A report on House of Savoy

Hautecombe Abbey, where many of the dukes are buried.
A map of Italy in 1494.
A map of Italy in 1796.
A map of Italy in 1843.
A map of the Kingdom of Sardinia.

Royal dynasty that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region.

- House of Savoy
Hautecombe Abbey, where many of the dukes are buried.

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Kingdom of Sardinia

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Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1848.
The flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia at the funeral ceremony of Charles V
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1848.
The Kingdom of Sardinia in a 16th-century map
Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia in 1848.
The Savoyards' Italian possessions in the early 18th century.
19th-century coat of arms of the Kingdom of Sardinia under the Savoy dynasty
A map of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1856, after the fusion of all its provinces into a single jurisdiction
Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour
King Victor Emmanuel II meets Garibaldi in Teano (26 October 1860)
Middle Ages
Imperial Eagle of Roman Holy Emperor Charles V with the four Moors of the Kingdom of Sardinia (16th century)
(1720–1815)
(1815–1831)
(1831–1848)
(1848–1861)
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1568
Royal Standard of the Savoyard kings of Sardinia of Savoy dynasty (1720-1848) and State Flag of the Savoyard States (late 16th - late 18th century)
State Flag and War Ensign (1816–1848): Civil Flag "crowned"
State and war flag (1848–1851)
State flag and war ensign (1851–1861)
Merchant Flag (c.1799–1802)
War Ensign of the Royal Sardinian Navy (1785–1802)
Merchant Flag (1802–1814)
War Ensign (1802–1814)
Merchant Flag and War Ensign (1814–1816)
War Ensign of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1816–1848) aspect ratio 31:76
Civil and merchant flag (1851–1861), the Italian tricolore with the coat of arms of Savoy as an inescutcheon
(1848–1861) and Kingdom of Italy (1861–1880)
Crown Prince (1848–1861) and Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Italy (1861–1880)
The political situation in Sardinia after 1324 when the Aragonese conquered the Pisan territories of Sardinia, which included the defunct Judicate of Cagliari and Gallura.
The Kingdom of Sardinia from 1368 to 1388 and 1392 to 1409, after the wars with Arborea, consisted of only the cities of Cagliari and Alghero.
The Kingdom of Sardinia from 1410 to 1420, after the defeat of the Arborean Judicate in the Battle of Sanluri (1409).
The Kingdom of Sardinia from 1448 to 1720; the Maddalena archipelago was conquered in 1767–69.
1796
1859: {{legend|#ff8040|Kingdom of Sardinia}} {{legend|#0000ff|Kingdom Lombardy–Venetia}} {{legend|#00ff00|Duchies Parma–Modena-Tuscany}} {{legend|#fd0000|Papal States}} {{legend|#ffff00|Kingdom of the Two Sicilies}}
1860: {{legend|#ff8040|Kingdom of Sardinia}} {{legend|#0000ff|Kingdom Lombardy–Venetia}} {{legend|#fd0000|Papal States}} {{legend|#ffff00|Kingdom of the Two Sicilies}} After the annexation of Lombardy, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Emilian Duchies and Pope's Romagna.
1861: {{legend|#ff8040|Kingdom of Sardinia}} {{legend|#0000ff|Kingdom Lombardy–Venetia}} {{legend|#d8241c|Papal States}} After the Expedition of the Thousand.
maximum expansion of the Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1860

The Kingdom of Sardinia, also referred to as the Kingdom of Savoy-Sardinia, Piedmont-Sardinia, or Savoy-Piedmont-Sardinia during the Savoyard period, was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.

Kingdom of Italy

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State that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent led an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

State that existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946, when civil discontent led an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.

The Kingdom of Italy in 1936
Map of the Kingdom of Italy at its greatest extent in 1943
The Kingdom of Italy in 1936
Italian unification between 1815 and 1870
Count Camillo Benso of Cavour, the first Prime Minister of the unified Italy
Victor Emmanuel II, the first King of the united Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi, a major military leader during Italian unification
A factory machinery exposition in Turin, set in 1898, during the period of early industrialization, National Exhibition of Turin, 1898
A 1899 FIAT advertisement
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milano was an architectural work created by Giuseppe Mengoni between 1865 and 1877 and named after the first King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel II.
The Triple Alliance in 1913, shown in red
Original coat of arms
Francesco Crispi promoted the Italian colonialism in Africa in the late 19th century.
The Ain Zara oasis during the Italo-Turkish War: propaganda postcard made by the Italian Army
Italian mounted infantry in China during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900
Italian dirigibles bomb Turkish positions in Libya, as the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912 was the first in history in which air attacks (carried out here by dirigible airships) determined the outcome.
Giovanni Giolitti was Prime Minister of Italy five times between 1892 and 1921.
Italy and its colonial possessions at the time of the outbreak of World War I: the area between British Egypt and the firmly held Italian territories is the region of southern Cyrenaica which was under dispute of ownership between Italy and the United Kingdom.
Gabriele D'Annunzio, national poet (vate) of Italy and a prominent nationalist revolutionary who was a supporter of Italy joining action in World War I
Generalissimo Luigi Cadorna (the man to the left of two officers to whom he is speaking) while visiting British batteries during World War I
Italian propaganda poster depicting the Battle of the Piave River
Members of the Arditi corps in 1918. More than 650,000 Italian soldiers lost their lives on the battlefields of World War I.
Armando Diaz, Chief of Staff of the Italian Army since November 1917, halted the Austro-Hungarian advance along the Piave River and launched counter-offensives which led to a decisive victory on the Italian Front. He is celebrated as one of the greatest generals of World War I.
Italian propaganda dropped over Vienna by Gabriele D'Annunzio in 1918
Italian Prime Minister Vittorio Emanuele Orlando (2nd from left) at the World War I peace negotiations in Versailles with David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson (from left)
Residents of Fiume cheering D'Annunzio and his Legionari in September 1919, when Fiume had 22,488 (62% of the population) Italians in a total population of 35,839 inhabitants
Benito Mussolini (second from left) and his Fascist Blackshirts in 1920
Mussolini was initially a highly popular leader in Italy until Italy's military failures in World War II.
Haile Selassie's resistance to the Italian invasion of Ethiopia made him Man of the Year in 1935 by Time.
The Italian Empire (red) before World War II. Pink areas were annexed/occupied for various periods between 1940 and 1943 (the Tientsin concession in China is not shown).
Cruiser Raimondo Montecuccoli
Erwin Rommel meeting Italian General Italo Gariboldi in Tripoli, February 1941
The Italian Army in Russia fought on the Eastern Front.
An Italian AB 41 armored car in Egypt
Territory of the Italian Social Republic and the South Kingdom
Three men executed by public hanging in a street of Rimini, 1944
Rebels celebrating the liberation of Naples, after the Four days of Naples (27–30 September 1943)
Members of the Italian resistance in Ossola, 1944
Umberto II, the last king of Italy
Results of the 1946 referendum
Crown of the Kingdom of Italy

The state was founded as a result of the Risorgimento under the influence of the Savoy-led Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state.

Italy

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Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Country that consists of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it; its territory largely coincides with the homonymous geographical region.

Expansion of the territory called "Italy" from ancient Greece until Diocletian
The Iron Crown of Lombardy, for centuries a symbol of the Kings of Italy
Marco Polo, explorer of the 13th century, recorded his 24 years-long travels in the Book of the Marvels of the World, introducing Europeans to Central Asia and China.
The Italian states before the beginning of the Italian Wars in 1494
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait (ca. 1512, Royal Library, Turin)
Christopher Columbus leads an expedition to the New World, 1492. His voyages are celebrated as the discovery of the Americas from a European perspective, and they opened a new era in the history of humankind and sustained contact between the two worlds.
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, a national symbol of Italy celebrating the first king of the unified country, and resting place of the Italian Unknown Soldier since the end of World War I. It was inaugurated in 1911, on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of the Unification of Italy.
The fascist dictator Benito Mussolini titled himself Duce and ruled the country from 1922 to 1943.
Areas controlled by the Italian Empire at its peak
Italian partisans in Milan during the Italian Civil War, April 1945
Alcide De Gasperi, first republican Prime Minister of Italy and one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union
The signing ceremony of the Treaty of Rome on 25 March 1957, creating the European Economic Community, forerunner of the present-day European Union
Funerals of the victims of the Bologna bombing of 2 August 1980, the deadliest attack ever perpetrated in Italy during the Years of Lead
Italian government task force to face the COVID-19 emergency
Topographic map of Italy
Dolphins in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Aeolian Islands
National and regional parks in Italy
Gran Paradiso, established in 1922, is the oldest Italian national park.
The Italian wolf, the national animal of Italy
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map of Italy
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Italy.
The Supreme Court of Cassation, Rome
An Alfa Romeo 159 vehicle of the Carabinieri corps
Group photo of the G7 leaders at the 43rd G7 summit in Taormina
Heraldic coat of arms of the Italian Armed Forces
A proportional representation of Italy exports, 2019
Milan is the economic capital of Italy, and is a global financial centre and a fashion capital of the world.
A Carrara marble quarry
The Autostrada dei Laghi ("Lakes Motorway"), the first motorway built in the world
FS' Frecciarossa 1000 high speed train, with a maximum speed of 400 km/h
Trieste, the main port of the northern Adriatic and starting point of the Transalpine Pipeline
ENI is considered one of the world's oil and gas "Supermajors".
Solar panels in Piombino. Italy is one of the world's largest producers of renewable energy.
Galileo Galilei, the father of modern science, physics and astronomy
Enrico Fermi, creator of the world's first first nuclear reactor
The Amalfi Coast is one of Italy's major tourist destinations.
Map of Italy's population density at the 2011 census
Italy is home to a large population of migrants from Eastern Europe and North Africa.
Linguistic map showing the languages spoken in Italy
Vatican City, the Holy See's sovereign territory
Bologna University, established in AD 1088, is the world's oldest academic institution.
Olive oil and vegetables are central to the Mediterranean diet.
Carnival of Venice
The Last Supper (1494–1499), Leonardo da Vinci, Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Michelangelo's David (1501–1504), Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
The Birth of Venus (1484–1486), Sandro Botticelli, Uffizi Gallery, Florence
Dante shown holding a copy of the Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the mount of Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino's fresco, 1465
Niccolò Machiavelli, founder of modern political science and ethics
Pinocchio is one of the world's most translated books and a canonical piece of children's literature.
Clockwise from top left: Thomas Aquinas, proponent of natural theology and the Father of Thomism; Giordano Bruno, one of the major scientific figures of the Western world; Cesare Beccaria, considered the Father of criminal justice and modern criminal law; and Maria Montessori, credited with the creation of the Montessori education
La Scala opera house
Statues of Pantalone and Harlequin, two stock characters from the Commedia dell'arte, in the Museo Teatrale alla Scala
Dario Fo, one of the most widely performed playwrights in modern theatre, received international acclaim for his highly improvisational style.
Giacomo Puccini, Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, Madama Butterfly and Turandot, are among the most frequently worldwide performed in the standard repertoire
Luciano Pavarotti, considered one of the finest tenors of the 20th century and the "King of the High Cs"
Giorgio Moroder, pioneer of Italo disco and electronic dance music, is known as the "Father of disco".
Entrance to Cinecittà in Rome
The Azzurri in 2012. Football is the most popular sport in Italy.
Starting in 1909, the Giro d'Italia is the Grands Tours' second oldest.
A Ferrari SF21 by Scuderia Ferrari, the most successful Formula One team
Prada shop at Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan
The traditional recipe for spaghetti with tomato and basil sauce
Italian wine and salumi
The Frecce Tricolori, with the smoke trails representing the national colours of Italy, during the celebrations of the Festa della Repubblica
The Venice Film Festival is the oldest film festival in the world.

The birth of the Kingdom of Italy was the result of efforts by Italian nationalists and monarchists loyal to the House of Savoy to establish a united kingdom encompassing the entire Italian Peninsula.

Turin

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City and an important business and cultural centre in Northern Italy.

City and an important business and cultural centre in Northern Italy.

The Roman Palatine Towers
Turin in 1701
A view of Turin in the late 19th century. In the background, the Mole Antonelliana under construction
Fiat Lingotto factory in 1928
Liberation parade in Turin, May 6, 1945
Turin from space (north is on the left)
Administrative map of Turin
Via Roma
Piazza San Carlo and the Caval 'd Brons (Bronze Horse in Piedmontese language) equestrian monument to Emmanuel Philibert
Piazza Castello with Palazzo Reale (Royal Palace) in the background
Porta Nuova main railway station
Piazza Vittorio Veneto square
Baroque façade of Palazzo Carignano, the Museum of the Risorgimento
Mole Antonelliana some years ago
Dome of Turin Cathedral
Palatine Towers
Borgo Medioevale
Castello del Valentino in Parco del Valentino
Monumento a Vittorio Emanuele II
The Polytechnic University of Turin.
The Spina Centrale is a new under-construction boulevard built over the undergrounded railway. It is already completed in Crocetta.
The Piazza Carlo Alberto
A typical Italian Aperitivo
Casa della Vittoria (1918-1920) is an example of Turin's neo-gothic architecture.
Intesa Sanpaolo banking group headquarters
Chiesa di Nostra Signora del Suffragio e Santa Zita
The Torre Littoria
Tiny streets of Borgo Dora
Santuario di Maria Ausiliatrice
Lavazza, famous Turin coffee brand
Piedmont Region Headquarters (209 m), one of the tallest skyscrapers in Italy
Fetta Di Polenta, northern side
Campus Luigi Einaudi
Turin Cathedral featuring the Chapel of the Holy Shroud
Basilica of Superga
The medieval village in Valentino Park
La Mandria Regional Park
The Lingotto building in Via Nizza, the world headquarters of Fiat
The royal hunting lodge of Stupinigi.
The inside of the Egyptian Museum of Turin. It is the world's second largest after the Museum of Cairo.
Teatro Regio opera house.
Street posters promoting the Eurovision Song Contest 2022.
National Library.
Juventus Stadium, home of Juventus F.C.
The Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino, home of Torino F.C.
Mole Antonelliana
The iconic gianduiotto chocolate
Bicerin chocolate drink served in its trademark rounded glass
Hall of the Rectorate Palace of the University of Turin
Porta Susa railway station
Turin Massaua metro station
Turin Caselle International Airport
City tram, bus can be seen behind

From 1563, it was the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, then of the Kingdom of Sardinia ruled by the House of Savoy, and the first capital of the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 to 1865.

The King in 1919

Victor Emmanuel III of Italy

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The King in 1919
Young Victor Emmanuel with his mother, Margherita of Savoy, 1876
Victor Emmanuel as a teenager, 1886
Victor Emmanuel by photographer Carlo Brogi (son of Giacomo Brogi), 1895
Victor Emmanuel, caricature by Liborio Prosperi in Vanity Fair, 1902
Portrait of Vittorio Emanuele III di Savoia, Elena di Savoia, sovereign, 1896.
King Victor Emmanuel III (right) with King Albert I of the Belgians (left). This photograph shows Victor Emmanuel's small physical stature.
Victor Emmanuel in Darfo Boario Terme after the Gleno Dam disaster, 1923
Victor Emmanuel, 1913 portrait
Victor Emmanuel III visiting Hungary - 1937
King Victor Emmanuel III in his uniform as Marshal of Italy in 1936
Victor Emmanuel III depicted on a 1 lira coin (1940)
Tomb of Victor Emmanuel III at the sanctuary of Vicoforte. The wreath is arranged as the cross of the House of Savoy.
Busts of King Victor Emmanuel III and Queen Elena; forecourt of the Russian Orthodox Church (Church of Christ the Saviour, St. Catherine and St. Seraph), Sanremo, Italy
Giovanna of Italy, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria, 1937.

Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III, ; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.

Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848

Unification of Italy

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The 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy.

The 19th-century political and social movement that resulted in the consolidation of different states of the Italian Peninsula into a single state in 1861, the Kingdom of Italy.

Five Days of Milan, 18–22 March 1848
Flag of the Cispadane Republic, which was the first Italian tricolour adopted by a sovereign Italian state (1797)
Giuseppe Mazzini, highly influential leader of the Italian revolutionary movement
Animated map of the Italian unification from 1829 to 1871
The first meeting between Garibaldi and Mazzini at the headquarters of Young Italy in 1833.
The Arrest of Silvio Pellico and Piero Maroncelli, Saluzzo, civic museum
Ciro Menotti and his compatriots clashed with the army
Execution of the Bandiera Brothers
Holographic copy of 1847 of Il Canto degli Italiani, the Italian national anthem since 1946
Daniele Manin and Niccolò Tommaseo after the proclamation of the Republic of San Marco
Garibaldi and Cavour making Italy in a satirical cartoon of 1861
Giuseppe Garibaldi, celebrated as one of the greatest generals of modern times and as the "Hero of the Two Worlds", who commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led to unification of Italy
Battle of Calatafimi
People cheering as Garibaldi enters Naples
Victor Emmanuel meets Garibaldi near Teano
Proclamation of the Kingdom of Italy
The Injured Garibaldi in the Aspromonte Mountains (oil on canvas), credited to Gerolamo Induno
Battle of Bezzecca
Victor Emmanuel II in Venice
Garibaldi at Mentana, 3 November 1867
Capture of Rome
The Quirinal Palace in Rome became the head of state of Italy's official residence (royal residence of the Kings of Italy and after the Italian constitutional referendum, 1946 residence and workplace for the Presidents of the Italian Republic)
Massimo d'Azeglio
The Victor Emmanuel II Monument in Rome, inaugurated in 1911 on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the unification of Italy.
Mourning Italia turrita on the tomb to Vittorio Alfieri by Antonio Canova
Portrait of Alessandro Manzoni (1841) by Francesco Hayez
Portrait of Francesco De Sanctis (1890) by Francesco Saverio Altamura
Verdi's bust outside the Teatro Massimo in Palermo
Patriots scrawling "Viva VERDI" on walls
The final scene of the opera Risorgimento! (2011) by Lorenzo Ferrero
Italy in 1494
Italy in 1796
Italy in 1843
Italy in 1860: orange Kingdom of Sardinia, blue Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian Empire), pink United Provinces of Central Italy, red Papal States, pale green Kingdom of Two Sicilies.
Italy in 1861: orange Kingdom of Italy, blue Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia (Austrian Empire), red Papal States.
Kingdom of Italy in 1870, showing the Papal States, before the Capture of Rome.
Kingdom of Italy in 1871
Kingdom of Italy in 1919
The Quirinal Palace in Rome became the head of state of Italy's official residence (royal residence of the Kings of Italy and after the Italian constitutional referendum, 1946 residence and workplace for the Presidents of the Italian Republic)

The leader of the 1821 revolutionary movement in Piedmont was Santorre di Santarosa, who wanted to remove the Austrians and unify Italy under the House of Savoy.

Portrait by Pietro Ayres, c. 1832, wearing the collar of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation

Charles Albert of Sardinia

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The King of Sardinia from 27 April 1831 until 23 March 1849.

The King of Sardinia from 27 April 1831 until 23 March 1849.

Portrait by Pietro Ayres, c. 1832, wearing the collar of the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation
Charles Emmanuel, Prince of Carignano, father of Charles Albert.
Maria Christina of Saxony, mother of Charles Albert.
Youthful portrait of Charles Albert.
Maria Theresa of Austria, Charles Albert's wife.
Charles Albert promised his support to the conspirators behind the 1821 revolution, in a print from 1850 to 1875.
Victor Emmanuel I.
The decree by which Charles Albert announced the Spanish Constitution of 1821.
Charles Albert, Prince of Carignano in a French lithograph of the period.
Charles Albert as a hero of the Battle of Trocadero.
Charles Albert in the assault on Trocadero. From a miniature donated by King Charles X of France.
The facade of Racconigi Castle, the preferred residence of Prince Charles Albert.
Charles Albert returns to Turin in February 1824, after the Spanish Expedition in this
 painting by Horace Vernet, 1834.
Charles Albert after his coronation, by Ferdinando Cavalleri (1831).
Charles Albert at the time of his accession to the throne.
Marie-Caroline de Bourbon-Sicile, duchesse de Berry, whom Charles Albert assisted in a failed attempt to place a Bourbon on the French throne. Portrait by Thomas Lawrence, 1825.
A room in the Turin City Museum of Ancient Art in the Palazzo Madama, founded by Charles Albert in 1832, as the Pinacoteca Regia e della Galleria Reale.
Charles Albert in 1833.
The meeting of Mazzini and Garibaldi at the headquarters of "Young Italy" in Marseilles 1833. Both of them plotted against Charles Albert and his kingdom and were condemned to death in absentia.
Carlo Alberto in the Anti-Austrian period.
The elderly Austrian chancellor, Klemens von Metternich, who requested clarification on the policy of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1846.
Edict of 8 February 1848 which informed the public of the concession of the Statute and outlined its contents in 14 articles.
Charles Albert signs the Statute on 8 March 1848.
Celebrations in the Piazza San Carlo in Turin at the proclamation of the Albertine Statute in a contemporary print.
Charles decided to adhere to the idea of a united Italian federation under the influence of the Pope.
Italy in 1843, during Charles Albert's reign.
The Milanese Carlo Cattaneo criticised Charles Albert's tardiness in deciding to enter the war.
Charles Albert (with the spyglass) and the Piedmontese commanders at the Battle of Pastrengo.
Charles Albert on the balcony of the Palazzo Greppi in Milan on 5 August 148, attempting to calm forces opposed to the surrender of the city; painting by Carlo Bossoli.
Flag donated by the women of Milan in the summer of 1848. Displayed in the Royal Armoury of Turin.
Charles Albert reopened hostilities with Austria on 20 March 1849, but the second campaign lasted only four days.
Charles Albert abdicates in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel.
Charles Albert in Oporto during the exile. In his hands he holds a work of Gioberti, whose Neo-Guelf ideas he shared. Painting by Antonio Puccinelli (1822-1897).
The death of Charles Albert in a contemporary print.
Charles Albert Square, Oporto, Portugal.
Equestrian statue of Charles Albert at Casale Monferrato.

The attempt to free northern Italy from Austria represents the first attempt of the House of Savoy to alter the equilibrium established in the Italian peninsula after the Congress of Vienna.

Victor Emmanuel c. undefined 1861, by Disdéri

Victor Emmanuel II

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Victor Emmanuel c. undefined 1861, by Disdéri
Victor Emmanuel II in 1849
Portrait of Victor Emmanuel, with a battle in the background (1848)
Portrait of Victor Emmanuel II by Giuseppe Ugolini
Victor Emmanuel reviews the troops for the Crimean War
Victor Emmanuel meets Giuseppe Garibaldi in Teano
Tomb of Victor Emmanuel II in the Pantheon
Victor Emmanuel II in Venice
Brooklyn Museum – Caricature of King Victor Emmanuel II – Thomas Nast – overall
Arms of Victor Emmanuel II as knight of the Golden Fleece

Victor Emmanuel II (Vittorio Emanuele II; full name: Vittorio Emanuele Maria Alberto Eugenio Ferdinando Tommaso di Savoia; 14 March 1820 – 9 January 1878) was King of Sardinia from 1849 until 17 March 1861, when he assumed the title of King of Italy and became the first king of an independent, united Italy since the 6th century, a title he held until his death in 1878.

Savoy

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Cultural-historical region in the Western Alps.

Cultural-historical region in the Western Alps.

Alpine landscape of Les Saisies, as seen from Mont Bisanne.
Duchy of Savoy (red) and other Italian states in 1494.
Map of Savoy in the 16th century. White lines are modern borders
Map of Savoy in the 18th century and other Italian states in 1796.
People of Chambéry with French flags celebrating the annexation in 1860.
Map of Savoy in the 19th century and other Italian states in 1843.
French annexation in 1860 (black) after the signing of the Treaty of Turin and a regional referendum in favor of the attachment to France (French)
The Château de Chambéry, seat of government, was given a grand new façade following annexation

Savoy emerged as the feudal County of Savoy ruled by the House of Savoy during the 11th to 14th centuries.

Sardinia

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Second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the 20 regions of Italy.

Second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, and one of the 20 regions of Italy.

Strait of Bonifacio. The southern coast of Corsica can be seen from Santa Teresa Gallura
Cala Goloritzé, Baunei
View of Gennargentu, the highest massif of Sardinia
A proportionate graph of Sardinian topography: 13.6% of the island is mountainous, 18.5% is flat, and 67.9% is hilly.
Lake Omodeo, the largest reservoir in Sardinia and in Italy
Sardinia average rainfalls
The prehistoric megalithic temple of Monte d'Accoddi.
Monte Corru Tundu Menhir in Villa Sant'Antonio (5.75 meters high)
Nuraghe Losa.
Giants' grave in Dorgali (Bronze Age).
Head of one of the so-called Giants of Mont'e Prama
The Phoenician and subsequently Roman town of Tharros.
Necropolis of Tuvixeddu, Cagliari
Carthage and its dependencies in 264 BC; A region of Sardinia was a part of Carthage
Roman thermae of Forum Traiani, in what is now Fordongianus.
A Vandal-period coin found in Sardinia depicting Godas. Latin legend : REX CVDA.
The medieval Basilica of San Gavino in Porto Torres
12th century frescoes in the Basilica di Saccargia in Codrongianos
The Sardinian Judicates
The proclamation of the Republic of Sassari. The Sassarese republic lasted from 1272 until 1323, when it sided with the new born Kingdom of Sardinia.
Statue of the Juighissa Eleanor of Arborea in Oristano.
Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia (center) at the funeral of Charles I of Spain
Spanish era coastal tower in Stintino called Torre della Pelosa
The French siege of Cagliari and Quartu
GM. Angioy entry into Sassari.
Sardinians wearing traditional ethnic garments, 1880s.
Effect of Allied bombing on Cagliari during the Second World War.
Super Yachts anchored at Porto Cervo port, Costa Smeralda
Santo Stefano's former NATO naval base
Main Building of the University of Sassari (which started the university courses in 1562)
Economic classification of European regions according to Eurostat
Exports of Sardinia in 2012–13
Percentage distribution of employees in different economic sectors in Sardinia: 8.7% the primary sector (fishing, agriculture, farming), 23.5% the secondary sector (industry, machinery, manufacturing), and 67.8% the tertiary sector (tourism, services, finance)
Sheep grazing around Lula, Nuoro
Campidano near Cagliari
Peeled trunks of cork oaks in Tempio Pausania
Petrochemical and Green Chemical industries in Porto Torres
Yachts in Porto Cervo. Luxury tourism represents an important source of income in Sardinia since the 1960s.
Sardinia Radio Telescope
A high-speed ferry in the Gulf of Olbia
Cable-stayed bridge of the Monserrato University Campus interchange SS 554
A bus of Sardinia public transport authorities (Arst) in Sassari
ATR 365 owned by the Autonomous Region of Sardinia in Cagliari
7 km railway tunnel of Campeda
Tourist railway between Aritzo and Belvì
Change in population for each comune of Sardinia between 1861 and 2011
Cagliari, Alghero, Sassari, Nuoro, Oristano, Olbia
Provinces of Sardinia
US Artillery Live Fire Exercise in Capo Teulada 2015 during NATO exercise Trident Juncture
Santa Cristina holy well of Paulilatino, tholos
Gothic portal of the Cathedral of Alghero
Facade of Nostra Signora di Tergu (SS)
Interior of San Pietro di Sorres, Borutta (SS)
Crypt of the Cagliari Cathedral
Roman mosaic in Nora
Archangel Michael by the Master of Castelsardo
La madre dell'ucciso (the mother of the killed) by Francesco Ciusa (1907)
Linguistic map of Sardinia
A 'no smoking' sign in both Sardinian and Italian
A bilingual road sign in Italian and Sardinian at Pozzomaggiore
Costume from Ovodda
Launeddas players
Cheeses and sausages in Alghero's city market
A range of different cakes, pastries, meals, dishes and sweets which are common elements of Sardinian cuisine
Beer produced in Sardinia
Sardegna Arena in Cagliari.
Regatta at Santa Maria Navarrese
Skilifts on the Bruncu Spina
A wind farm in Sedini, Sassari
Paeonia mascula
Giara horses
Albino donkeys in Asinara
The Sardinian feral cat, long considered a subspecies of the African wildcat, are descended from domesticated cats
National and regional parks of Sardinia
Sulcis Regional Park, the largest Mediterranean evergreen forest in Europe

This Iberian kingdom endured until 1718, when it was ceded to the Alpine House of Savoy; the Savoyards would politically merge their insular possession with their domains on the Italian Mainland which, during the period of Italian unification, they would go on to expand to include the whole Italian peninsula; their territory was so renamed into the Kingdom of Italy in 1861, and it was reconstituted as the present-day Italian Republic in 1946.