Howard S. Becker

Howard BeckerHoward Saul BeckerBecker, H.SBecker, Howard SBecker, Howard S.
Howard Saul Becker (born April 18, 1928) is an American sociologist who has made major contributions to the sociology of deviance, sociology of art, and sociology of music.wikipedia
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Labeling theory

labelLabelling theorylabeled
Becker's 1963 book Outsiders provided the foundations for labeling theory. In the chapter, Becker responds to critics who argue that labeling theory fails to provide an etiological explanation of deviance or an explanation of how individuals come to commit deviant acts in the first place.
Howard Saul Becker's book Outsiders was extremely influential in the development of this theory and its rise to popularity.

Deviance (sociology)

deviancedeviantdeviant behavior
Howard Saul Becker (born April 18, 1928) is an American sociologist who has made major contributions to the sociology of deviance, sociology of art, and sociology of music.
Howard Becker, a labeling theorist, identified four different types of deviant behavior labels which are given as:

Sociomusicology

sociomusicologistsociology of musicmusic
Howard Saul Becker (born April 18, 1928) is an American sociologist who has made major contributions to the sociology of deviance, sociology of art, and sociology of music.
Others have included Alphons Silbermann, Charles Seeger (1886–1979), Howard Saul Becker, Norbert Elias, Maurice Halbwachs, Jacques Attali, John Mueller (1895–1965), and Christopher Small.

Symbolic interactionism

symbolic interactionistsymbolic interactioninteractionist
Becker is often called a symbolic interactionist or social constructionist, although he does not align himself with either method.
Participant observation allows researchers to access symbols and meanings, as in Howard S. Becker's Art Worlds and Arlie Hochschild's The Managed Heart.

Sociology of art

KunstsoziologieSociologysociology of art and communications
Howard Saul Becker (born April 18, 1928) is an American sociologist who has made major contributions to the sociology of deviance, sociology of art, and sociology of music.

Anselm Strauss

A graduate of the University of Chicago, Becker is considered part of the second Chicago School of Sociology, which also includes Erving Goffman and Anselm Strauss.
During that time, he worked with Prof. Everett Hughes, and became associated with a group of colleagues who would become known as the "Second Chicago School" (e.g., Howard S. Becker and Erving Goffman).

Everett Hughes (sociologist)

Everett HughesEverett C. HughesEverett Cherrington Hughes
Much of Becker's early work was guided in the Chicago School tradition, in particular by Everett C. Hughes who served as Becker's mentor and advisor. According to Becker, his academic lineage is Georg Simmel, Robert E. Park, and Everett Hughes.
He is recognized as either teacher or mentor to numerous well-known scholars associated with the Chicago tradition of qualitative, interactionist sociology, including Howard S. Becker, Erving Goffman, Anselm Strauss and Eliot Freidson (Chapoulie 1996).

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Howard Saul Becker (born April 18, 1928) is an American sociologist who has made major contributions to the sociology of deviance, sociology of art, and sociology of music.

Social constructionism

social constructionsocially constructedsocial constructionist
Becker is often called a symbolic interactionist or social constructionist, although he does not align himself with either method.

Chicago school (sociology)

Chicago SchoolChicago School of SociologyChicago
A graduate of the University of Chicago, Becker is considered part of the second Chicago School of Sociology, which also includes Erving Goffman and Anselm Strauss.

Erving Goffman

GoffmanStigma
A graduate of the University of Chicago, Becker is considered part of the second Chicago School of Sociology, which also includes Erving Goffman and Anselm Strauss.

Lithuania

LTURepublic of LithuaniaLithuanian
His great-grandfather, Gershon Movsha Becker, immigrated to the United States from Lithuania.

World War II

Second World WarwarWWII
According to Becker, he was able to work semi-professionally because of World War II and the fact that most musicians over the age of 18 were drafted.

Georg Simmel

SimmelGeorge SimmelGeorg Simmel’s
According to Becker, his academic lineage is Georg Simmel, Robert E. Park, and Everett Hughes.

Robert E. Park

Robert Ezra ParkRobert ParkPark
According to Becker, his academic lineage is Georg Simmel, Robert E. Park, and Everett Hughes.

San Francisco

San Francisco, CaliforniaSan Francisco, CACity and County of San Francisco
Becker currently resides in San Francisco, CA.

Alfred R. Lindesmith

Alfred Lindesmith
Becker was inspired to write on the subject after reading Alfred Lindesmith's book on opium addiction.

Etiology

aetiologyetiologicalaetiological
In the chapter, Becker responds to critics who argue that labeling theory fails to provide an etiological explanation of deviance or an explanation of how individuals come to commit deviant acts in the first place.

Division of labour

division of laborspecializationspecialised
Becker also references how the division of labor plays a role in the creation of art work, in that the work of many individuals goes into the production of the tools and routines of the artist.

Northwestern University

NorthwesternNorth Western UniversityIntegrated science program
According to Becker, the book is composed of information he learned from students while teaching a seminar at Northwestern University on sociological writing style.

Passive voice

passivepassivizationpassives
Thus, Becker advises scholars to write in a direct style; avoiding the passive voice and abstract nouns.

University of Chicago

The University of ChicagoChicagoChicago University
Becker received his undergraduate degree in sociology at the University of Chicago in 1946.