Hubble Space Telescope

HubbleHSTNASA/ESA HSTHubble telescopeHubble Space Telescope (HST)Frontier FieldsHubble FellowshipHubble Legacy ArchiveHubble Servicing Mission 2Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 1
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.wikipedia
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Space Telescope Science Institute

STScIHubble Postdoctoral FellowshipHubble Space Telescope Science Institute
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center controls the spacecraft.
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

Chandra X-ray Observatory

ChandraChandra observatoryChandra Space Telescope
The HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Chandra is one of the Great Observatories, along with the Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (1991–2000), and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

STS-61

61first Hubble Servicing Missionfirst servicing mission
The optics were corrected to their intended quality by a servicing mission in 1993.
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour. The mission launched on 2 December 1993 from Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

Edwin Hubble

HubbleEdwin P. HubbleEdwin Powell Hubble
The HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. In 1983 the telescope was named after Edwin Hubble, who made one of the greatest scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century when he discovered that the universe is expanding.
Hubble's name is most widely recognized for the Hubble Space Telescope which was named in his honor, with a model prominently displayed in his hometown of Marshfield, Missouri.

STS-125

fifth servicing missionHubble Servicing Mission 4repair mission
However, after spirited public discussion, NASA administrator Mike Griffin approved the fifth servicing mission, completed in 2009.
STS-125, or HST-SM4 (Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 4), was the fifth and final space shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

Great Observatories program

Great ObservatoriesNASA's Great ObservatoriesGreat Space Observatories
The HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) primarily observes visible light and near-ultraviolet. It was launched in 1990 aboard Discovery during STS-31. A servicing mission in 1997 added capability in the near-infrared range and one last mission in 2009 was to fix and extend the life of Hubble which resulted in some of the best results to date.

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

BATSEBurst and Transient Source ExperimentCGRO
The HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Costing $617 million, the CGRO was part of NASA's "Great Observatories" series, along with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Michael D. Griffin

Michael GriffinMike Griffin
However, after spirited public discussion, NASA administrator Mike Griffin approved the fifth servicing mission, completed in 2009.
As NASA Administrator Griffin oversaw such areas as the future of human spaceflight, the fate of the Hubble telescope and NASA's role in understanding climate change.

Goddard Space Flight Center

GSFCNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterNASA Goddard
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center controls the spacecraft. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the telescope, while Goddard Space Flight Center was given overall control of the scientific instruments and ground-control center for the mission.
GSFC manages operations for many NASA and international missions including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Explorers Program, the Discovery Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), INTEGRAL, MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and Swift.

European Space Agency

ESAEuropeanEuropean Space Agency (ESA)
The HST was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency.
Hipparcos, a star-mapping mission, was launched in 1989 and in the 1990s SOHO, Ulysses and the Hubble Space Telescope were all jointly carried out with NASA.

Ritchey–Chrétien telescope

Ritchey–ChrétienRitchey-ChrétienRitchey-Chretien
Optically, the HST is a Cassegrain reflector of Ritchey–Chrétien design, as are most large professional telescopes.
Since the mid 20th century, a majority of large professional research telescopes have been Ritchey–Chrétien configurations; some well-known examples are the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescopes and the ESO Very Large Telescope.

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory

CopernicusOAO-2Copernicus satellite
An orbiting solar telescope was launched in 1962 by the United Kingdom as part of the Ariel space program, and in 1966 NASA launched the first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) mission.
Although two OAO missions were failures, the success of the other two increased awareness within the astronomical community of the benefits of space-based observations, and led to the instigation of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Expansion of the universe

expanding universeexpandingexpansion of space
In 1983 the telescope was named after Edwin Hubble, who made one of the greatest scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century when he discovered that the universe is expanding.
In June 2016, NASA and ESA scientists reported that the universe was found to be expanding 5% to 9% faster than thought earlier, based on studies using the Hubble Space Telescope.

Minute and second of arc

masarcsecondarc second
At that time ground-based telescopes were limited to resolutions of 0.5–1.0 arcseconds, compared to a theoretical diffraction-limited resolution of about 0.05 arcsec for a telescope with a mirror 2.5 m in diameter.
Hubble Space Telescope has calculational resolution of 0.05 arcseconds and actual resolution of almost 0.1 arcseconds, which is close to the diffraction limit.

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)space program
The HST was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency.
Another famous series of missions were the launch and later successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990 and 1993, respectively.

Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility

The Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), established at Garching bei München near Munich in 1984, provided similar support for European astronomers until 2011, when these activities were moved to the European Space Astronomy Centre.
The Space Telescope – European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) was an institution which provided a number of support and service functions primarily for European observers of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

Marshall Space Flight Center

MSFCGeorge C. Marshall Space Flight CenterMarshall
Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was given responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the telescope, while Goddard Space Flight Center was given overall control of the scientific instruments and ground-control center for the mission.
The deep-space images from the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray Observatory are made possible in part by the people and facilities at Marshall.

Astronomy

astronomicalastronomerastronomers
Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy.

Diffraction-limited system

diffraction limitdiffraction-limiteddiffraction limitation
First, the angular resolution (the smallest separation at which objects can be clearly distinguished) would be limited only by diffraction, rather than by the turbulence in the atmosphere, which causes stars to twinkle, known to astronomers as seeing.
Space-based telescopes (such as Hubble, or a number of non-optical telescopes) always work at their diffraction limit, if their design is free of optical aberration.

Fine guidance sensor

FGSFGS-3
Its three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) are primarily used to keep the telescope accurately pointed during an observation, but can also be used to carry out extremely accurate astrometry; measurements accurate to within 0.0003 arcseconds have been achieved.
FGSs have been deployed on the Hubble Space Telescope, and will be deployed with a different technical approach on the James Webb Space Telescope.

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

COS
Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS; 2009–present)
The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a science instrument that was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125) in May 2009.

Background (astronomy)

backgroundchopping
Hubble's orbit outside the distortion of Earth's atmosphere allows it to take extremely high-resolution images, with substantially lower background light than ground-based telescopes.
The Hubble Space Telescope does not suffer from this problem.

Advanced Camera for Surveys

ACSACS instrumentAdvanced Camera for Surveys - Wide Field Channel
Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS; 2002–present)
The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third-generation axial instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

STS-31

launchtelescope's deployment flight
On April 24, 1990, successfully launched the telescope into its planned orbit during the STS-31 mission.
STS-31 was the thirty-fifth mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit.

Space telescope

space observatoryspace observatoriesAstronomy
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
After lobbying in the 1960s and 70s for such a system to be built, Spitzer's vision ultimately materialized into the Hubble Space Telescope, which was launched on April 24, 1990 by the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31).