A report on Mao Zedong and Hua Guofeng

Mao in 1959
Hua Guofeng during a visit to the Hôtel de Ville in Paris, 1979
Mao Zedong's childhood home in Shaoshan, in 2010, by which time it had become a tourist destination
Hua Guofeng in 1935
Mao in 1913
Hua Guofeng in 1941
Students in Beijing rallying during the May Fourth Movement
In July 1970, Hua Guofeng participated in the agriculture of the Dongtundu Subdistrict in the suburbs of Changsha.
Location of the first Congress of the Chinese Communist Party in July 1921, in Xintiandi, former French Concession, Shanghai
In 1978, the classroom of a kindergarten in Shanghai in which is displayed portraits of then-Chairman Hua Guofeng and former Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong around the time of his work at Guangzhou's PMTI in 1925
Hua Guofeng with Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi during a state visit in Iran, 1978
Third Plenum of the KMT Central Executive Committee in March 1927. Mao is third from the right in the second row.
Hua Guofeng at Brijuni, SR Croatia, SFR Yugoslavia, 1978.
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Tomb of Hua Guofeng at Jiaocheng County
Mao in 1927
Chinese Communist revolutionaries in the 1920s
Mao in Yan'an
Military parade on the occasion of the founding of a Chinese Soviet Republic in 1931
An overview map of the Long March
Zhang Guotao (left) and Mao Zedong in Yan'an, 1937
In an effort to defeat the Japanese, Mao (left) agreed to collaborate with Chiang (right).
Mao in 1938, writing On Protracted War
Mao with Kang Sheng in Yan'an, 1945
PLA troops, supported by captured M5 Stuart light tanks, attacking the Nationalist lines in 1948
Mao Zedong declares the founding of the modern People's Republic of China on October 1, 1949
Mao with his fourth wife, Jiang Qing, called "Madame Mao", 1946
Mao at Joseph Stalin's 70th birthday celebration in Moscow, December 1949
Mao and Zhou Enlai meeting with Dalai Lama (right) and Panchen Lama (left) to celebrate Tibetan New Year, Beijing, 1955
Photo of Mao Zedong sitting, published in "Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung", ca. 1955
Mao with Nikita Khrushchev, Ho Chi Minh and Soong Ching-ling during a state dinner in Beijing, 1959
Early in the Great Leap Forward, commune members were encouraged to eat their fill in communal canteens, but many canteens shut down as they ran out of food and fuel.
Mao with Henry Kissinger and Zhou Enlai, Beijing, 1972
U.S. President Gerald Ford watches as Henry Kissinger shakes hands with Mao during their visit to China, December 2, 1975
A public appearance of Chairman Mao and Lin Biao among Red Guards, in Beijing, during the Cultural Revolution (November 1966)
A large portrait of Mao at Tiananmen
Mao Zedong Square at Saoshan
Statue of young Mao in Changsha, the capital of Hunan
In 1978, the classroom of a kindergarten in Shanghai putting up portraits of then- Chairman Hua Guofeng and former Chairman Mao Zedong
Mao greets U.S. President Richard Nixon during his visit to China in 1972.
Statue of Mao in Lijiang
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Mao with Jiang Qing and daughter Li Na in the 1940s
Mao Zedong with his nephew Mao Yuanxin, and daughters Li Min (second from left) and Li Na
Mao and Zhang Yufeng in 1964
Mao's calligraphy: a bronze plaque of a poem by Li Bai. (Chinese: 白帝城毛澤東手書李白詩銅匾 )

The designated successor of Mao Zedong, Hua held the top offices of the government, party, and the military after the deaths of Mao and Premier Zhou Enlai, but was gradually forced out of supreme power by a coalition of party leaders between December 1978 and June 1981, and subsequently retreated from the political limelight, though still remaining a member of the Central Committee until 2002.

- Hua Guofeng

A fifth volume, which brought the timeline up to 1957, was briefly issued during the leadership of Hua Guofeng, but subsequently withdrawn from circulation for its perceived ideological errors.

- Mao Zedong
Mao in 1959

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Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."

Cultural Revolution

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Cultural Revolution propaganda poster. It depicts Mao Zedong, above a group of soldiers from the People's Liberation Army. The caption reads, "The Chinese People's Liberation Army is the great school of Mao Zedong Thought."
People in the countryside working at night to produce steel during the Great Leap Forward
The purge of General Luo Ruiqing solidified the Army's loyalty to Mao.
Mao waved to the "revolutionary masses" on the riverside before his "swim across the Yangtze"
A struggle session of Wang Guangmei, the wife of Liu Shaoqi.
Mao Zedong and Lin Biao surrounded by rallying Red Guards in Beijing. Source: China Pictorial
Tiananmen Square on September 15, 1966, the occasion of Chairman Mao's third of eight mass rallies with Red Guards in 1966. Source: China Pictorial
The remains of Ming Dynasty Wanli Emperor at the Ming tombs. Red Guards dragged the remains of the Wanli Emperor and Empresses to the front of the tomb, where they were posthumously "denounced" and burned.
The Cemetery of Confucius was attacked by Red Guards in November 1966.
Anti-Liu Shaoqi rally
Propaganda oil painting of Mao during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Marshal Lin Biao was constitutionally confirmed as Mao's successor in 1969.
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book, Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.
Jiang Qing (left), who was the wife of Mao Zedong and a member of the Gang of Four, received the Red Guards in Beijing with Premier Zhou Enlai (center) and Kang Sheng. They were all holding the Little Red Book (Quotations from Mao) in their hands.
Jiang Qing
Deng Xiaoping became the paramount leader of China in 1978. He started "Boluan Fanzheng" that brought the country back to order, and initiated China's historic Reforms and Opening up.
A struggle session of Xi Zhongxun, the father of Xi Jinping (September 1967). Xi Zhongxun was labelled as an "anti-Party element". However, since late 2012, Xi Jinping and his allies have attempted to play down the disaster of the Cultural Revolution and reversed many reforms since the Boluan Fanzheng period, sparking concerns of a new Cultural Revolution.
Quotations of Mao Zedong on a street wall of Wuxuan County, one of the centers of Guangxi massacre and cannibalism during the Cultural Revolution.
The Cultural Revolution Cemetery in Chongqing, China. At least 1,700 people were killed during the violent faction clash, with 400 to 500 of them buried in this cemetery.
The Tibetan Panchen Lama during a struggle session.
Struggle session of Sampho Tsewang Rigzin and his wife during the Cultural Revolution.
A 1968 map of Beijing showing streets and landmarks renamed during the Cultural Revolution. Andingmen Inner Street became "Great Leap Forward Road", Taijichang Street became the "Road for Eternal Revolution", Dongjiaominxiang was renamed "Anti-Imperialist Road", Beihai Park was renamed "Worker-Peasant-Soldier Park" and Jingshan Park became "Red Guard Park." Most of the Cultural Revolution-era name changes were later reversed.
Yao Tongbin, one of China's foremost missile scientists, was beaten to death by a mob in Beijing during the Cultural Revolution (1968). This caused Zhou Enlai to order special protection for key technical experts.
Remnants of a banner containing slogans from the Cultural Revolution in Anhui.
The ballet The Red Detachment of Women, one of the Model Dramas promoted during the Cultural Revolution.
Posters from the Cultural Revolution period
Buddhist statues defaced during the Cultural Revolution.
The central section of this wall shows the faint remnant marks of a propaganda slogan that was added during the Cultural Revolution, but has since been removed. The slogan read "Boundless faith that in Chairman Mao."

The Cultural Revolution, formally known as the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in the People's Republic of China (PRC) launched by Mao Zedong in 1966, and lasting until his death in 1976.

In December 1978, Deng Xiaoping became the new paramount leader of China, replacing Chairman Hua Guofeng, and started the "Boluan Fanzheng" program which gradually dismantled the Maoist policies associated with the Cultural Revolution, and brought the country back to order.

Deng Xiaoping at age 16, studying in France (1921)

Deng Xiaoping

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Chinese revolutionary leader, military commander and statesman who served as the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC) from December 1978 to 1992.

Chinese revolutionary leader, military commander and statesman who served as the paramount leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC) from December 1978 to 1992.

Deng Xiaoping at age 16, studying in France (1921)
Deng's name is spelled Teng Hi Hien on this employment card from the Hutchinson shoe factory in Châlette-sur-Loing, France, where he worked on two occasions as seen from the dates, eight months in 1922 and again in 1923 when he was fired after one month, with the bottom annotation reading "refused to work, do not take him back"
Deng Xiaoping in NRA uniform, 1937
Deng with Liu Bocheng (right)
Deng Xiaoping with He Long (middle) and Zhu De (right) (1949)
Deng Xiaoping (left) met with the 14th Dalai Lama (right) in 1954
Deng Xiaoping (left) with future president Li Xiannian (center) and Premier Zhou Enlai in 1963
Deng Xiaoping (centre) with U.S. president Gerald Ford (left), 1975
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Deng Xiaoping (left) and his wife Zhuo Lin (right) are briefed by Johnson Space Center director Christopher C. Kraft (extreme right)
Deng Xiaoping billboard in Lizhi Park, Shenzhen, one of China's first special economic zones and is regarded as China's Silicon Valley
A model reconstruction of Deng Xiaoping's 1984 meeting with UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher, Shenzhen
A patrol boat in use during Deng Xiaoping's southern tour of 1992
Deng Xiaoping's ashes lie in state in Beijing whose banner reads "Memorial Service of Comrade Deng Xiaoping", February 1997
Statue of Deng Xiaoping in Shenzhen
Deng Xiaoping billboard in Shenzhen, Guangdong
Deng Xiaoping billboard in Qingdao, Shandong
Deng Xiaoping billboard in Dujiangyan, Sichuan
Deng Xiaoping billboard in Lijiang, Yunnan

After Mao Zedong's death in 1976, Deng gradually rose to supreme power and led China through a series of far-reaching market-economy reforms earning him the reputation as the "Architect of Modern China".

Following Mao's death in September 1976, Deng outmaneuvered the late chairman's chosen successor Hua Guofeng and became the de facto leader of China in December 1978 at the 3rd Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee.

Chinese Communist Party

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Founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Founding and sole ruling party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Site of the first CCP Congress, in the former Shanghai French Concession
Flag of the HistoryChinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
Mao Zedong declared the establishment of the People's Republic of China on 1 October 1949.
Chinese communists celebrate Joseph Stalin's birthday, 1949.
A temporary monument displayed in Changsha, Hunan Province, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the CCP's founding
A monument dedicated to Karl Marx (left) and Friedrich Engels (right) in Shanghai
A billboard advertising Xi Jinping Thought in Shenzhen, Guangdong
The 18th National Congress, convened in November 2012
Front cover of the Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party
Xi Jinping (second from left) with Enrique Peña Nieto (second from right), the former President of Mexico and a leading member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party
Badge given to party members

Mao Zedong was a founding member of the party and rose through its ranks to become its leader and chairman in 1943.

Following Mao's death in 1976, a power struggle between CCP chairman Hua Guofeng and vice-chairman Deng Xiaoping erupted.

Zhou in 1972

Zhou Enlai

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The first Premier of the People's Republic of China serving from 1 October 1949 until his death on 8 January 1976.

The first Premier of the People's Republic of China serving from 1 October 1949 until his death on 8 January 1976.

Zhou in 1972
Zhou Enlai (1912)
Zhou Enlai as a student in Nankai Middle School
A young Zhou Enlai (1919)
Zhou during his time in France (1920s)
Zhou Enlai as the director of the Political Department at Whampoa Military Academy (1924)
Chiang Kai-shek (center) and Zhou Enlai (left) with cadets at Whampoa Military Academy (1924)
Zhou Enlai (1927)
Zhou Enlai (1930s)
Zhou (far left) with Mao Zedong (center-left) in Yan'an (1935)
Zhou with Communist general Ye Jianying (left) and Kuomintang official Zhang Zhong (center) in Xi'an 1937, illustrating the alliance between the two parties which was the outcome of the Xi'an Incident
Zhou (left) with his wife Deng Yingchao (center) and Sun Weishi
Zhou Enlai and Sun Weishi in Moscow, 1939.
The Marshall Mission (1946), left to right: Zhang Qun, George C. Marshall, Zhou Enlai
A portrait of Zhou Enlai
Zhou with Kim Il-sung at the signing of the Sino-North Korean Mutual Aid and Cooperation Friendship Treaty in 1961
Zhou Enlai and Sanusi Hardjadinata, the chairman of the Bandung Conference.
Zhou and his wife Deng at the Badaling section of the Great Wall of China (1955)
Zhou, shown here with Henry Kissinger and Mao Zedong.
Zhou shakes hands with President Richard Nixon upon Nixon's arrival in China in February 1972.
Zhou at the outset of the Cultural Revolution (with Lin Liheng, daughter of Lin Biao)
Statue of Zhou and Deng in the Memorial to Zhou Enlai and Deng Yingchao in Tianjin.
Zhou with his niece Zhou Bingde
A bronze statue of Zhou in Nanjing, wearing a Western suit (something he never wore after his youth)

Zhou served under Chairman Mao Zedong and helped the Communist Party rise to power, later helping consolidate its control, form its foreign policy, and develop the Chinese economy.

Although Zhou was succeeded by Hua Guofeng as First Vice Chairman and designated successor, Zhou's ally Deng Xiaoping was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and took Hua's place as paramount leader by 1978.

"Decisively Throw Out the Wang-Zhang-Jiang-Yao Anti-Party Clique!"

Gang of Four

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Maoist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

Maoist political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

"Decisively Throw Out the Wang-Zhang-Jiang-Yao Anti-Party Clique!"
The Gang of Four at their trial in 1981

The gang's leading figure was Jiang Qing (Mao Zedong's last wife).

Their fall did not amount to a rejection of the Cultural Revolution as such, but it was organized by the new leader, Premier Hua Guofeng, and others who had risen during that period.

Jiang on 19 October 1976

Jiang Qing

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Chinese communist revolutionary, actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976).

Chinese communist revolutionary, actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976).

Jiang on 19 October 1976
Jiang Qing on the cover of a film magazine
Jiang in a 1935 film poster
Mao and Jiang writing together in Yan'an, 1938
Li Na, Jiang and Mao in Yan'an in 1943
Mao and Jiang in 1946
Jiang during the Cultural Revolution
Poster showing Jiang promoting the fine arts during the Cultural Revolution while holding Mao's Little Red Book. The slogan reads: "The invincible thoughts of Mao Zedong illuminate the stages of revolutionary art!"
Jiang at her trial in 1980

She was the fourth wife of Mao Zedong, the Chairman of the Communist Party and Paramount leader of China.

She was arrested in October 1976 by Hua Guofeng and his allies, and was subsequently condemned by party authorities.

Strategic Issues of Anti-Japanese Guerrilla War (1938)

Maoism

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Strategic Issues of Anti-Japanese Guerrilla War (1938)
Strategic Issues in the Chinese Revolutionary War (1947)
Beijing, 1978. The billboard reads, "Long Live Marxism, Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought!"
Mao Zedong
Deng Xiaoping
Maoist leader Prachanda speaking at a rally in Pokhara, Nepal
Maoism is described as being Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese conditions whereas its variant Marxism–Leninism–Maoism is considered universally applicable
The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) in February 2013
The flag of FP-25
Mao Zedong meets Richard Nixon on February 21, 1972, leading to a radical turn of events in which Nixon took steps to placate tensions between the People's Republic of China and the United States, beginning the slow process of reestablishing diplomatic relations between the two global powers
Despite falling out of favor within the Chinese Communist Party by 1978, Mao is still revered, with Deng's famous "70% right, 30% wrong" line

Maoism, officially called Mao Zedong Thought by the Communist Party of China, is a variety of Marxism–Leninism that Mao Zedong developed for realising a socialist revolution in the agricultural, pre-industrial society of the Republic of China and later the People's Republic of China.

Thousands of Maoists were arrested in the Hua Guofeng period after 1976.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.

Lin Biao

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Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

Chinese politician and Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory during the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China from 1946 to 1949.

A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
A Hawker Siddeley Trident, similar to the aircraft involved.
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Lin Biao with wife Ye Qun and their children
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Lin as commander-in-chief of the Manchurian Field Army (~1947–1948)
Lin Biao and Ye Qun
On 1 October 1959, Lin Biao, as defense minister, surveyed the honor guards at the military parade celebrating the 10th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.
Lin Biao's calligraphy in the Summer Palace, 1966
Lin Biao (right), Mao Zedong (center) and Zhou Enlai, waving copies of the Little Red Book, at Tiananmen, during the Cultural Revolution (1967)
Lin Biao with Mao Zedong
Lin Biao reading the Little Red Book. This is the last photo of him ever taken (1971)
Project 571 Outline
Lin Liguo with Ye Qun
Qinhuangdao Shanhaiguan Airport, provenance of the aircraft
Graffiti with Lin Biao's foreword to Mao's Little Red Book. Lin's name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death.

Lin became instrumental in creating the foundations for Mao Zedong's cult of personality in the early 1960s, and was rewarded for his service in the Cultural Revolution by being named Mao's designated successor as the sole Vice Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, from 1966 until his death.

Many of the original government records relevant to Lin's death were secretly and intentionally destroyed, with the approval of the Politburo, during the brief period of Hua Guofeng's interregnum in the late 1970s.

Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party

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The leader of the Chinese Communist Party.

The leader of the Chinese Communist Party.

As his replacement, Mao Zedong, who had been the de facto leader of the party since the Long March, was named as Chairman of the Politburo of the CCP Central Committee.

In 1976, Hua Guofeng was named First Vice-chairman of the Central Committee, a post previously held unofficially by Liu Shaoqi from 1956 to 1966; Zhou Enlai from 1973 to 1975; and Deng Xiaoping in 1975 in the capacity of "Vice-Chairman in charge of the day-to-day work of the Central Committee".

Hu Yaobang in 1986

Hu Yaobang

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High-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.

High-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.

Hu Yaobang in 1986
Hu Yaobang at Yan'an in the 1930s
Hu Yaobang and his wife Li Zhao
Hu Yaobang, Zhu De, and Liao Chengzhi at the National Youth Congress in 1953 (left to right)
(from left) Zhao Ziyang, Deng Xiaoping and Li Peng at Hu Yaobang's memorial service in the Great Hall of the People, on 22 April 1989
Hu Yaobang's Former Residence.
Hu's Statue in his hometown Liuyang

During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), Hu was purged, recalled and purged again by Mao Zedong.

Hu opposed Hua Guofeng's "Two Whatevers" policy, and was an important supporter of Deng Xiaoping's ascent to power.