Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson’s Bay CompanyHBCHudson Bay CompanyHudson's BayThe Hudson's Bay CompanyGovernor of the Hudson's Bay CompanyHudson's Bay Co.Hudsons Bay CompanyHudson's Bay CompaniesHudson's Bay Oil and Gas Company
The Hudson's Bay Company (HBC; Compagnie de la Baie d'Hudson) is a Canadian retail business group.wikipedia
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Hudson's Bay (retailer)

Hudson's BayThe BayHudson's Bay Company
The company's namesake business division is Hudson's Bay, commonly referred to as The Bay (La Baie in French).
It is the main brand of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), North America's oldest company.

Rupert's Land

Rupert’s LandPrince Rupert's LandRuperts Land
After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned (the entire Hudson Bay drainage basin, known as Rupert's Land) to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender, authorised by the Rupert's Land Act 1868.
Rupert's Land, or Prince Rupert's Land, was a territory in British North America comprising the Hudson Bay drainage basin, a territory in which a commercial monopoly was operated by the Hudson's Bay Company for 200 years from 1670 to 1870.

Saks, Inc.

Saks IncorporatedSaksProffitts Inc.
HBC owns the Saks stores in the US; most other US operations had been sold by mid-2019 and the last remaining stores (Lord & Taylor chain) were to be sold prior to the end of 2019.
Hudson's Bay Company acquired Saks in November 2013.

Royal charter

chartercharter of incorporationchartered
After incorporation by English royal charter in 1670, the company functioned as the de facto government in parts of North America for nearly 200 years until the HBC sold the land it owned (the entire Hudson Bay drainage basin, known as Rupert's Land) to Canada in 1869 as part of The Deed of Surrender, authorised by the Rupert's Land Act 1868.
Among the past and present groups formed by royal charter are the Company of Merchants of the Staple of England (13th Century), the British East India Company (1600), the Hudson's Bay Company, the Chartered Bank of India, Australia and China (since merged into Standard Chartered), the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O), the British South Africa Company, and some of the former British colonies on the North American mainland, City livery companies, the Bank of England and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

Pierre-Esprit Radisson

RadissonPierre Esprit RadissonPierre Radisson
Two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers (Médard de Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers), Radisson's brother-in-law, learned from the Cree that the best fur country lay north and west of Lake Superior, and that there was a "frozen sea" still further north.
The decision of Radisson and Groseilliers to enter the English service led to the formation of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Médard des Groseilliers

Médard Chouart des GroseilliersGroseilliersdes Groseilliers
Two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers (Médard de Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers), Radisson's brother-in-law, learned from the Cree that the best fur country lay north and west of Lake Superior, and that there was a "frozen sea" still further north.
Their decision to enter British service led to the foundation of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1670.

York Factory

York Factory, ManitobaFort BourbonYork Fort
Rupert House (1668, southeast), Moose Factory (1673, south) and Fort Albany, Ontario (1679, west) were erected on James Bay; three other posts were established on the western shore of Hudson Bay proper: Fort Severn (1689), York Factory (1684) and Fort Churchill (1717).
York Factory was a settlement and Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) factory (trading post) located on the southwestern shore of Hudson Bay in northeastern Manitoba, Canada, at the mouth of the Hayes River, approximately 200 km south-southeast of Churchill.

Prince Rupert of the Rhine

Prince RupertRupert of the RhineRupert
Eventually, the two met and gained the sponsorship of Prince Rupert.
Following the Restoration, Rupert returned to England, becoming a senior English naval commander during the Second Anglo-Dutch War and Third Anglo-Dutch War, and serving as the first governor of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Asleep by the frozen sea

HBC policywere not built
Inland posts were not built until 1774.
Asleep by the frozen sea is a phrase coined by Joseph Robson to describe the policy of the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) from its foundation in 1670 until the establishment of its first inland post in 1774.

Zachariah Gillam

Groseilliers sailed on the Nonsuch, commanded by Captain Zachariah Gillam, while the Eaglet was commanded by Captain William Stannard and accompanied by Radisson.
Zachariah Gillam (also spelled Zachary Guillam) (1636–1682) was one of a family of New England sea captains involved in the early days of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Moose Factory

Moose Factory, OntarioMoose FortFort St. Louis
Rupert House (1668, southeast), Moose Factory (1673, south) and Fort Albany, Ontario (1679, west) were erected on James Bay; three other posts were established on the western shore of Hudson Bay proper: Fort Severn (1689), York Factory (1684) and Fort Churchill (1717).
It was the first English-speaking settlement in lands now making up Ontario and the second Hudson's Bay Company post to be set up in North America after Fort Rupert.

Cree

Cree peopleNehiyawCree Nation
Two French traders, Pierre-Esprit Radisson and Médard des Groseilliers (Médard de Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers), Radisson's brother-in-law, learned from the Cree that the best fur country lay north and west of Lake Superior, and that there was a "frozen sea" still further north.
The Cree were first contacted by Europeans in 1682, at the mouth of the Nelson and Hayes rivers in what is now northern Manitoba, by a Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) party traveling about 100 mi inland.

Churchill, Manitoba

ChurchillChurchill, MBFort Churchill
Rupert House (1668, southeast), Moose Factory (1673, south) and Fort Albany, Ontario (1679, west) were erected on James Bay; three other posts were established on the western shore of Hudson Bay proper: Fort Severn (1689), York Factory (1684) and Fort Churchill (1717).
After an abortive attempt in 1688–89, in 1717 the Hudson's Bay Company built the first permanent settlement, Churchill River Post, a log fort a few kilometres upstream from the mouth of the Churchill River.

Waskaganish

Rupert HouseWaskaganish, QuebecFort-Rupert
(It was later known as Rupert House, and developed as the community of present-day Waskaganish, Quebec.) Both the fort and the river were named after the sponsor of the expedition, Prince Rupert of the Rhine, one of the major investors and soon to be the new company's first governor.
The village is located at the site of the former Fort Rupert, the first Hudson's Bay Company trading post on Hudson Bay.

Hudson Bay expedition (1686)

Hudson Bay expeditiona French expeditionan expedition
In March 1686, the French sent a raiding party under the Chevalier des Troyes more than 1,300 km to capture the HBC posts along James Bay.
It was the first of several expeditions sent from New France against the trading outposts of the Hudson's Bay Company in the southern reaches of Hudson Bay.

Battle of Fort Albany (1709)

Battle of Fort AlbanyBattle of Fort Albany 1709French attack
(A small French and Indian force attacked Fort Albany again in 1709 during Queen Anne's War but was unsuccessful.
The Battle of Fort Albany (about 26 June 1709) was an attack by French colonial volunteers and their native allies against the Canadian Hudson's Bay Company outpost of Fort Albany in the southern reaches of Hudson Bay.

Made beaver

A means of exchange arose based on the "Made Beaver" (MB); a prime pelt, worn for a year and ready for processing: "the prices of all trade goods were set in values of Made Beaver (MB) with other animal pelts, such as squirrel, otter and moose quoted in their MB (made beaver) equivalents. For example, two otter pelts might equal 1 MB".
The made beaver was a unit of account used in the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), located in British North America.

List of Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson Bay

Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson BayAnglo-French conflictrepeatedly attacked
See Anglo-French conflicts on Hudson Bay.
After the English Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) built trading posts on Hudson Bay in 1668, the French tried to drive them out.

NRDC Equity Partners

NRDC Equity Partners, LLCRobert Baker
In 2008, HBC was acquired by NRDC Equity Partners, which also owns the upmarket American department store Lord & Taylor.
NRDC’s current portfolio consists of two of the leading companies in their sectors, the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) and Retail Opportunity Investments Corporation (ROIC).

Brampton

Brampton, OntarioBrampton, ONCity of Brampton
HBC's head office is currently located in Brampton, Ontario.
Other major companies operating in Brampton include: CN Rail Brampton Intermodal Terminal, Best Buy, Amazon, Ford Nestlé, Hudson's Bay Company (HBC), Frito Lay Canada, MDA Space Missions, Goemans Appliances, and Parkinson Coach Line.

Hudson's Bay point blanket

blanketsPoint Blanketpoint blankets
In exchange they typically received popular trade goods such as knives, kettles, beads, needles, and the Hudson's Bay point blanket.
A Hudson's Bay point blanket is a type of wool blanket traded by the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) in British North America (now Canada) and the United States during the 1700s and 1800s.

James Bay

JamesbayJames Bay Rivers
The Nonsuch continued to James Bay, the southern portion of Hudson Bay, where its explorers founded, in 1668, the first fort on Hudson Bay, Charles Fort at the mouth of the Rupert River.
It was an area of importance to the Hudson's Bay Company and British expansion into Canada.

North West Company

XY CompanyNorthwest CompanyNorthwest Fur Company
In 1779, other traders founded the North West Company (NWC) in Montreal as a seasonal partnership to provide more capital and to continue competing with the HBC.
It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what is present-day Western Canada.

Pemmican War

disbandmentinvoked its royal charter
The competition led to the small Pemmican War in 1816.
The Pemmican War was a series of armed confrontations during the North American fur trade between the Hudson's Bay Company (HBC) and the North West Company (NWC) in the years following the establishment of the Red River Colony in 1812 by Lord Selkirk.

Hudson Bay expedition

French naval expeditioncaptured and demolishedcapturing two English forts
In 1782, during the American Revolutionary War, a French squadron under Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse captured and demolished York Factory and Prince of Wales Fort in support of the American rebels.
The Hudson Bay expedition of Jean-François de Galaup, comte de La Pérouse was a series of military raids on the lucrative fur trading posts and fortifications of the Hudson's Bay Company on the shores of Hudson Bay by a squadron of the French Royal Navy.