House of Lords

LordsBritish House of LordsThe House of LordspeerpeersUpper HouseHLParliamentUK House of LordsEnglish House of Lords
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers and domestically usually referred to simply as the Lords, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.wikipedia
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Members of the House of Lords

Member of the House of LordsMemberpeer
Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords (excluding 90 hereditary peers elected among themselves and two peers who are ex officio members) are appointed.
This is a list of members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Palace of Westminster

Houses of ParliamentWestminster HallWestminster
Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster.
The Palace of Westminster serves as the meeting place of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Parliament of the United Kingdom

ParliamentUK ParliamentBritish Parliament
The House of Lords, also known as the House of Peers and domestically usually referred to simply as the Lords, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Parliament is bicameral but has three parts, consisting of the Sovereign (Queen-in-Parliament), the House of Lords, and the House of Commons (the primary chamber).

Lords Temporal

Lord TemporalTemporallay peers
The membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal.
The Lords Temporal are secular members of the House of Lords, the upper house of the British Parliament.

Hereditary peer

Hereditary Peeragewrit of summonswrit
Unlike the elected House of Commons, members of the House of Lords (excluding 90 hereditary peers elected among themselves and two peers who are ex officio members) are appointed.
From 1963 to 1999, all (non-Irish) peers were entitled to sit in the House of Lords, but since the House of Lords Act 1999 was passed, only 92 are permitted to do so, unless they are also life peers.

List of elected hereditary peers under the House of Lords Act 1999

ninety elected hereditary peersexcepted hereditary peerelected
Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
This is a list of hereditary peers elected to serve in the House of Lords under the provisions of the House of Lords Act 1999 and the Standing Orders of the House of Lords.

Peerages in the United Kingdom

British peerpeerpeerage
The membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal.
New Labour, elected to power in 1997, sought to remove all the seats in the House of Lords reserved for hereditary peers, but Prime Minister Tony Blair relented by allowing 92 members to remain by legislation enacted in 1999.

House of Lords Act 1999

House of Lords ActHouse of Lords Act of 1999seat abolished
Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
The Act reformed the House of Lords, one of the chambers of Parliament.

State Opening of Parliament

Opening of ParliamentopenedQueen's Speech
The Queen's Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament.
It takes place in the House of Lords chamber, usually in May or June, but traditionally in November, in front of both Houses of Parliament.

House of Lords Library

House of Lords LibrarianLibrarian, House of LordsLibrary
The House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library.
The House of Lords Library is the library and information resource of the House of Lords, the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

Prime MinisterBritish Prime MinisterPrime Minister of Great Britain
Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission.
Prior to 1902, the Prime Minister sometimes came from the House of Lords, provided that his government could form a majority in the Commons.

Margaret of Mar, 31st Countess of Mar

Countess of MarMargaret (Lane) of MarMargaret Alison of Mar, 31st Countess of Mar
Since 2008, only one of them is female (Countess of Mar); most hereditary peerages can be inherited only by men.
She is a crossbench member of the House of Lords, having been one of 92 hereditary peers elected to remain in the Lords in 1999.

Peerage of Ireland

Irish peerageIrish peerIreland
Membership was once an entitlement of all hereditary peers, other than those in the peerage of Ireland, but under the House of Lords Act 1999, the right to membership was restricted to 92 hereditary peers.
Before 1801, Irish peers had the right to sit in the Irish House of Lords, on the abolition of which by the Union effective in 1801 by an Act of 1800 they regularly elected a small proportion: twenty-eight representative peers of their number to the House of Lords at Westminster.

House of Lords Appointments Commission

Appointments Commissionpeople's peer
Of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission.

Supreme Court of the United Kingdom

Supreme CourtUK Supreme CourtUnited Kingdom Supreme Court
In addition to its role as the upper house, until the establishment of the Supreme Court in 2009, the House of Lords, through the Law Lords, acted as the final court of appeal in the United Kingdom judicial system.
It assumed the judicial functions of the House of Lords, which had been exercised by the Lords of Appeal in Ordinary (commonly called "Law Lords"), the 12 judges appointed as members of the House of Lords to carry out its judicial business as the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords.

Peerage of England

peerEnglish peerEngland
During the reign of Edward II's successor, Edward III, Parliament clearly separated into two distinct chambers: the House of Commons (consisting of the shire and borough representatives) and the House of Lords (consisting of the bishops, abbots and peers).
English Peeresses obtained their first seats in the House of Lords under the Peerage Act 1963 from which date until the passage of the House of Lords Act 1999 all Peers of England could sit in the House of Lords.

Bicameralism

bicameralbicameral legislaturechambers
The House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament in the world to be larger than its lower house.
The best known example is the British House of Lords, which includes a number of hereditary peers.

Bishop

episcopateepiscopal consecrationbishops
The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England.
In the 21st century, the more senior bishops of the Church of England continue to sit in the House of Lords of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, as representatives of the established church, and are known as Lords Spiritual.

House of Commons of the United Kingdom

House of CommonsBritish House of CommonsCommons
Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster. In 1909 the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, introduced into the House of Commons the "People's Budget", which proposed a land tax targeting wealthy landowners.
Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster.

H. H. Asquith

AsquithH H AsquithH.H. Asquith
Prime Minister H. H. Asquith then proposed that the powers of the House of Lords be severely curtailed.
He was the last prime minister to lead a majority Liberal government, and he played a central role in the design and passage of major liberal legislation and a reduction of the power of the House of Lords.

David Lloyd George

Lloyd GeorgeRt Hon David Lloyd GeorgeDavid Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor
In 1909 the Chancellor of the Exchequer, David Lloyd George, introduced into the House of Commons the "People's Budget", which proposed a land tax targeting wealthy landowners.
To fund the government's extensive welfare reforms, he proposed taxes on land ownership and high incomes in a "People's Budget" (1909), which the Conservative-dominated House of Lords rejected.

Parliament Act 1911

Parliament ActParliament Bill1911 Parliament Act
Over the course of the century the powers of the Upper House were further reduced stepwise, culminating in the 20th century with the Parliament Act 1911; the Commons gradually became the stronger House of Parliament.
It is constitutionally important and partly governs the relationship between the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which make up the two Houses of Parliament.

Nobility

noblemannoblenobles
For example, during much of the reign of Edward II (1307–1327), the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, and the shire and borough representatives entirely powerless.
For example, in the United Kingdom royal letters patent are necessary to obtain a title of the peerage, which also carries nobility and formerly a seat in the House of Lords, but never came without automatic entail of land nor rights to the local peasants' output.

Reform Act 1832

Great Reform ActReform Act of 1832Reform Act
Particularly notable in the development of the Lower House's superiority was the Reform Bill of 1832.
It met with significant opposition from the Pittite factions in Parliament, who had long governed the country; opposition was especially pronounced in the House of Lords.

George V

King George VGeorge V of the United Kingdomthe King
After a further general election in December 1910, and with an undertaking by King George V to create sufficient new Liberal peers to overcome Lords' opposition to the measure if necessary, the Asquith Government secured the passage of a bill to curtail the powers of the House of Lords.
The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords.