Hubble Space Telescope

HubbleHSTHubble TelescopeNASA/ESA HSTHubble Space Telescope (HST)Hubble'' Space Telescopefirst servicing missionFrontier FieldsHST servicing missionsHubble Fellowship
The Hubble Space Telescope (often referred to as HST or Hubble) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.wikipedia
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Space Telescope Science Institute

STScIHubble FellowHubbleSite
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center controls the spacecraft.
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) is the science operations center for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

Chandra X-ray Observatory

ChandraChandra Space TelescopeChandra X-ray telescope
The Hubble telescope is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Chandra is one of the Great Observatories, along with the Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (1991-2000), and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

STS-125

fifth servicing missionHST-SM4Hubble Servicing Mission 4
The fifth mission was canceled on safety grounds following the Columbia disaster (2003), but NASA administrator Michael D. Griffin approved the fifth servicing mission which was completed in 2009.
STS-125, or HST-SM4 (Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 4), was the fifth and final Space Shuttle mission to the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the last solo flight of the Space Shuttle Atlantis.

STS-61

STS 6161first Hubble Servicing Mission
The optics were corrected to their intended quality by a servicing mission in 1993.
STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

Edwin Hubble

HubbleEdwin P. HubbleEdwin Powell Hubble
The Hubble telescope is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. In 1983 the telescope was named after Edwin Hubble, who confirmed one of the greatest scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century made by Georges Lemaître that the universe is expanding.
Hubble's name is most widely recognized for the Hubble Space Telescope, which was named in his honor, with a model prominently displayed in his hometown of Marshfield, Missouri.

Michael D. Griffin

Michael Griffin
The fifth mission was canceled on safety grounds following the Columbia disaster (2003), but NASA administrator Michael D. Griffin approved the fifth servicing mission which was completed in 2009.
As NASA Administrator Griffin oversaw such areas as the future of human spaceflight, the fate of the Hubble telescope and NASA's role in understanding climate change.

Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

BATSECompton Gamma-Ray ObservatoryCGRO
The Hubble telescope is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.
Costing $617 million, the CGRO was part of NASA's "Great Observatories" series, along with the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Goddard Space Flight Center

GSFCNASA Goddard Space Flight CenterNASA Goddard
The Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI) selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center controls the spacecraft.
GSFC manages operations for many NASA and international missions including the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), the Explorers Program, the Discovery Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), INTEGRAL, MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Fermi, and Swift.

Great Observatories program

Great ObservatoriesNASA's Great ObservatoriesGreat Space Observatories
The Hubble telescope is named after astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope.

Ritchey–Chrétien telescope

Ritchey–ChrétienRitchey-ChrétienRitchey-Chrétien telescope
Optically, the HST is a Cassegrain reflector of Ritchey–Chrétien design, as are most large professional telescopes.
Since the mid 20th century, a majority of large professional research telescopes have been Ritchey–Chrétien configurations; some well-known examples are the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescopes and the ESO Very Large Telescope.

Orbiting Astronomical Observatory

CopernicusOAO-2Copernicus satellite
An orbiting solar telescope was launched in 1962 by the United Kingdom as part of the Ariel space program, and in 1966 NASA launched the first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) mission.
Although two OAO missions were failures, the success of the other two increased awareness within the astronomical community of the benefits of space-based observations, and led to the instigation of the Hubble Space Telescope.

Expansion of the universe

expanding universeexpandingexpansion of space
In 1983 the telescope was named after Edwin Hubble, who confirmed one of the greatest scientific breakthroughs of the 20th century made by Georges Lemaître that the universe is expanding.
In June 2016, NASA and ESA scientists reported that the universe was found to be expanding 5% to 9% faster than thought earlier, based on studies using the Hubble Space Telescope.

Space telescope

space observatoryspace observatoriesAstronomy
The Hubble Space Telescope (often referred to as HST or Hubble) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
After lobbying in the 1960s and 70s for such a system to be built, Spitzer's vision ultimately materialized into the Hubble Space Telescope, which was launched on April 24, 1990 by the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31).

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNASA Advisory CouncilU.S. space program
The Hubble telescope was built by the United States space agency NASA with contributions from the European Space Agency.
Another famous series of missions were the launch and later successful repair of the Hubble Space Telescope in 1990 and 1993, respectively.

Minute and second of arc

masarcsecondarc second
At that time ground-based telescopes were limited to resolutions of 0.5–1.0 arcseconds, compared to a theoretical diffraction-limited resolution of about 0.05 arcsec for a telescope with a mirror 2.5 m in diameter.
For example, the Hubble Space Telescope can reach an angular size of stars down to about 0.1″.

Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility

Instrument Physical Modeling GroupSpace Telescope - European Coordinating FacilityST-ECF
The Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), established at Garching bei München near Munich in 1984, provided similar support for European astronomers until 2011, when these activities were moved to the European Space Astronomy Centre.
The Space Telescope – European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) was an institution which provided a number of support and service functions primarily for European observers of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

Fine guidance sensor

Fine Guidance SensorsFGSFGS-3
Its three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) are primarily used to keep the telescope accurately pointed during an observation, but can also be used to carry out extremely accurate astrometry; measurements accurate to within 0.0003 arcseconds have been achieved. Servicing Mission 3B flown by Columbia in March 2002 saw the installation of a new instrument, with the FOC (which, except for the Fine Guidance Sensors when used for astrometry, was the last of the original instruments) being replaced by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).
FGSs have been deployed on the Hubble Space Telescope, and will be deployed with a different technical approach on the James Webb Space Telescope.

Cosmic Origins Spectrograph

COS
The area previously used by COSTAR is now occupied by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. SM4 also installed two new observation instruments—Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) —and the Soft Capture and Rendezvous System, which will enable the future rendezvous, capture, and safe disposal of Hubble by either a crewed or robotic mission.
The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) is a science instrument that was installed on the Hubble Space Telescope during Servicing Mission 4 (STS-125) in May 2009.

Diffraction-limited system

diffraction limitdiffraction-limiteddiffraction limited
First, the angular resolution (the smallest separation at which objects can be clearly distinguished) would be limited only by diffraction, rather than by the turbulence in the atmosphere, which causes stars to twinkle, known to astronomers as seeing.
Space-based telescopes (such as Hubble, or a number of non-optical telescopes) always work at their diffraction limit, if their design is free of optical aberration.

Advanced Camera for Surveys

ACSACS instrumentAdvanced Camera for Surveys - Wide Field Channel
Servicing Mission 3B flown by Columbia in March 2002 saw the installation of a new instrument, with the FOC (which, except for the Fine Guidance Sensors when used for astrometry, was the last of the original instruments) being replaced by the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).
The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) is a third-generation axial instrument aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

STS-31

launchSTS 31telescope's deployment flight
On April 24, 1990, successfully launched the telescope into its planned orbit during the STS-31 mission.
STS-31 was the 35th mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit.

Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2

WFPC2Wide Field Planetary Camera 2WFPC 2
The design of the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, already planned to replace the existing WF/PC, included relay mirrors to direct light onto the four separate charge-coupled device (CCD) chips making up its two cameras.
The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) is a camera formerly installed on the Hubble Space Telescope.

European Space Agency

ESAEuropeanEuropean Space Agency (ESA)
The Hubble telescope was built by the United States space agency NASA with contributions from the European Space Agency.
Also, the Hubble Space Telescope is a joint project of NASA and ESA.

Lyman Spitzer

Lyman Spitzer, Jr.Lyman Spitzer Jr.Spitzer, Lyman
The history of the Hubble Space Telescope can be traced back as far as 1946, to the astronomer Lyman Spitzer's paper "Astronomical advantages of an extraterrestrial observatory".
He was an early proponent of space optical astronomy in general, and in particular of the project that became Hubble Space Telescope.

Wide Field Camera 3

WFC3WFCWFC-3
SM4 also installed two new observation instruments—Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) and the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) —and the Soft Capture and Rendezvous System, which will enable the future rendezvous, capture, and safe disposal of Hubble by either a crewed or robotic mission.
The Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) is the Hubble Space Telescope's last and most technologically advanced instrument to take images in the visible spectrum.