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Pan (genus)

PanchimpanzeePanini
Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies. The closest living relatives of humans are chimpanzees (genus Pan) and gorillas (genus Gorilla). With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas (genus Gorilla) followed by the chimpanzees (genus Pan). The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4–8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch.
Taxonomically, the members of the chimpanzee and bonobo subtribe Panina (composed entirely of the genus Pan) are collectively termed panins, but sometimes both species are referred to collectively using the generalized term chimpanzees, or chimps. Together with humans, gorillas, and orangutans they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids).

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a relatively larger brain with a particularly well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable high levels of abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumanmodern humans
Humans (Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
In taxonomy, Homo sapiens is the only extant human species.

Family

familiesfamilialgrandson
Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states.
In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family") or some combination of these.

Clothing

apparelgarmentclothes
Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal, are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, and are the only extant species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts.
The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies.

Anthropology

anthropologistanthropologicalanthropologists
Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena (or events) has provided the foundation for developing science, philosophy, mythology, religion, anthropology, and numerous other fields of knowledge.
Anthropology is the study of humans and human behavior and societies in the past and present.

Hunter-gatherer

hunter-gatherershunting and gatheringhunter gatherer
Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies, increasing numbers of human societies began to practice sedentary agriculture approximately some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus allowing for the growth of civilization.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals).

Man (word)

manmaðrmen
The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex (though this latter form is less common in contemporary English).
The term "man" (from Proto-Germanic *mannaz or *manwaz "man, person") and words derived from it can designate any or even all of the human race regardless of their sex or age.

Encephalization quotient

encephalizationencephalisation quotientencephalisation
Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a relatively larger brain with a particularly well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable high levels of abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning.

Chromosome 2

2human chromosome 2chromosomes, human, pair 2
During this split, chromosome 2 was formed from two other chromosomes, leaving humans with only 23 pairs of chromosomes, compared to 24 for the other apes.
Chromosome 2 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in humans.

Primate

primatesnon-human primatesnon-human primate
The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids (great apes) branch of the primates.
(The colloquial names ending in "-nosed" actually refer to the rhinarium of the primate.) The second is haplorhines - the "dry-nosed" primates (from Greek "simple-nosed") - tarsiers, monkeys, and apes, the latter including humans.

Human behavior

human behaviourhuman activitybehavior
Human evolution is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.
Human behavior is the response of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.

Whole genome sequencing

genome sequencingsequencedfull genome sequencing
The closest living relatives of humans are chimpanzees (genus Pan) and gorillas (genus Gorilla). With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%.
As of 2017 there were no complete genomes for any mammals, including humans.

Gorilla

gorillassilverbacksilverback gorilla
Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies. The closest living relatives of humans are chimpanzees (genus Pan) and gorillas (genus Gorilla). With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas (genus Gorilla) followed by the chimpanzees (genus Pan). The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4–8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch.
The DNA of gorillas is highly similar to that of humans, from 95 to 99% depending on what is included, and they are the next closest living relatives to humans after the species of Pan; the chimpanzees and bonobos.

Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor

chimpanzee-human last common ancestorcommon ancestorchimpanzee–human divergence
Human evolution is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.
The chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, or CHLCA, is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee and bonobo) genera of Hominini.

Development of the nervous system

brain developmentneural developmentneurodevelopment
The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans.
Defects in neural development can lead to malformations and a wide variety of sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments, including holoprosencephaly and other neurological disorders in the human such as Rett syndrome, Down syndrome and intellectual disability.

Systema Naturae

1758Systema Naturæ1789
The species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae.
For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates, as Anthropomorpha.

Concealed ovulation

hidden estrusconceal ovulation
Another important physiological change related to sexuality in humans was the evolution of hidden estrus.
In contrast, the females of humans and a few other species that undergo hidden estrus have few external signs of fecundity, making it difficult for a mate to consciously deduce, by means of external signs only, whether or not a female is near ovulation.

World population

human populationworld's populationglobal population
The spread of the large and increasing population of humans has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.7 billion people as of November 2018.

Australopithecine

australopithecinesAustralopithecinaAustralophithecines
Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo.
All these related species are now sometimes collectively classified as a subtribe of the Hominini tribe called Australopithecina. They are the extinct, close relatives of humans and, with the extant genus Homo, comprise the human clade.

Gibbon

gibbonsHylobatidaelesser apes
The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas (genus Gorilla) followed by the chimpanzees (genus Pan). The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4–8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch.
Also called the smaller apes or lesser apes, gibbons differ from great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, and humans) in being smaller, exhibiting low sexual dimorphism, and not making nests.

Adult

adulthoodadultsMature
An adult human body consists of about 100 trillion (10 14 ) cells.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

Neontology

extantlivingextant species
Humans (Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
We are paleontologists, so we need a name to contrast ourselves with all you folks who study modern organisms in human or ecological time.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrine organendocrinological
The most commonly defined body systems in humans are the nervous, the cardiovascular, the circulatory, the digestive, the endocrine, the immune, the integumentary, the lymphatic, the musculoskeletal, the reproductive, the respiratory, and the urinary system.
In humans, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands.

Development of the human body

growthdevelopmentalhuman development
Human evolution is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.
In biological terms, human development entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being.