Hotspot (geology)

hotspothotspotshot spothot spotshotspot islandvolcanic hotspothotspot trackhotspot volcanogeological hotspothot spot island
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.wikipedia
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Volcano

volcanicvolcanoesvolcanic igneous activity
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle.
These so-called "hotspots", for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the core–mantle boundary, 3,000 km deep in the Earth.

Mantle plume

plumemantle plumesplumes
One suggests that hotspots are due to mantle plumes that rise as thermal diapirs from the core–mantle boundary. The joint mantle plume/hotspot hypothesis envisages the feeder structures to be fixed relative to one another, with the continents and seafloor drifting overhead.
Because the plume head partly melts on reaching shallow depths, a plume is often invoked as the cause of volcanic hotspots, such as Hawaii or Iceland, and large igneous provinces such as the Deccan and Siberian traps.

Iceland hotspot

Iceland plumeIcelandhotspot
Well-known examples include the Hawaii, Iceland and Yellowstone hotspots. Hawaii, Réunion, Yellowstone, Galápagos, and Iceland are some of the most active volcanic regions to which the hypothesis is applied.
The Iceland hotspot is a hotspot which is partly responsible for the high volcanic activity which has formed the Iceland Plateau and the island of Iceland.

Yellowstone hotspot

YellowstoneOwyhee-Humboldt volcanic fieldHeise volcanic field
Well-known examples include the Hawaii, Iceland and Yellowstone hotspots. Hawaii, Réunion, Yellowstone, Galápagos, and Iceland are some of the most active volcanic regions to which the hypothesis is applied.
The Yellowstone hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the United States responsible for large scale volcanism in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, and Wyoming as the North American tectonic plate moved over it.

Hawaii hotspot

Hawaiian hotspotHawaiiHawaiian volcanoes
Well-known examples include the Hawaii, Iceland and Yellowstone hotspots. Hawaii, Réunion, Yellowstone, Galápagos, and Iceland are some of the most active volcanic regions to which the hypothesis is applied.
The Hawaii hotspot is a volcanic hotspot located near the namesake Hawaiian Islands, in the northern Pacific Ocean.

Galápagos hotspot

Galapagos RiftCocos RidgeGalapagos hotspot
Hawaii, Réunion, Yellowstone, Galápagos, and Iceland are some of the most active volcanic regions to which the hypothesis is applied.
The Galápagos hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the East Pacific Ocean responsible for the creation of the Galapagos Islands as well as three major aseismic ridge systems, Carnegie, Cocos and Malpelo which are on two tectonic plates.

Réunion hotspot

Reunion hotspothotspotRéunion
Hawaii, Réunion, Yellowstone, Galápagos, and Iceland are some of the most active volcanic regions to which the hypothesis is applied.
The Réunion hotspot is a volcanic hotspot which currently lies under the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean.

Hawaiian Islands

Sandwich IslandsHawaiiHawaiian
The origins of the concept of hotspots lie in the work of J. Tuzo Wilson, who postulated in 1963 that the formation of the Hawaiian Islands resulted from the slow movement of a tectonic plate across a hot region beneath the surface.
The Hawaiian Islands are the exposed peaks of a great undersea mountain range known as the Hawaiian–Emperor seamount chain, formed by volcanic activity over a hotspot in the Earth's mantle.

John Tuzo Wilson

J. Tuzo WilsonTuzo WilsonJ.T. Wilson
The origins of the concept of hotspots lie in the work of J. Tuzo Wilson, who postulated in 1963 that the formation of the Hawaiian Islands resulted from the slow movement of a tectonic plate across a hot region beneath the surface.
Wilson maintained that the Hawaiian Islands were created as a tectonic plate (extending across much of the Pacific Ocean) shifted to the northwest over a fixed hotspot, spawning a long series of volcanoes.

Plate tectonics

tectonic platesplate tectonictectonic
A hotspot's position on the Earth's surface is independent of tectonic plate boundaries.
The theories find resonance in the modern theories which envisage hot spots or mantle plumes which remain fixed and are overridden by oceanic and continental lithosphere plates over time and leave their traces in the geological record (though these phenomena are not invoked as real driving mechanisms, but rather as modulators).

Magma

magmaticmeltmagmas
Where hotspots occur in continental regions, basaltic magma rises through the continental crust, which melts to form rhyolites.
Magma is produced by melting of the mantle and/or the crust at various tectonic settings, including subduction zones, continental rift zones, mid-ocean ridges and hotspots.

Yellowstone Caldera

YellowstonecalderaYellowstone supervolcano
For example, the Yellowstone Caldera was formed by some of the most powerful volcanic explosions in geologic history.
The calderas lie over a hotspot under the Yellowstone Plateau where light and hot magma (molten rock) from the mantle rises toward the surface.

Tristan hotspot

TristanTristan da CunhaTristan da Cunha plume
The Tristan hotspot is a volcanic hotspot which is responsible for the volcanic activity which forms the volcanoes in the southern Atlantic Ocean.

Louisville hotspot

Louisville
The Louisville hotspot is a volcanic hotspot responsible for the volcanic activity that has formed the Louisville Ridge in the southern Pacific Ocean.

Seabed

sea floorocean floorseafloor
The joint mantle plume/hotspot hypothesis envisages the feeder structures to be fixed relative to one another, with the continents and seafloor drifting overhead.
Hotspot volcanic island ridges are created by volcanic activity, erupting periodically, as the tectonic plates pass over a hotspot.

Galápagos Islands

Galapagos IslandsGalapagosGalápagos
This effort has been vexed by the lack of very long chains, by the fact that many are not time-progressive (e.g. the Galápagos) and by the fact that hotspots do not appear to be fixed relative to one another (e.g. Hawaii and Iceland.
Furthermore, the Galápagos Hotspot is at the northern boundary of the Pacific Large Low Shear Velocity Province while the Easter Hotspot is on the southern boundary.

Cobb hotspot

The Cobb hotspot is a marine volcanic hotspot at (46˚ N, 130˚ W), which is 460 km (290 mi) west of Oregon and Washington, North America, in the Pacific Ocean.

Anahim hotspot

Anahim
The Anahim hotspot is a volcanic hotspot located in the West-Central Interior of British Columbia, Canada.

Bowie hotspot

The Bowie hotspot is a volcanic hotspot, located 180 km west of the Queen Charlotte Islands in the Pacific Ocean.

New England hotspot

New England or Great Meteor hotspotGreat Meteor hotspotNew England
The New England hotspot, also referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot, is a long-lived volcanic hotspot in the Atlantic Ocean.

Great Meteor hotspot track

New England or Great Meteor hotspot track
The Great Meteor hotspot track, also referred to as the New England hotspot track, is a vast trail of hotspot magmatism in the Northern Hemisphere.

Mackenzie hotspot

The Mackenzie hotspot was a volcanic hotspot that existed about 1.3 billion years ago across Canada from the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.

Macdonald hotspot

Macdonald
The Macdonald hotspot is a volcanic hotspot in the southern Pacific Ocean.

Walvis Ridge

Walvis
They originated from hotspot volcanism and together they form a mirrored symmetry across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, with the Tristan Hotspot at its centre.

Tasmantid hotspot

hotspot
The Tasmantid hotspot is a volcanic hotspot located in the South Pacific Ocean.