Human

humanshuman beinghuman beingshumanityhuman racehumankindHomo sapiensmankindmanmortal
Humans (Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.wikipedia
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Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; a language is any specific example of such a system.

Pan (genus)

PanchimpanzeePanini
Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids (great apes) branch of the primates. The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas (genus Gorilla) followed by the chimpanzees (genus Pan).
Together with humans, gorillas, and orangutans they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids).

Animal

Animaliaanimalsmetazoa
A terrestrial animal, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies.
The kingdom Animalia includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal often refers only to non-human animals.

Family

familiesgrandsonfamilial
Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to political states.
In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family") or some combination of these.

Clothing

apparelgarmentclothes
Humans use tools more frequently and effectively than any other animal: they are the only extant species to build fires, cook food, clothe themselves, and create and use numerous other technologies and arts.
The wearing of clothing is mostly restricted to human beings and is a feature of all human societies.

Hunter-gatherer

hunter-gatherershunting and gatheringhunter gatherer
Though most of human existence has been sustained by hunting and gathering in band societies, many human societies transitioned to sedentary agriculture approximately some 10,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals, thus enabling the growth of civilization. Until about 12,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, generally in small nomadic groups known as band societies, often in caves.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals).

Homo sapiens

anatomically modern humanshumananatomically modern human
Humans (Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Homo sapiens is the only extant human species.

Encephalization quotient

encephalizationencephalisation quotientbrain to body mass ratio
Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning.

Man (word)

manmaðrmen
The native English term man can refer to the species generally (a synonym for humanity) as well as to human males, or individuals of either sex (though this latter form is less common in contemporary English).
The term man (from Proto-Germanic *mannaz or *manwaz "man, person") and words derived from it can designate any or even all of the human race regardless of their sex or age.

Chromosome 2

2human chromosome 2Chromosome 2 (human)
During this split, chromosome 2 was formed from two other chromosomes, leaving humans with only 23 pairs of chromosomes, compared to 24 for the other apes.
Chromosome 2 is one of the twenty-three pairs of chromosomes in humans.

Primate

primatesnon-human primatesnon-human primate
The genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids (great apes) branch of the primates.
The last of these groups includes humans.

Human behavior

human behaviourhuman activitybehavior
Human evolution is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.
Human behavior is the response of individuals or groups of humans to internal and external stimuli.

Whole genome sequencing

genome sequencingfull genome sequencingsequenced
With the sequencing of the human and chimpanzee genomes, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%.
As of 2017 there were no complete genomes for any mammals, including humans.

Gorilla

Silverback gorillagorillassilverback
Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas (genus Gorilla) followed by the chimpanzees (genus Pan).
The DNA of gorillas is highly similar to that of humans, from 95 to 99% depending on what is included, and they are the next closest living relatives to humans after the chimpanzees and bonobos.

Chimpanzee–human last common ancestor

chimpanzee-human last common ancestorcommon ancestorchimpanzee–human divergence
Human evolution is characterized by a number of morphological, developmental, physiological, and behavioral changes that have taken place since the split between the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees.
The chimpanzee–human last common ancestor, or CHLCA, is the last common ancestor shared by the extant Homo (human) and Pan (chimpanzee and bonobo) genera of Hominini.

Development of the nervous system

neural developmentbrain developmentneurodevelopment
The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans.
Defects in neural development can lead to malformations and a wide variety of sensory, motor, and cognitive impairments, including holoprosencephaly and other neurological disorders in the human such as Rett syndrome, Down syndrome and intellectual disability.

Society

societiessocialsocietal
Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together undergird human society.
The great apes have always been more (Bonobo, Homo, Pan) or less (Gorilla, Pongo) social animals, so Robinson Crusoe-like situations are either fictions or unusual corner cases to the ubiquity of social context for humans, who fall between presocial and eusocial in the spectrum of animal ethology.

Systema Naturae

1758Systema Naturæ1789
The species binomial "Homo sapiens" was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th-century work Systema Naturae.
For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates, as Anthropomorpha.

Holocene

PresentRecentHolocene epoch
Until about 12,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, generally in small nomadic groups known as band societies, often in caves.
The Holocene corresponds with rapid proliferation, growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all of its written history, technological revolutions, development of major civilizations, and overall significant transition towards urban living in the present.

World population

human populationglobal populationworld's population
The spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected much of the biosphere and millions of species worldwide.
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.7 billion people.

Concealed ovulation

hidden estrusconceal ovulation
Another important physiological change related to sexuality in humans was the evolution of hidden estrus.
In contrast, the females of humans and a few other species that undergo hidden estrus have few external signs of fecundity, making it difficult for a mate to consciously deduce, by means of external signs only, whether or not a female is near ovulation.

Neontology

extantlivingextant species
Humans (Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
We are paleontologists, so we need a name to contrast ourselves with all you folks who study modern organisms in human or ecological time.

Gibbon

Hylobatidaegibbonslesser apes
The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the line leading to the humans, then gorillas (genus Gorilla) followed by the chimpanzees (genus Pan).
Also called the lesser apes or smaller apes, gibbons differ from great apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, orangutans, and humans) in being smaller, exhibiting low sexual dimorphism, and not making nests.

Adult

adulthoodadultsmaturity
An adult human body consists of about 100 trillion (10 14 ) cells.
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity.

Endocrine system

endocrineendocrinologicalendocrine organ
The most commonly defined body systems in humans are the nervous, the cardiovascular, the circulatory, the digestive, the endocrine, the immune, the integumentary, the lymphatic, the musculoskeletal, the reproductive, the respiratory, and the urinary system.
In humans, the major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands.