House of Capet

CapetCapetianCapetiansDirect CapetianDirect CapetiansCapetian kingsCapetian DynastyCapetian monarchyCapetsCapet dynasty
The House of Capet (Maison capétienne) or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.wikipedia
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Capetian dynasty

CapetianCapetiansCapetian kings
It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Royal power would later pass (1589) to another Capetian branch, the House of Bourbon, descended from the youngest son of Louis IX (reigned 1226-1270), and (from 1830) to a Bourbon cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet.
The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328.

Hugh Capet

Hugues CapetHugh IHugh
Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet (c. The first Capetian monarch was Hugh Capet (c.939–996), a Frankish nobleman from the Île-de-France, who, following the death of Louis V of France (c.967–987) – the last Carolingian King – secured the throne of France by election.
He is the founder and first king from the House of Capet.

Charles IV of France

Charles IVCharlesKing Charles IV
With the death of Charles IV (reigned 1322-1328), the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV.
Charles IV (18/19 June 1294 – 1 February 1328), called the Fair (le Bel) in France and the Bald (el Calvo) in Navarre, was last king of the direct line of the House of Capet, King of France and King of Navarre (as Charles I) from 1322 to 1328.

House of Valois

ValoisValois-AngoulêmeValois dynasty
With the death of Charles IV (reigned 1322-1328), the throne passed to the House of Valois, descended from a younger brother of Philip IV. Philip of Valois (1293–1350), Count of Anjou and Valois, Charles' cousin, was set up as regent; when the Queen produced a daughter, Blanche, Philip by assent of the great magnates became Philip VI, of the House of Valois, cadet branch of the Capetian Dynasty.
They succeeded the House of Capet (or "Direct Capetians") to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589.

House of Bourbon

BourbonBourbonsBourbon dynasty
Royal power would later pass (1589) to another Capetian branch, the House of Bourbon, descended from the youngest son of Louis IX (reigned 1226-1270), and (from 1830) to a Bourbon cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet. Dynastically, he established two notable Capetian Houses: the House of Anjou (which he created by bestowing the County of Anjou upon his brother, Charles (1227–1285)), and the House of Bourbon (which he established by bestowing Clermont on his son Robert (1256–1317) in 1268, before marrying the young man to the heiress of Bourbon, Beatrix (1257–1310)); the first House would go on to rule Sicily, Naples, and Hungary, suffering many tragedies and disasters on the way; the second would eventually succeed to the French throne, collecting Navarre along the way.
The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the Direct Capetian and Valois kings.

Philip IV of France

Philip IVPhilip the FairPhilippe le Bel
The direct line of the House of Capet came to an end in 1328, when the three sons of Philip IV (reigned 1285-1314) all failed to produce surviving male heirs to the French throne.
A member of the House of Capet, Philip was born in the medieval fortress of Fontainebleau (Seine-et-Marne) to the future Philip III, the Bold, and his first wife, Isabella of Aragon.

Philip I of France

Philip IKing Philip IKing Philip
The House of Capet was, however, fortunate enough to have the support of the Church, and – with the exception of Philip I (1052–1108, who became king at 8), Louis IX (1214–1270, who became king at 12) and the short-lived John the Posthumous (born and died in 1316 after a few days of life) – were able to avoid the problems of underaged kingship.
His reign, like that of most of the early Capetians, was extraordinarily long for the time.

Duke of Burgundy

Dukes of BurgundyBurgundyBurgundian
The Capetian Kings were initially weak rulers of the Kingdom – they directly ruled only small holdings in the Île-de-France and the Orléanais, all of which were plagued with disorder; the rest of France was controlled by potentates such as the Duke of Normandy, the Count of Blois, the Duke of Burgundy (himself a member of the Capetian Dynasty after 1032) and the Duke of Aquitaine (all of whom faced to a greater or lesser extent the same problems of controlling their subordinates).
Beginning with Robert II of France, the title was held by the Capetians, the French royal family.

Louis VI of France

Louis VIKing Louis VILouis VI the Fat
Briefly, under Louis VII 'the Young' (1120–1180), the House of Capet rose in their power in France – Louis married Aliénor (1122–1204), the heiress of the Duchy of Aquitaine, and so became Duke – an advantage which had been eagerly grasped by Louis VI 'the Fat' (1081–1137), Louis the Young's father, when Aliénor's father had asked of the King in his Will to secure a good marriage for the young Duchess.
Louis was the first member of the house of Capet to make a lasting contribution to centralizing the institutions of royal power.

Philip II of France

Philip AugustusPhilip IIPhilip II Augustus
However, the marriage – and thus one avenue of Capetian aggrandisement – failed: the couple produced only two daughters, and suffered marital discord; driven to secure the future of the House, Louis thus divorced Aliénor (who went on to marry Henry II of England (1133–1189), and be known to English history as Eleanor of Aquitaine), and married twice more before finally securing a son, Philippe Dieu-donné ("The God-Given"), who would continue the House as Philip II Augustus (1165–1223), and break the power of the Angevins – the family of Aliénor and Henry II – in France.
King Louis VII intended to make his son Philip co-ruler with him as soon as possible, in accordance with the traditions of the House of Capet, but these plans were delayed when Philip, at the age of thirteen, was separated from his companions during a royal hunt and became lost in the Forest of Compiègne.

Île-de-France

Ile-de-FranceÎle de FranceParis Region
The first Capetian monarch was Hugh Capet (c.939–996), a Frankish nobleman from the Île-de-France, who, following the death of Louis V of France (c.967–987) – the last Carolingian King – secured the throne of France by election.
Under the rule of the Capetian kings, Paris gradually became the largest and most prosperous city in France.

House of Orléans

OrléansHouse of OrleansBourbon-Orléans
Royal power would later pass (1589) to another Capetian branch, the House of Bourbon, descended from the youngest son of Louis IX (reigned 1226-1270), and (from 1830) to a Bourbon cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet.
However, a portion of the Legitimists, still resentful of the revolutionary credentials of the House of Orléans, transferred their loyalties to the Carlist heirs of the Spanish Bourbons, who represented the most senior branch of the Capetians even though they had renounced their claim to the French throne to obtain Spain in 1713.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

EleanorQueen EleanorEleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine
Briefly, under Louis VII 'the Young' (1120–1180), the House of Capet rose in their power in France – Louis married Aliénor (1122–1204), the heiress of the Duchy of Aquitaine, and so became Duke – an advantage which had been eagerly grasped by Louis VI 'the Fat' (1081–1137), Louis the Young's father, when Aliénor's father had asked of the King in his Will to secure a good marriage for the young Duchess.
Rather than act as guardian to the duchess and duchy, he decided to marry the duchess to his 17-year-old heir and bring Aquitaine under the control of the French crown, thereby greatly increasing the power and prominence of France and its ruling family, the House of Capet.

Capetian House of Anjou

AngevinAngevinsAnjou
Dynastically, he established two notable Capetian Houses: the House of Anjou (which he created by bestowing the County of Anjou upon his brother, Charles (1227–1285)), and the House of Bourbon (which he established by bestowing Clermont on his son Robert (1256–1317) in 1268, before marrying the young man to the heiress of Bourbon, Beatrix (1257–1310)); the first House would go on to rule Sicily, Naples, and Hungary, suffering many tragedies and disasters on the way; the second would eventually succeed to the French throne, collecting Navarre along the way.
The Capetian House of Anjou was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty.

House of France

Royal House of FranceFrench Royal Family
The House of Capet (Maison capétienne) or the Direct Capetians (Capétiens directs), also called the House of France (la maison de France), or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328.
The House of Capet reigned in France from 987 to 1792 and from 1814 to 1815 to 1848.

Orléanais

OrleanaisOrléans
The Capetian Kings were initially weak rulers of the Kingdom – they directly ruled only small holdings in the Île-de-France and the Orléanais, all of which were plagued with disorder; the rest of France was controlled by potentates such as the Duke of Normandy, the Count of Blois, the Duke of Burgundy (himself a member of the Capetian Dynasty after 1032) and the Duke of Aquitaine (all of whom faced to a greater or lesser extent the same problems of controlling their subordinates).
It was in the possession of the Capet family before the advent of Hugh Capet to the throne of France in 987, and in 1344 Philip VI gave it with the title of duke to Philip of Valois (d.

Charles I of Anjou

Charles of AnjouCharles I of NaplesCharles I of Sicily
Dynastically, he established two notable Capetian Houses: the House of Anjou (which he created by bestowing the County of Anjou upon his brother, Charles (1227–1285)), and the House of Bourbon (which he established by bestowing Clermont on his son Robert (1256–1317) in 1268, before marrying the young man to the heiress of Bourbon, Beatrix (1257–1310)); the first House would go on to rule Sicily, Naples, and Hungary, suffering many tragedies and disasters on the way; the second would eventually succeed to the French throne, collecting Navarre along the way.
He was the first Capet to be named for Charlemagne.

Charles, Count of Valois

Charles of ValoisCharlesCharles de Valois
Philip III married as his first wife Isabel (1247–1271), a daughter of King James I of Aragon (1208–1276); long after her death, he claimed the throne of Aragon for his second son, Charles (1270–1325), by virtue of Charles' descent via Isabel from the Kings of Aragon.
Charles of Valois (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328.

Coronation

crownedaccessioncoronations
He then proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II (972–1031), as co-King.
During the Middle Ages, Capetian Kings of France chose to have their heirs apparent crowned during their own lifetime in order to avoid succession disputes.

Louis IX of France

Louis IXSaint LouisKing Louis IX
Royal power would later pass (1589) to another Capetian branch, the House of Bourbon, descended from the youngest son of Louis IX (reigned 1226-1270), and (from 1830) to a Bourbon cadet branch, the House of Orléans, always remaining in the hands of agnatic descendants of Hugh Capet. The House of Capet was, however, fortunate enough to have the support of the Church, and – with the exception of Philip I (1052–1108, who became king at 8), Louis IX (1214–1270, who became king at 12) and the short-lived John the Posthumous (born and died in 1316 after a few days of life) – were able to avoid the problems of underaged kingship.

Robert I, Duke of Burgundy

Robert IRobertRobert I of Burgundy
The Capetian Kings were initially weak rulers of the Kingdom – they directly ruled only small holdings in the Île-de-France and the Orléanais, all of which were plagued with disorder; the rest of France was controlled by potentates such as the Duke of Normandy, the Count of Blois, the Duke of Burgundy (himself a member of the Capetian Dynasty after 1032) and the Duke of Aquitaine (all of whom faced to a greater or lesser extent the same problems of controlling their subordinates).

Philip III of Navarre

Philip IIIPhilipPhilip of Évreux
She was the last direct Capetian ruler of that kingdom, being succeeded by her son, Charles II of Navarre (1332–1387); his father, Philip of Évreux (1306–1343) had been a member of the Capetian House of Évreux.
He was born a minor member of the French royal family but gained prominence when the Capetian main line went extinct, as he and his wife and cousin, Joan II of Navarre, acquired the Iberian kingdom and a number of French fiefs.

Robert II of France

Robert IIRobert the PiousKing Robert II
He then proceeded to make it hereditary in his family, by securing the election and coronation of his son, Robert II (972–1031), as co-King.

Counts and dukes of Valois

ValoisCount of ValoisDuke of Valois
Philip of Valois (1293–1350), Count of Anjou and Valois, Charles' cousin, was set up as regent; when the Queen produced a daughter, Blanche, Philip by assent of the great magnates became Philip VI, of the House of Valois, cadet branch of the Capetian Dynasty.
It was a fief in West Francia and subsequently the Kingdom of France until its counts furnished a line of kings, House of Valois, to succeed the House of Capet in 1328.

Jeanne d'Évreux

Jeanne d'EvreuxJoanJoan of Évreux
He then remarried to his cousin, Jeanne d'Évreux (1310–1371), who however bore him only daughters; when he died in 1328, his only child was Marie, a daughter by Jeanne, and the unborn child his wife was pregnant with.
Their lack of sons caused the end of the direct line of the Capetian dynasty.