House of Farnese

FarneseFarnese familyfamily of the previous PopeFarnese ArchivesFarnese collectionsFarnese dukesFarnese LilyFarnese, Dukes of ParmaFarnesian
The Farnese family (, also, ) was an influential family in Renaissance Italy.wikipedia
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Pope Paul III

Paul IIIAlessandro FarneseCardinal Farnese
Its most important members included Pope Paul III, Alessandro Farnese (a cardinal), Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma (a military commander and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands), and Elisabeth Farnese, who became Queen of Spain and whose legacy was brought to her Bourbon descendants.
The Farnese family had prospered over the centuries but it was Alessandro's ascendency to the papacy and his dedication to family interests which brought about the most significant increase in the family's wealth and power.

Duchy of Castro

CastroDuke of CastroDukes of Castro
The titles of Duke of Parma and Piacenza and Duke of Castro were held by various members of the family. He also gave him the town of Castro with the title of Duke of Castro, granting him possession of lands from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Lake of Bolsena, as well as the area of Ronciglione and many other smaller fiefdoms.
Technically a vassal state to the Papal States, it in fact enjoyed de facto independence under the rule of the House of Farnese until 1649, when it was subsumed back into the Papal States and administered by the House of Stampa di Ferentino.

Villa Farnese

Palazzo FarneseVilla Farnese at CaprarolaVilla Caprarola
Buildings include the Palazzo Farnese in Rome and the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, and ancient artifacts include the Farnese Marbles.
Farnese was a courteous man of letters; however, the Farnese family as a whole became unpopular with the following pope, Julius III, and, accordingly, Alessandro Farnese decided it would be politic to retire from the Vatican for a period.

Valentano

Valentano, Italy
In 1354, Cardinal Albornoz, in return for the family's help in the war against the Papal riotous barons, gave them the territory of Valentano.
In the Renaissance period, the town fell under the dominion of the Farnese family: it is to them that Valentano owes its fortress (Rocca) and many of its churches.

Caprarola

Buildings include the Palazzo Farnese in Rome and the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, and ancient artifacts include the Farnese Marbles.
Not to be confused with the Palazzo Farnese in Rome, it was initially built as a fortress, as the town and the surrounding area was a feud of the House of Farnese, by the cardinal Alessandro Farnese senio in 1530, according to a project of the architect Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.

Parma

Parma, ItalyParmeParmesan
However, during construction, and probably in response to political intrigues by the Piacentine nobility, Ottavio Farnese moved his court to Parma, where he had the Palazzo della Pilotta constructed in 1583. The Farnese court in Parma and Piacenza under Duke Ranuccio II (1630–94) was one of the most splendid in Italy.
In that year the Farnese pope, Paul III, detached Parma and Piacenza from the Papal States and gave them as a duchy to his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, whose descendants ruled in Parma until 1731, when Antonio Farnese, last male of the Farnese line, died.

Piacenza

PlacentiaRoncagliaPiacentine
Ottavio was given the additional title of Duke of Piacenza and initially established his court there, where work was begun on a huge Farnese palace on the banks of the River Po. The Farnese court in Parma and Piacenza under Duke Ranuccio II (1630–94) was one of the most splendid in Italy.
In 1545, it became part of the newly created Duchy of Parma, which was ruled by the House of Farnese.

Wars of Castro

First War of CastroWar of CastroSecond War of Castro
However, the city of Castro was removed from the Farnese family holdings when the Farnese fell out with the Barberini family of Pope Urban VIII, sparking the Wars of Castro.
In 1611 a group of conspirators, nobles from Modena and Mantua, was accused of devising a plot to assassinate Ranuccio I Farnese, Duke of Parma and other members of the Farnese family in Parma.

Ranuccio Farnese (cardinal)

Ranuccio FarneseRanuccioCardinal Ranuccio Farnese
Ranuccio Farnese (11 August 1530 – 29 October 1565) was an Italian prelate, who was Cardinal of Santa Lucia in Selci from 1545 to his death in 1565.

House of Bourbon-Parma

Bourbon-ParmaBorbón-ParmasRoyal and Ducal House of Bourbon-Parma
His collateral heir, his niece Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, passed a successful claim on to her sons, Don Carlos (later King Carlos III of Spain) and Filippo, who established the House of Bourbon-Parma.
The Farnese family continued to rule until their extinction in 1731, at which point the duchy was inherited by the young son of the King of Spain, Charles, whose mother Elisabeth was a member of the Farnese family.

Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma

Francesco FarneseDuke of ParmaFrancesco
Francesco Farnese (19 May 1678 – 26 February 1727) reigned as the seventh Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1694 until his death.

Margaret of Parma

Margaret of AustriaMargaret, Duchess of ParmaMargaret
He secured this by marrying Ottavio (1547–86) to the eldest illegitimate daughter of Charles V, Margaret.
In 1555, the Farnese family were acknowledged as rulers of Parma by Spain in exchange for the custody of her son.

Antonio Farnese, Duke of Parma

Antonio FarneseAntonioAnthony
The small dukedom eventually fell under Spanish control and influence; the family lost Parma and Piacenza in 1731 when the last Farnese duke, Antonio Farnese, died without direct heirs.
Antonio Farnese (29 November 1679 – 20 January 1731) was the eighth and final Farnese Duke of Parma and Piacenza.

Ronciglione

Villa Lina
He also gave him the town of Castro with the title of Duke of Castro, granting him possession of lands from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Lake of Bolsena, as well as the area of Ronciglione and many other smaller fiefdoms.
In 1526 Ronciglione became a possession of the Farnese, and lived its period of greatest splendour: its industries included manufacturing of copper, iron, paper, weapons and others.

Lake Bolsena

BolsenaLago di BolsenaBolsena Lake
The family substantially increased its power in the course of the 15th century, as their territories reached the southern shore of the Lake Bolsena and Montalto, largely due to Ranuccio the Elder.
The property of the Farnese family from 1400 onwards, it had a period of prosperity and was visited by many popes.

Ischia di Castro

Ischia
The Farnese returned to Tuscia (southern Tuscany-northern Lazio) in 1319, when they acquired Farnese, Ischia di Castro, and the castles of Sala and San Savino.
It was once a palace of the Farnese family.

Ranuccio Farnese il Vecchio

Ranuccio FarneseRanuccio the Elder
The family substantially increased its power in the course of the 15th century, as their territories reached the southern shore of the Lake Bolsena and Montalto, largely due to Ranuccio the Elder.
Born in Ischia, he is considered the founder of the fortunes of the Farnese family.

Philip, Duke of Parma

Infante PhilipPhilipDon Philip
His collateral heir, his niece Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, passed a successful claim on to her sons, Don Carlos (later King Carlos III of Spain) and Filippo, who established the House of Bourbon-Parma.
His mother came from the family of Farnese, which had ruled the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla for many generations.

Pietro Farnese

In 1362, Pietro Farnese was commander-in-chief of the Florentine army against Pisa in the war for Volterra.
*House of Farnese

Castro, Lazio

Castrotitular bishop of CastrumCastrum
He also gave him the town of Castro with the title of Duke of Castro, granting him possession of lands from the Tyrrhenian Sea to the Lake of Bolsena, as well as the area of Ronciglione and many other smaller fiefdoms.
The Farnese treated Castro well and consecutive family patriarchs made improvements to the city including churches and their own Palazzo Farnese.

Palazzo Farnese

Farnese PalacePalazzo Farnese, RomePiazza Farnese
Buildings include the Palazzo Farnese in Rome and the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, and ancient artifacts include the Farnese Marbles.
First designed in 1517 for the Farnese family, the building expanded in size and conception when Alessandro Farnese became Pope Paul III in 1534, to designs by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger.

Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma

Ranuccio II FarneseRanuccio IIRanuccio Farnese
The Farnese court in Parma and Piacenza under Duke Ranuccio II (1630–94) was one of the most splendid in Italy.
Ranuccio belonged to the House of Farnese, whose duchy were founded by his patrilineal ancestor, Pope Paul III, formerly Alessandro Farnese.

Barberini family

BarberiniHouse of BarberiniCardinal Barberini
However, the city of Castro was removed from the Farnese family holdings when the Farnese fell out with the Barberini family of Pope Urban VIII, sparking the Wars of Castro.
Taddeo's older son Carlo Barberini was made a cardinal by Pope Innocent X. Taddeo's daughter, Lucrezia Barberini, married Francesco I d'Este, Duke of Modena (who had previously sided with the Farnese during the First War of Castro), further stabilizing relations.

Pier Luigi Farnese, Duke of Parma

Pier Luigi FarnesePier LuigiPierluigi Farnese
He gave his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi, the title of gonfaloniere or Gonfalone of the Church.

Charles III of Spain

Charles IIICarlos IIIKing Carlos III
His collateral heir, his niece Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, passed a successful claim on to her sons, Don Carlos (later King Carlos III of Spain) and Filippo, who established the House of Bourbon-Parma.
The treaty included the transfer to Naples of all the inherited goods of the House of Farnese.