Huguenots

HuguenotFrench HuguenotHugenotFrench HuguenotsHugenotsFrench ProtestantsProtestantsProtestantFrench ProtestantFrench Hugenot
Huguenots (, also, ) were a religious group of French Protestants.wikipedia
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Louis XIV of France

Louis XIVKing Louis XIVKing Louis XIV of France
By 1600 it had declined to 7–8%, and was reduced further after the return of severe persecution in 1685 under Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau.
His revocation of the Edict of Nantes abolished the rights of the Huguenot Protestant minority and subjected them to a wave of dragonnades, effectively forcing Huguenots to emigrate or convert, and virtually destroying the French Protestant community.

St. Bartholomew's Day massacre

St Bartholomew's Day massacreMassacre of St. BartholomewSaint Bartholomew's Day Massacre
In his Encyclopedia of Protestantism, Hans Hillerbrand said that, on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572, the Huguenot community included as much as 10% of the French population.
The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre (Massacre de la Saint-Barthélemy) in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots (French Calvinist Protestants) during the French Wars of Religion.

French Wars of Religion

Wars of Religionreligious warsHuguenot Wars
A series of religious conflicts followed, known as the French Wars of Religion, fought intermittently from 1562 to 1598. The French Wars of Religion began with the Massacre of Vassy on 1 March 1562, when dozens (some sources say hundreds ) of Huguenots were killed, and about 200 were wounded.
The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598.

Huguenot rebellions

Huguenot rebellionSecond Huguenot Rebellion1622 revolt
Huguenot rebellions in the 1620s resulted in the abolition of their political and military privileges.
The Huguenot rebellions, sometimes called the Rohan Wars after the Huguenot leader Henri de Rohan, were an event of the 1620s in which French Calvinist Protestants (Huguenots), mainly located in southwestern France, revolted against royal authority.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
Huguenots (, also, ) were a religious group of French Protestants.
French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed (réformé), which became a popular, neutral, and alternative name for Calvinists.

Henry IV of France

Henry IVHenri IVHenry of Navarre
The Huguenots were led by Jeanne d'Albret, her son, the future Henry IV (who would later convert to Catholicism in order to become king), and the princes of Condé.
As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre.

Persecution of Huguenots under Louis XV

continued persecution under Louis XVpersecutions of Protestants in France
The remaining Huguenots faced continued persecution under Louis XV.
The members of the Protestant religion in France, the Huguenots, had been granted substantial religious, political and military freedom by Henry IV in his Edict of Nantes.

Kingdom of France

FranceFrenchFranco
The Huguenots were believed to be concentrated among the population in the southern and western parts of the Kingdom of France.
Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion (1562–1598).

Dragonnades

dragonnadebrutalityusing troops to force these conversions
This ended legal recognition of Protestantism in France and the Huguenots were forced either to convert to Catholicism (possibly as Nicodemites) or flee as refugees; they were subject to violent dragonnades.
The Dragonnades were a French government policy instituted by King Louis XIV in 1681 to intimidate Huguenot families into either leaving France or converting to Catholicism.

Edict of Nantes

Revocation of the Edict of NantesEdit de Nantesconcession
The wars ended with the Edict of Nantes, which granted the Huguenots substantial religious, political and military autonomy.
The Edict of Nantes (French: édit de Nantes), signed in April 1598 by King Henry IV of France, granted the Calvinist Protestants of France (also known as Huguenots) substantial rights in the nation, which was still considered essentially Catholic at the time.

Jeanne d'Albret

Jeanne III of NavarreJeanne IIIJoan III of Navarre
The Huguenots were led by Jeanne d'Albret, her son, the future Henry IV (who would later convert to Catholicism in order to become king), and the princes of Condé.
Jeanne was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement, and a key figure in the French Wars of Religion.

Amboise conspiracy

Conspiracy of AmboiseTumult of AmboiseAmboise
The label Huguenot was purportedly first applied in France to those conspirators (all of them aristocratic members of the Reformed Church) who were involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to wrest power in France from the influential and zealously Catholic House of Guise.
The Amboise conspiracy, also called Tumult of Amboise, was a failed attempt by Huguenots in 1560 to gain power over France by abducting the young king Francis II and arresting Francis, Duke of Guise and his brother, the Cardinal of Lorraine.

Anti-Protestantism

anti-ProtestantProtestant Christiansvarious restrictions against Protestants
By 1600 it had declined to 7–8%, and was reduced further after the return of severe persecution in 1685 under Louis XIV's Edict of Fontainebleau.
However, the tolerance stopped after the Thirty Years' War in Germany, the persecution of Huguenots and the French Wars of Religion in France, the change in power between Protestant and Roman Catholic rulers after the death of Henry VIII of England in England, and the launch of the Counter-Reformation in Italy, Spain, Habsburg Austria and Poland-Lithuania.

Alsace

AlsatianAlsatiansElsass
By contrast, the Protestant populations of eastern France, in Alsace, Moselle, and Montbéliard were mainly German Lutherans.
The 1685 Edict of Fontainebleau, by which the French king ordered the suppression of French Protestantism, was not applied in Alsace.

Huguenot cross

The Huguenot cross is the distinctive emblem of the Huguenots (croix huguenote).
The Huguenot cross is a Christian religious symbol originating in France and is one of the more recognisable and popular symbols of the evangelical reformed faith.

Catholic League (French)

Catholic LeagueLeagueCatholic League of France
The label Huguenot was purportedly first applied in France to those conspirators (all of them aristocratic members of the Reformed Church) who were involved in the Amboise plot of 1560: a foiled attempt to wrest power in France from the influential and zealously Catholic House of Guise.
Formed by Henry I, Duke of Guise, in 1576, the League intended the eradication of Protestants—mainly Calvinists or Huguenots—out of Catholic France during the Protestant Reformation, as well as the replacement of King Henry III.

French people

FrenchFrenchmanFrenchmen
Huguenots (, also, ) were a religious group of French Protestants.
Unlike elsewhere in Europe, France experienced relatively low levels of emigration to the Americas, with the exception of the Huguenots, due to a lower birthrate than in the rest of Europe.

Montpellier

Montpellier, FranceMontpelierMontpellier, Hérault
In the south, towns like Castres, Montauban, Montpellier and Nimes were Huguenot strongholds.
At the time of the Reformation in the 16th century, many of the inhabitants of Montpellier became Protestants (or Huguenots as they were known in France) and the city became a stronghold of Protestant resistance to the Catholic French crown.

Louis XVI of France

Louis XVIKing Louis XVIKing Louis XVI of France
Persecution of Protestants officially ended with the Edict of Versailles, signed by Louis XVI in 1787.
Granting non-Roman Catholics – Huguenots and Lutherans, as well as Jews – civil and legal status in France and the legal right to practice their faiths, this edict effectively nullified the Edict of Fontainebleau that had been law for 102 years.

Protestantism in France

French ProtestantProtestantProtestantism
This ended legal recognition of Protestantism in France and the Huguenots were forced either to convert to Catholicism (possibly as Nicodemites) or flee as refugees; they were subject to violent dragonnades.
Hans J. Hillerbrand in his Encyclopedia of Protestantism claims the Huguenots reached as much as 10% of the French population on the eve of the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre, declining to 7-8% by the end of the 16th century, and further after heavy persecution began once again with the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV of France.

French Revolution

RevolutionRevolutionary FranceRevolutionary
Two years later, with the Revolutionary Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen of 1789, Protestants gained equal rights as citizens.
Historians Lynn Hunt and Jack Censer argue that some French Protestants, the Huguenots, wanted an anti-Catholic regime, and that Enlightenment thinkers such as Voltaire helped fuel this resentment.

Dutch Cape Colony

Cape ColonyGovernor of the Cape ColonyCape of Good Hope
Some fled as refugees to the Dutch Cape Colony in South Africa, the Dutch East Indies, the Caribbean colonies, and several of the Dutch and English colonies in North America.
After King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes (October 1685), which had protected the right of Huguenots in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state, the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who eventually mixed with the general Vryburgher population.

Massacre of Wassy

Massacre of Vassymassacre at Vassymassacre at Wassy
The French Wars of Religion began with the Massacre of Vassy on 1 March 1562, when dozens (some sources say hundreds ) of Huguenots were killed, and about 200 were wounded.
The Massacre of Wassy, also known as the Massacre of Vassy, is the name given to the murder of Huguenot worshippers and citizens in an armed action by troops of Francis, Duke of Guise, in Wassy, France on 1 March 1562.

Henry II of France

Henry IIHenri IIKing Henry II
Following the accidental death of Henry II in 1559, his son succeeded as King Francis II along with his wife, the Queen Consort, also known as Mary, Queen of Scots.
He persevered in the Italian Wars against the House of Habsburg and tried to suppress the Protestant Reformation, even as the Huguenot numbers were increasing drastically in France during his reign.

La Rochelle

La Rochelle, FranceRochelleCouncil of La Rochelle
Huguenots lived on the Atlantic coast in La Rochelle, and also spread across provinces of Normandy and Poitou.
From 1568, La Rochelle became a centre for the Huguenots, and the city declared itself an independent Reformed Republic on the model of Geneva.