
Stirrup from the Baekje (18 BC – 660 AD) kingdom of Korea
The battle between the Turks and Christian knights during the Ottoman wars in Europe
Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period
Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan.
David I of Scotland knighting a squire
The "War Panel" of the Standard of Ur
Roman emperor Basil I the Macedonian and his son Leo on horses with stirrups. (From the Madrid Skylitzes, Biblioteca Nacional de España, Madrid).
The miles Christianus allegory (mid-13th century), showing a knight armed with virtues and facing the vices in mortal combat. The parts of his armour are identified with Christian virtues, thus correlating essential military equipment with the religious values of chivalry: 
The helmet is spes futuri gaudii (hope of future bliss), the shield (here the shield of the Trinity) is fides (faith), the armour is caritas (charity), the lance is perseverantia (perseverance), the sword is verbum Dei (the word of God), the banner is regni celestis desiderium (desire for the kingdom of heaven), the horse is bona voluntas (good will), the saddle is Christiana religio (Christian religion), the saddlecloth is humilitas (humility), the reins are discretio (discretion), the spurs are disciplina (discipline), the stirrups are propositum boni operis (proposition of good work), and the horse's four hooves are delectatio, consensus, bonum opus, consuetudo (delight, consent, good work, and exercise).
A Qin dynasty sculpture of a chariot with horses and rider from the Terracotta Army unearthed near the tomb of China's first emperor Qin Shihuangdi, Xi'an, China, 3rd century BC
10th century stirrup found in England
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Depiction of a Sasanian Persian Cataphract from Taq-e Bostan
Modern fillis stirrups
Elements of a harness of the late style of Gothic plate armour that was a popular style in the mid 15th to early 16th century (depiction made in the 18th century)
Life-size model depicting c. 1850 horse artillery team with a light artillery piece
Han dynasty mounting stirrup.
Page from King René's Tournament Book (BnF Ms Fr 2695)
A horserider of probable Xiongnu origin: the rider wears a hairbun characteristic of the oriental steppes, and his horse has characteristically Xiongnu horse trappings. 2nd–1st century BC. Excavated in Saksanokhur (near Farkhor), Tajikistan. National Museum of Antiquities of Tajikistan.
Han mounting stirrup
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Manuscript illustration of the Mahabharata War, depicting warriors fighting on horse chariots
A funerary figurine with a mounting stirrup, dated AD 302, unearthed near Changsha.
Fortified house – a family seat of a knight (Schloss Hart by the Harter Graben near Kindberg, Austria)
Yabusame archers, Edo period
Horse figurine with stirrup, Western Jin
The Battle of Grunwald between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Knights in 1410
Spanish and Moorish light cavalry (jinetes) skirmish at the 1431 Battle of La Higueruela
The earliest extant double stirrup, from the tomb of Feng Sufu, a Han Chinese nobleman from the Northern Yan dynasty, 415 AD. Discovered in Beipiao, Liaoning.
Pippo Spano, the member of the Order of the Dragon
A re-imagination of Louis III and Carloman's 879 victory over the Vikings; Jean Fouquet, Grandes Chroniques de France
Iron stirrups, Gaya confederacy
The English fighting the French knights at the Battle of Crécy in 1346
Jousting is a sport that evolved out of heavy cavalry practice.
Metal stirrup in use for dressage
Miniature from Jean Froissart Chronicles depicting the Battle of Montiel (Castilian Civil War, in the Hundred Years' War)
Chasseurs of the Guard (light cavalry) to the left and cuirassier (Heavy cavalry) to the right, at the battle of Friedland.
A modern artistic rendition of a chevalière of the Late Middle Ages.
"Napoleon I with his Generals" by Ludwig Elsholtz. This painting shows light cavalry horses which come into use as officer's mounts in 18th- and 19th-century Europe.
A battle of the Reconquista from the Cantigas de Santa Maria
Kanem-Bu warriors armed with spears. The Earth and Its Inhabitants, 1892.
Native Americans quickly adopted the horse and were highly effective light cavalry. Comanche-Osage fight. George Catlin, 1834
Confederate general Robert E. Lee and Traveller. Cavalry played a significant role in the American Civil War.
The Battle of Pavia in 1525. Landsknecht mercenaries with arquebus.
Australian Imperial Force light horsemen, 1914
Polish Cavalry during a Polish Army manoeuvre in late 1930s.
A memorial to the horses that served in the Second Boer War.
U.S. Special Operations Forces, members of Task Force Dagger, and Afghanistan Commander Abdul Rashid Dostum on horseback in the Dari-a-Souf Valley, Afghanistan, in October 2001.
US Air Force Special Operations Command Combat Controller Bart Decker rides a horse in Afghanistan in the early stages of Operation Enduring Freedom.
Mounted police in Poznań, Poland
Horse Cavalry Detachment of the U.S. Army's 1st Cavalry Division demonstrating a mock cavalry charge at Fort Bliss, Texas

The effectiveness of horses in battle was also revolutionized by improvements in technology, such as the invention of the saddle, the stirrup, and the horse collar.

- Horses in warfare

The lords trusted the knights, who were skilled in battle on horseback.

- Knight

Muslim warriors relied upon light cavalry in their campaigns throughout Northern Africa, Asia, and Europe beginning in the 7th and 8th centuries AD. Europeans used several types of war horses in the Middle Ages, and the best-known heavy cavalry warrior of the period was the armoured knight.

- Horses in warfare

As a tool allowing expanded use of horses in warfare, the stirrup is often called the third revolutionary step in equipment, after the chariot and the saddle.

- Stirrup

Among other advantages, stirrups provided greater balance and support to the rider, which allowed the knight to use a sword more efficiently without falling, especially against infantry adversaries.

- Stirrup

At about this time the Franks increasingly remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than mounted infantry, with the discovery of the stirrup, and would continue to do so for centuries afterwards.

- Knight
Scotland Forever! [crop] depicting the cavalry charge of the Royal Scots Greys at the Battle of Waterloo.

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