A report on Hudson's Bay Company

Heraldic achievement of Hudson's Bay Company: Argent, a cross gules between four beavers passant proper. Crest: On a chapeau gules turned up ermine a fox sejant proper. Supporters: Two bucks proper. Latin Motto: pro pelle cutem apparently a play on Job, 2:4: Pellem pro pelle "skin for skin".
Rupert's Land, the drainage basin of Hudson Bay, the company's grant
Map of Samuel Hearne's and Henry Kelsey's expeditions
Logo on old fur trading fort
Trading at a Hudson's Bay Company trading post
Hudson's Bay Company officials in an express canoe crossing a lake, 1825
A Hudson's Bay Company post on Lake Winnipeg, c. 1884
Sketches of Hudson Bay Life: Running them down, by Harry Bullock-Webster
Coming in for Christmas (H. Bullock Webster)
A rough and tumble with a grizzly (Harry Bullock-Webster)
Simpson Tower, the company's former headquarters
Jackson and Banting on the S. S. Beothic, 1927
HBC's coat of arms logo (used from 2009 to 2013)
The Hudson's Bay Company building in Montreal, originally the Morgan's flagship store
Hudson's Bay downtown store in Winnipeg
Hudson's Bay Queen Street store in downtown Toronto, the chain's flagship store
The red Olympic mittens first sold for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics.
Depiction of the first sale of Hudson's Bay fur at Garraway's Coffee House in London, 1671.
The Bay Queen Street in Toronto. It was formerly the flagship store for Simpson's before HBC converted it to Hudson Bay in 1991.
Depiction of the capture of York Factory by French forces in 1694.
Depiction of an Indigenous woman wearing a Hudson's Bay point blanket, c. 1850.
Depiction of the Battle of Seven Oaks, a violent confrontation between HBC and the North West Company during the Pemmican War.
Currency issued by the Hudson Bay Company, 1820.
A section of a map showing the routes explored during the Palliser expedition.
Map of British North America in 1870, prior to HBC ceded Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to Canada.
A HBC store in Vancouver, c. 1890s.
Hudson's Bay Montreal Downtown. Originally the flagship store for Morgan's, the department store chain was acquired by HBC in 1960.
The Bay Queen Street in Toronto, 1999. It was formerly the flagship store for Simpson's before HBC converted it to Hudson Bay in 1991.
Hudson's Bay department store in Rotterdam in 2018.
A Zellers liquidation centre operating in Ottawa in 2014. HBC closed its last Zellers in 2020.
Lord & Taylor at the Prudential Tower in Boston. HBC owned the chain from 2012 to 2019.
Saks Fifth Avenue flagship store. Saks Fifth Avenue is a chain owned by HBC since 2013.
A Galeria Kaufhof in Köln. The chain was owned by HBC from 2015 to 2019.
Alexandre Bilodeau, a winter Olympian for Canada, wearing HBC apparel made officially for the Canadian Olympic team.

Historically Anglo-Canadian but now American-owned retail business group.

- Hudson's Bay Company

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Columbia District

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Fur trading district in the Pacific Northwest region of British North America in the 19th century.

Fur trading district in the Pacific Northwest region of British North America in the 19th century.

Map of the Columbia River and its tributaries showing modern political boundaries. In 1811 David Thompson was the first European to journey the entire length of the Columbia.
Map of the route of the York Factory Express, 1820s to 1840s, with modern political boundaries shown

The North West Company was absorbed into the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821 under which the Columbia District became known as the Columbia Department.

Rupert's Land

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Map of Rupert's Land, showing the location of York Factory
Prince Rupert of the Rhine, namesake of the land
The Hudson Bay drainage basin connects primarily to the Labrador Sea just south of Davis Strait as depicted on most atlases such as those of the National Geographic Society just north of the 60th parallel north and northeast of the Labrador Peninsula
Métis fur trader ca. 1870
Map of the Columbia District, also referred to as Oregon Country

Rupert's Land (Terre de Rupert), or Prince Rupert's Land (Terre du Prince Rupert), was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.

Hudson's Bay (department store)

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Canadian luxury goods department store chain.

Canadian luxury goods department store chain.

Mall entrance of The Bay (with Hudson's Bay Company branding) at the West Edmonton Mall in Edmonton, Alberta (2005)
Exterior of the Hudson's Bay store at the Fairview Mall in Toronto, Ontario (2014)
Hudson's Bay Queen Street, the largest of the six flagship stores in Downtown Toronto (2009)
Flagship store in the Henry Morgan Building in Downtown Montreal (2017)
Flagship store in the Freimans building on Rideau Street in Downtown Ottawa (2006)
Flagship store in Downtown Winnipeg (2010). This store closed in November 2020.
Flagship store in Downtown Edmonton (2007). This store closed in June 2021.
The Bay logo, used from 1965–2013.
Hudson's Bay wordmark, in use since 2013

It is the flagship brand of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), the oldest and longest-surviving company in North America as well as one of the oldest continuously operating companies in the World.

North West Company

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Fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821.

Fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821.

Following the 1787 death of Benjamin Frobisher, Simon McTavish dominated the company, until his own death in 1804. His nephew William McGilivray ran the company, until the Hudson's Bay Company merger of 1821.
Charlton Island

It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what is present-day Western Canada and Northwestern Ontario.

York Factory in 1853

York Factory

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York Factory in 1853
Rupert's Land, showing location of York Factory
Map of the route of the York Factory Express, 1820s to 1840s. Modern political boundaries shown.
Aerial view of York Factory, ca. 1925
Map of York Factory, 1840
York Factory, 2017

York Factory was a settlement and Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) factory (trading post) located on the southwestern shore of Hudson Bay in northeastern Manitoba, Canada, at the mouth of the Hayes River, approximately 200 km south-southeast of Churchill.

Fort Vancouver in 1845

Fort Vancouver

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Fort Vancouver in 1845
Hudson's Bay Company Flag
The modern reconstruction, showing the outer palisade and the single corner tower
Map of the Pacific Northwest "jointly occupied" by the US and Britain. The influence of Fort Vancouver and its secondary stations extended from Russian America to Mexican ruled Alta California.
Route of the HBC York Factory Express, 1820s to 1840s. Modern political boundaries shown.
Cots in the Douglas Quarters inside the Chief Factor's house
Fort Vancouver in 1859

Fort Vancouver was a 19th-century fur trading post that was the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia Department, located in the Pacific Northwest.

Manitoba

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Province of Canada at the longitudinal centre of the country.

Province of Canada at the longitudinal centre of the country.

Territorial evolution of Canada, 1867–present
Crowds gathering outside the old City Hall during the Winnipeg general strike, 21 June 1919
Aerial view of the Red River Floodway
Relief map of Manitoba
Deep Lake at Riding Mountain National Park
Köppen climate types of Manitoba
Polar bears are common in northern Manitoba.
Red River cart train
The Manitoba Legislative Building, meeting place of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba
Union Station
Centennial Concert Hall in Winnipeg
Author Margaret Laurence's home in Neepawa
The Morden Corn and Apple Festival
Assiniboine Park Pavilion
The Winnipeg Jets celebrate their first regulation win in Winnipeg at the MTS Centre on 17 October 2011

The Kingdom of England secured control of the region in 1673 and created a territory named Rupert's Land, which was placed under the administration of the Hudson's Bay Company.

The Pacific Northwest from outer space.

Pacific Northwest

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Geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east.

Geographic region in western North America bounded by its coastal waters of the Pacific Ocean to the west and, loosely, by the Rocky Mountains to the east.

The Pacific Northwest from outer space.
None of the multiple possible definitions of the Pacific Northwest is universally accepted. This map shows three possibilities: (1) The shaded area shows the historical Oregon Country. (2) The green line shows the Cascadia bioregion. (3) The labeled states and provinces include Washington, Idaho, Oregon and British Columbia.
was the lead ship used by George Vancouver
New Archangel (present-day Sitka, Alaska), the capital of Russian America
US Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes' 1841 Map of the Oregon Territory from "Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition". Philadelphia: 1845
The Cascades range
Map of "megacity", showing population density (shades of yellow/brown), highways (red), and major railways (black). Public land shown in shades of green.
A man in Portland, Oregon with Cascadian flag on International Worker's Day, 2012
Lumen Field, home of Seattle Seahawks and Sounders FC
Public transportation is utilized in the Pacific Northwest region. Vancouver's SkyTrain rapid transit system achieves daily ridership of over 500,000 passengers per day on weekdays and the overall transit ridership levels in the Metro Vancouver area rank third in North America per capita.

Other early occupation non-Indigenous settlements of interest, either long lasting or still in place, built and operated by either the North West Company, the Pacific Fur Company or the Hudson Bay Company include: Fort Saint-James (1806; oldest in British Columbia west of the Rockies), Fort Astoria (1811; oldest in Oregon), Fort Nez Percés (1818), Fort Alexandria (1821), Fort Vancouver (1824), Fort Langley (1827; oldest in southern British Columbia), Fort Nisqually (1833) and Fort Victoria (1843).

A Cree camp, likely in Montana, photographed circa 1893

Cree

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The Cree (Néhinaw, Néhiyaw, etc.; Cri) are a North American Indigenous people.

The Cree (Néhinaw, Néhiyaw, etc.; Cri) are a North American Indigenous people.

A Cree camp, likely in Montana, photographed circa 1893
Nēhiyaw camp near Vermilion, Alberta, in 1871
Cree language.
Cree Indian, taken by G. E. Fleming, 1903
Map of Nitaskinan
Location of Eeyou Istchee within Québec
Montana Indian Reservations
Hudson Bay Cree use decoction.
Mähsette Kuiuab, chief of the Cree, 1840–1843, Karl Bodmer.
Buffy Sainte-Marie, Cree singer-songwriter, performing in Norway, 2012.
Group of Cree people
Merasty women and girls, Cree, The Pas, Manitoba, 1942
Chief King of the Wind
Chief Thundercloud
Chief Duckhunter
Nehiyaw girl (1928)
Chippewa Cree Tribal Chairman Raymond Parker, Jr. signs an agreement with the FEMA in Rocky Boy's Indian Reservation, Montana on August 17, 2010.
alt=|Illustration of a Snake woman (left) and a Nehiyaw woman (right), c. 1840–1843, Karl Bodmer

In Manitoba, the Cree were first contacted by Europeans in 1682, at the mouth of the Nelson and Hayes rivers by a Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) party traveling about 100 mi inland.

Red River Colony

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Colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, on 300000 km2 of land in British North America.

Colonization project set up in 1811 by Thomas Douglas, 5th Earl of Selkirk, on 300000 km2 of land in British North America.

Selkirk's land grant
Protestant Church and Mission School, Red River Colony (Manitoba), c. 1820–1840.
Homes on narrow river lots along the Red River in 1822 by Peter Rindisbacher with Fort Douglas in the background
Map showing parts of the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba (referred to on the map by its historic name of Red River Settlement), published in 1870.
Governor of Red River, Andrew Bulger, driving his family on the frozen Red River in a horse cariole with Fort Garry in the background (1822–23)

This land was granted to Douglas by the Hudson's Bay Company in the Selkirk Concession.