Hugh Gaitskell

GaitskellMr GaitskellThe Right Honourable '''Hugh Gaitskell''' CBE
Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (9 April 1906 – 18 January 1963) was a British politician and Leader of the Labour Party.wikipedia
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1945 United Kingdom general election

1945 general election19451945 election
An economics lecturer and wartime civil servant, he was elected to Parliament in 1945 and held office in Clement Attlee's governments, notably as Minister of Fuel and Power after the bitter winter of 1946–47, and eventually joining the Cabinet as Chancellor of the Exchequer. Gaitskell was elected Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for Leeds South in the Labour landslide victory of 1945.
Future prominent figures who entered Parliament included Harold Wilson, James Callaghan, Barbara Castle, Michael Foot and Hugh Gaitskell.

Rab Butler

R. A. ButlerR.A. ButlerButler
The perceived similarity in his outlook to that of his Conservative Party counterpart Rab Butler was dubbed "Butskellism", initially a satirical term, after an elision of their names, and was one aspect of the Post-war consensus through which the major parties largely agreed on the main points of domestic and foreign policy until the 1970s.
He was one of his party's leaders in promoting the post-war consensus through which the major parties largely agreed on the main points of domestic policy until the 1970s, sometimes known as "Butskellism" from an elision of his name with that of his Labour counterpart Hugh Gaitskell.

1959 United Kingdom general election

19591959 general election1959 election
Against a backdrop of a booming economy he led Labour to its third successive defeat at the 1959 general election.
For the second time in a row, the Conservatives increased their overall majority in Parliament, to 101 seats over the Labour Party led by Hugh Gaitskell.

Gaitskellism

GaitskelliteGaitskellitesgeneral supporter
His revisionist views on the right-wing of the Labour Party, were sometimes called Gaitskellism.
The movement was led by Hugh Gaitskell and included Anthony Crosland, Roy Jenkins, Douglas Jay, and Patrick Gordon Walker and James Callaghan.

Clause IV

Clause FourClause 4Clause 4.4
In the late-1950s, in the teeth of opposition from the major trade unions, he attempted in vain to remove Clause IV of the Labour Party Constitution, which committed Labour to nationalisation of all the means of production.
The original clause, adopted in 1918, called for common ownership of industry, and proved controversial in later years, with Hugh Gaitskell attempting to remove the clause after Labour's loss in the 1959 General Election.

Harold Macmillan

MacmillanHarold Macmillan, 1st Earl of StocktonMacmillan Government
Despite this setback, Gaitskell reversed an attempt to adopt unilateral nuclear disarmament as Labour Party policy, and opposed Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's attempt to lead the UK into the European Common Market.
Macmillan saw himself as both a "gownsman" and a "swordsman" and would later display open contempt for other politicians (e.g. Rab Butler, Hugh Gaitskell, Harold Wilson) who, often through no fault of their own, had not seen military service in either World War.

Suez Crisis

SuezSinai War1956 Suez War
He opposed British military action at Suez in 1956.
Ironically, in the buildup to the crisis, it was the Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell and the left-leaning tabloid newspaper The Mirror that first made the comparison between Nasser and Mussolini.

Philosophy, politics and economics

PPEphilosophy, politics, and economicspolitics, philosophy and economics
He graduated with a first-class degree in Philosophy, Politics and Economics in 1927.
This particular course has produced a significant number of notable graduates such as Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese politician, State Counsellor of Myanmar, Nobel Peace Prize winner; Christopher Hitchens, the British–American author, polemicist, debater, and journalist; Philippa Foot a British philosopher; Harold Wilson, Edward Heath and David Cameron, former Prime Ministers of the United Kingdom; Hugh Gaitskell, William Hague and Ed Miliband, former Leaders of the Opposition; former Prime Minister of Pakistan Benazir Bhutto and current Prime Minister of Pakistan Imran Khan, and Malcolm Fraser, Bob Hawke and Tony Abbott, former Prime Ministers of Australia.

Evan Durbin

Durbin
Gaitskell, unusually, supported the strikers and acted as a driver for people like his Oxford contemporary Evan Durbin and Cole's wife Margaret, who made speeches and delivered the trade union newspaper British Worker. In 1934 he joined the XYZ Club, a club for Labour financial experts (e.g. Hugh Dalton, of whom he became a protégé, Douglas Jay and Evan Durbin) and City people such as the economist Nicholas Davenport.
He befriended Hugh Gaitskell (later, leader of the Labour Party 1955–63) during the General Strike of 1926, when he undertook public speaking tasks on behalf of the strikers in and around Oxford, and Gaitskell acted as his driver.

Dora Gaitskell, Baroness Gaitskell

Anna Dora GaitskellBaroness (Dora) GaitskellDora Gaitskell
By the mid-1930s Gaitskell had formed a close relationship with a married woman, Mrs. Dora Frost (née Creditor), who came out to join him in Vienna for the latter part of his stay there.
Anna Dora Gaitskell, Baroness Gaitskell (née Creditor; 25 April 1901 – 1 July 1989) was a British Labour Party politician and wife of Hugh Gaitskell, leader of the Labour Party 1955–63.

Harold Wilson

Wilsonwhite heat of technologySir Harold Wilson
The job had initially been earmarked for Harold Wilson, with Gaitskell pencilled in to succeed Wilson as Parliamentary Under-Secretary at the Ministry of Works. Gaitskell soon emerged as the leader of the group, the others being Harold Wilson, President of the Board of Trade, and Douglas Jay, Economic Secretary to the Treasury.
Hugh Gaitskell, then Labour leader, died suddenly in 1963 and Wilson was elected leader.

Ann Fleming

Ann CharterisAnnAnn Geraldine Mary Charteris
Gaitskell had a number of affairs, including one in the mid 1950s with the socialite Ann Fleming, the wife of James Bond creator Ian Fleming.
She also had affairs with the Labour Party politicians Roy Jenkins and Hugh Gaitskell.

Post-war consensus

post war consensuspost-warpostwar consensus
The perceived similarity in his outlook to that of his Conservative Party counterpart Rab Butler was dubbed "Butskellism", initially a satirical term, after an elision of their names, and was one aspect of the Post-war consensus through which the major parties largely agreed on the main points of domestic and foreign policy until the 1970s.
"Butskellism" was a somewhat satirical term sometimes used in British politics to refer to this consensus, established in the 1950s and associated with the exercise of office as Chancellor of the Exchequer by Rab Butler of the Conservative Party and Hugh Gaitskell of the Labour Party.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
He was selected as Labour candidate for Chatham in autumn 1932.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer, Hugh Gaitskell, introduced charges for NHS dentures and spectacles, causing Bevan, along with Harold Wilson (then President of the Board of Trade), to resign over the dilution of the principle of free treatment on which the NHS had been established.

Leader of the Labour Party (UK)

Leader of the Labour PartyLeaderLabour leader
Hugh Todd Naylor Gaitskell (9 April 1906 – 18 January 1963) was a British politician and Leader of the Labour Party. With Labour in opposition from 1951, Gaitskell won bitter leadership battles with Bevan and his supporters to become the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition in 1955.

Clement Attlee

AttleeEarl AttleeAttlee government
An economics lecturer and wartime civil servant, he was elected to Parliament in 1945 and held office in Clement Attlee's governments, notably as Minister of Fuel and Power after the bitter winter of 1946–47, and eventually joining the Cabinet as Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Attlee's record for settling internal differences in the Labour Party fell in April 1951, when there was a damaging split over an austerity Budget brought in by the Chancellor, Hugh Gaitskell, to pay for the cost of Britain's participation in the Korean War.

Manny Shinwell

Emanuel ShinwellShinwellLord Shinwell
Gaitskell was given his first ministerial appointment in May 1946 as Parliamentary Under-Secretary for Fuel and Power, serving under Emmanuel "Manny" Shinwell.
The high defence spending which he demanded, partly to pay for Britain's involvement in the Korean War, was a major factor causing Chancellor of the Exchequer Hugh Gaitskell to impose NHS charges, prompting the resignation of Aneurin Bevan from the Cabinet.

Leeds South (UK Parliament constituency)

Leeds SouthLeeds, SouthLeeds South constituency
Gaitskell was elected Labour Member of Parliament (MP) for Leeds South in the Labour landslide victory of 1945.
It was the seat of the former Leader of the Labour Party, the late Hugh Gaitskell, and the former Home Secretary Merlyn Rees.

Aneurin Bevan

Nye BevanBevaniteBevan
Facing the need to increase military spending in 1951, he imposed National Health Service charges on dentures and spectacles, prompting the leading left-winger Aneurin Bevan to resign from the Cabinet.
Bevan was appointed Minister of Labour (during which he helped to secure a deal for railwaymen which provided them with a big pay increase) in 1951 but soon resigned in protest at Hugh Gaitskell's introduction of prescription charges for dental care and spectacles—created to meet the financial demands imposed by the Korean War.

Secretary of State for Economic Affairs

Department of Economic AffairsMinister for Economic AffairsMinister of State for Economic Affairs
In the ensuing reshuffle Gaitskell was appointed Minister for Economic Affairs, effectively Deputy Chancellor but still outside the Cabinet.
The office was revived for eight months in 1950 and held by Hugh Gaitskell and, after Conservative victory in 1951 election, Churchill also appointed a Minister of Economic Affairs, Arthur Salter, in the period 1951–52.

Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)

Leader of the OppositionOpposition LeaderLeader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition
With Labour in opposition from 1951, Gaitskell won bitter leadership battles with Bevan and his supporters to become the Leader of the Labour Party and Leader of the Opposition in 1955.

Hugh Dalton

DaltonEdward Hugh John Neale DaltonHugh Dalton, who was to become
In 1934 he joined the XYZ Club, a club for Labour financial experts (e.g. Hugh Dalton, of whom he became a protégé, Douglas Jay and Evan Durbin) and City people such as the economist Nicholas Davenport.
He became President of the Board of Trade in 1942; the future Labour leader Hugh Gaitskell, drafted into the civil service during the war, was his Principal Private Secretary.

Ernest Bevin

Bevin[Ernest] BevinBevin Avenue
Gaitskell and Wilson met with Attlee, Ernest Bevin and Cripps at Chequers on 19 August, and Bevin and Cripps agreed with some reluctance to devaluation.
He spoke with a strong West Country accent, so much so that on one occasion listeners at Cabinet had difficulty in deciding whether he was talking about "Hugh and Nye (Gaitskell and Bevan)" or "you and I". He had developed his oratorical skills from his time as a Baptist lay preacher, which he had given up as a profession to become a full-time labour activist.

Noel Frederick Hall

Noel Hall
Gaitskell moved to University College London in the early 1930s at the invitation of Noel Hall.
He taught at University College London (UCL) from 1927–38, where he recruited Hugh Gaitskell as an assistant lecturer.

Economic Secretary to the Treasury

Shadow Economic Secretary to the TreasuryShadow Economic SecretaryEconomic Secretary to HM Treasury
Gaitskell soon emerged as the leader of the group, the others being Harold Wilson, President of the Board of Trade, and Douglas Jay, Economic Secretary to the Treasury.