A report on Human

Reconstruction of Lucy, the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton found
Overview map of the peopling of the world by early human migration during the Upper Paleolithic, following to the Southern Dispersal paradigm.
Routes taken by barbarian invaders of the Roman Empire during the Migration Period
Humans and their domesticated animals represent 96% of all mammalian biomass on earth, whereas all wild mammals represent only 4%.
Basic anatomical features of female and male humans. These models have had body hair and male facial hair removed and head hair trimmed. The female model is wearing red nail polish on her toenails and a ring.
A graphical representation of the standard human karyotype, including both the male (XY) and female (XX) sex chromosomes.
A 10 mm human embryo at 5 weeks
Humans living in Bali, Indonesia, preparing a meal.
Changes in the number and order of genes (A-D) create genetic diversity within and between population
A Libyan, a Nubian, a Syrian, and an Egyptian, drawing by an unknown artist after a mural of the tomb of Seti I.
Drawing of the human brain, showing several important structures
Illustration of grief from Charles Darwin's 1872 book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Parents can display familial love for their children
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian
The SCMaglev, the fastest train in the world clocking in at 375 mph as of 2015
Shango, the Orisha of fire, lightning, and thunder, in the Yoruba religion, depicted on horseback
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. China circa 700.
Humans often live in family-based social structures.
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City, which houses one of the world's largest political organizations
The Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue)

Humans (Homo sapiens) are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism and large, complex brains.

- Human

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Overall

Homo

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Evolutionary tree chart emphasizing the subfamily Homininae and the tribe Hominini. After diverging from the line to Ponginae the early Homininae split into the tribes Hominini and Gorillini. The early Hominini split further, separating the line to Homo from the lineage of Pan. Currently, tribe Hominini designates the subtribes Hominina, containing genus Homo; Panina, genus Pan; and Australopithecina, with several extinct genera—the subtribes are not labelled on this chart.
A model of the evolution of the genus Homo over the last 2 million years (vertical axis). The rapid "Out of Africa" expansion of H. sapiens is indicated at the top of the diagram, with admixture indicated with Neanderthals, Denisovans, and unspecified archaic African hominins. Late survival of robust australopithecines (Paranthropus) alongside Homo until 1.2 Mya is indicated in purple.
Successive dispersals of Homo erectus (yellow), Homo neanderthalensis (ochre) and  Homo sapiens (red).

Homo is the genus that emerged in the (otherwise extinct) genus Australopithecus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on the species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.

A 1927 drawing of chimpanzees, a gibbon (top right) and two orangutans (center and bottom center): The chimpanzee in the upper left is brachiating; the orangutan at the bottom center is knuckle-walking.

Primate

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Primates are a diverse order of mammals.

Primates are a diverse order of mammals.

A 1927 drawing of chimpanzees, a gibbon (top right) and two orangutans (center and bottom center): The chimpanzee in the upper left is brachiating; the orangutan at the bottom center is knuckle-walking.
Homo sapiens is the only living primate species that is fully bipedal.
Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii), an Old World monkey
Common brown lemur, a Strepsirrhine primate
Emperor tamarin, a New World monkey
Primate skulls showing postorbital bar, and increasing brain sizes
An 1893 drawing of the hands and feet of various primates
Vervet hindfoot showing fingerprint ridges on the sole
Distinct sexual size dimorphism can be seen between the male and female mountain gorilla.
Diademed sifaka, a lemur that is a vertical clinger and leaper
The tapetum lucidum of a northern greater galago, typical of prosimians, reflects the light of the photographer's flash
A social huddle of ring-tailed lemurs. The two individuals on the right exposing their white ventral surface are sunning themselves.
Chimpanzees are social great apes.
A crab-eating macaque breastfeeding her baby
Leaf eating mantled guereza, a species of black-and-white colobus
A mouse lemur holds a cut piece of fruit in its hands and eats
Humans have traditionally hunted prey for subsistence.
A western lowland gorilla using a stick possibly to gauge the depth of water
Crab-eating macaques with stone tools
Rhesus macaque at Agra Fort, India
Slow lorises are popular in the exotic pet trade, which threatens wild populations.
Sam, a rhesus macaque, was flown into space by NASA in 1959.
Humans are known to hunt other primates for food, so-called bushmeat. Pictured are two men who have killed a number of silky sifaka and white-headed brown lemurs.
The critically endangered silky sifaka
The critically endangered Sumatran orangutan

They are divided into the strepsirrhines, which include the lemurs, galagos, and lorisids, and the haplorhines, which include the tarsiers and the simians (monkeys, apes and humans).

Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the Congo Basin in August 2014

Hunter-gatherer

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Pygmy hunter-gatherers in the Congo Basin in August 2014
Hunter-gatherers (yellow) 4,000 years ago.
A global map illustrating the decline of foraging/fishing/hunting/gathering around the world.
A San man from Namibia. Many San still live as hunter-gatherers.
Mbendjele meat sharing
A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment.
Savanna Pumé couple on a hunting and gathering trip in the llanos of Venezuela. The man carries a bow, three steel-tipped arrows, and a hat that resembles the head of a jabiru stork as camouflage to approach near enough to deer for a shot. The woman carries a steel-tipped digging stick and a carrying basket for collecting wild tubers.
A Shoshone encampment in the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, photographed by Percy Jackson, 1870
Three Aboriginal Australians on Bathurst Island in 1939. According to Peterson (1998), the island population was isolated for 6,000 years until the 18th century. In 1929, three-quarters of the population supported themselves on bush tucker.
Negritos (Negrillos) in the Philippines, 1595.

A hunter-gatherer is a human living a lifestyle in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (gathering edible wild plants) and hunting (pursuing and killing of wild animals, including catching fish), in the same way that most natural omnivores do.

100 to 80 thousand year old Skhul V from Israel

Early modern human

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100 to 80 thousand year old Skhul V from Israel
Schematic representation of the emergence of H. sapiens from earlier species of Homo. The horizontal axis represents geographic location; the vertical axis represents time in millions of years ago (blue areas denote the presence of a certain species of Homo at a given time and place; late survival of robust australopithecines alongside Homo is indicated in purple). Based on Springer (2012), Homo heidelbergensis is shown as diverging into Neanderthals, Denisovans and H. sapiens. With the rapid expansion of H. sapiens after 60 kya, Neanderthals, Denisovans and unspecified archaic African hominins are shown as again subsumed into the H. sapiens lineage.
A model of the phylogeny of H. sapiens during the Middle Paleolithic. The horizontal axis represents geographic location; the vertical axis represents time in thousands of years ago. Neanderthals, Denisovans and unspecified archaic African hominins are shown as admixed into the H. sapiens lineage. In addition, prehistoric Archaic Human and Eurasian admixture events in modern African populations are indicated.
Overview map of the peopling of the world by anatomically modern humans (numbers indicate dates in thousands of years ago [ka])
Layer sequence at Ksar Akil in the Levantine corridor, and discovery of two fossils of Homo sapiens, dated to 40,800 to 39,200 years BP for "Egbert", and 42,400–41,700 BP for "Ethelruda".
Known archaeological remains of anatomically modern humans in Europe and Africa, directly dated, calibrated carbon dates as of 2013.
Anatomical comparison of skulls of H. sapiens (left) and H. neanderthalensis (right)
(in Cleveland Museum of Natural History)
Features compared are the braincase shape, forehead, browridge, nasal bone, projection, cheek bone angulation, chin and occipital contour
Lithic Industries of early Homo sapiens at Blombos Cave (M3 phase, MIS 5), Southern Cape, South Africa (c. 105,000 – 90,000 years old)
Bifacial silcrete point of early Homo sapiens, from M1 phase (71,000 BCE) layer of Blombos Cave, South Africa
Claimed "oldest known drawing by human hands", discovered in Blombos Cave in South Africa. Estimated to be a 73,000-year-old work of a Homo sapiens.

Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH) are terms used to distinguish Homo sapiens (the only extant Hominina species) that are anatomically consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from extinct archaic human species.

Chimpanzee

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Species of great ape native to the forest and savannah of tropical Africa.

Species of great ape native to the forest and savannah of tropical Africa.

Relationships among apes. The branch lengths are a measure of evolutionary distinctness. Based on genome sequencing by The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. Figure from Yousaf et al. 2021, adapted from Prado-Martinez et al. 2013.
Two juvenile central chimpanzees, the subspecies Pan troglodytes troglodytes
Skeleton
Overnight nest in a tree
A mother with young eating Ficus fruit in Kibale National Park, Uganda
Chimpanzee named "Gregoire" on 9 December 2006, born in 1944 (Jane Goodall sanctuary of Tchimpounga, Republic of the Congo)
The chimpanzee louse Pediculus schaeffi is closely related to the human body louse P. humanus.
Group in Uganda
Mutual grooming, removing lice
Males in Mahale National Park, Tanzania
Infant and mother
Adult male eastern chimpanzee snatches a dead bushbuck antelope from a baboon in Gombe Stream National Park
Human and chimpanzee skull and brain. Diagram by Paul Gervais from Histoire naturelle des mammifères (1854)
Hugo Rheinhold's Affe mit Schädel ("Ape with skull"), c. 1893
Chimpanzee mask, Gio tribe, Liberia
Poster for the 1931 film Aping Hollywood. Media like this relied on the novelty of performing apes to carry their gags.
Ham, the first great ape in space, before being inserted into his Mercury-Redstone 2 capsule on 31 January 1961
Feeding station at Gombe, where Jane Goodall used to feed and observe the chimpanzees
Cameroonian chimpanzee at a rescue centre after its mother was killed by poachers

Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows that Pan is a sister taxon to the human lineage and is humans' closest living relative.

Successive dispersals of
 Homo erectus greatest extent (yellow),
 Homo neanderthalensis greatest extent (ochre) and
 Homo sapiens (red).

Recent African origin of modern humans

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Successive dispersals of
 Homo erectus greatest extent (yellow),
 Homo neanderthalensis greatest extent (ochre) and
 Homo sapiens (red).
Expansion of early modern humans from Africa through the Near East
Layer sequence at Ksar Akil in the Levantine corridor, and discovery of two fossils of Homo sapiens, dated to 40,800 to 39,200 years BP for "Egbert", and 42,400–41,700 BP for "Ethelruda".
Anatomically Modern Humans known archaeological remains in Europe and Africa, directly dated, calibrated carbon dates as of 2013.
Red Sea crossing
PCA calculated on present-day and ancient individuals from eastern Eurasia and Oceania. PC1 (23,8%) distinguish East-Eurasians and Australo-Melanesians, while PC2 (6,3%) differentiates East-Eurasians along a North to South cline.
Principal component analysis (PCA) of ancient and modern day individuals from worldwide populations. Oceanians (Aboriginal Australians and Papuans) are most differentiated from both East-Eurasians and West-Eurasians.
Map of early diversification of modern humans according to mitochondrial population genetics (see: Haplogroup L).
The frontispiece to Huxley's Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863): the image compares the skeleton of a human to other apes.
The possibility of an origin of L3 in Asia was proposed by Cabrera et al. (2018). 
a: Exit of the L3 precursor to Eurasia. b: Return to Africa and expansion to Asia of basal L3 lineages with subsequent differentiation in both continents.
Map of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups - Dominant haplogroups in pre-colonial populations with proposed migrations routes

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).

Hominini

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The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").

The taxonomic classification of hominoids
Model of the phylogeny of Hominini over the past 10 million years.

Since Gray's classification, evidence has accumulated from genetic phylogeny confirming that humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas are more closely related to each other than to the orangutan.

Denisova 4, a molar

Denisovan

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Extinct species or subspecies of archaic human that ranged across Asia during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

Extinct species or subspecies of archaic human that ranged across Asia during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic.

Denisova 4, a molar
The Denisova Cave, where the first reported Denisovans were found
The evolution and geographic spread of Denisovans as compared with Neanderthals, Homo heidelbergensis and Homo erectus
Denisovans appear to have crossed the Wallace Line.
A model of the evolution of the genus Homo over the last 2 million years (vertical axis)

Denisovans may represent a new species of Homo or archaic subspecies of Homo sapiens (modern humans), but they are known from too few fossils to erect a proper taxon.

Homo erectus

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Extinct species of archaic human from the Pleistocene, with its earliest occurrence about 2 million years ago.

Extinct species of archaic human from the Pleistocene, with its earliest occurrence about 2 million years ago.

Java Man at Naturalis
Map of the distribution of Middle Pleistocene (Acheulean) cleaver finds
Dmanisi skull 3 (fossils skull D2700 and jaw D2735, two of several found in Dmanisi in the Georgian Transcaucasus)
Skull of H. e. pekinensis showing a flat face, pronounced brow ridge, and a sagittal keel
Skeleton and reconstruction of Turkana boy by Mauricio Antón
Female attributes of Homo erectus as described by sexual dimorphism
Front view of the Mojokerto child skull
Cross sections of Chinese H. erectus humeri (upper arm bones) showing extremely thickened cortical bone
Diagram of fossil trackways from 2 sites near Ileret, Kenya
H. erectus ate primarily large game, such as the straight-tusked elephant (above)
Reconstruction of a Terra Amata dwelling
Reconstruction of Turkana boy with light clothing by Adrie and Alfons Kennis at the Neanderthal Museum
Skull of a toothless H. e. georgicus
Homo erectus KNM ER 3733 actual skull
Homo erectus tautavelensis skull.
Replica of lower jaws of Homo erectus from Tautavel, France.
Calvaria "Sangiran II" original, collection Koenigswald, Senckenberg Museum.
A reconstruction based on evidence from the Daka Member, Ethiopia
Original fossils of Pithecanthropus erectus (now Homo erectus) found in Java in 1891.

Several human species, such as H. heidelbergensis and H. antecessor, with the former generally considered to have been the ancestor to Neanderthals, Denisovans, and modern humans, appear to have emerged within the possibly Asian populations of H. erectus.

Orangutan

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Orangutans are great apes native to the rainforests of Indonesia and Malaysia.

Orangutans are great apes native to the rainforests of Indonesia and Malaysia.

Sketch of "The Man of the Woods" by George Edwards, 1758
Flanged male Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutans
Fossil skull of Sivapithecus sivalensis, an extinct relative of orangutan
Adult male (left) and female Tapanuli orangutans
Skeleton of subadult Bornean orangutan
Although orangutans may consume leaves, shoots, and bird eggs, fruit is the most important part of their diet.
Orangutans are the least social of the great apes.
Mother orangutan with young
An orangutan lying in its nest
An orangutan at the San Diego Zoo using a tool to extract orange-juice concentrate
Orangutan researcher Birutė Galdikas presenting her book about the apes
1870 illustration for "The Murders in the Rue Morgue" by Daniel Vierge
The Female Orang – Utan (Jenny sitting in a chair) c. 1830s
Deforestation for palm oil production in Indonesia
Zoologische Gesellschaft Frankfurt Programm Director Peter Pratje works with orangutans in Bukit Tigapuluh, Indonesia.
Mother orangutan with young

The orangutans are the only surviving species of the subfamily Ponginae, which diverged genetically from the other hominids (gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans) between 19.3 and 15.7 million years ago.