Human–computer interaction

human-computer interactionhuman computer interactionHCIhuman-computer interfacehuman-machine interactionHuman-Computer Interaction (HCI)user interactioncomputer-human interactioninteractionhuman–computer interface
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.wikipedia
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Outline of human–computer interaction

List of human-computer interaction topicsTopics in human-computer interactionInteraction styles
As a field of research, human–computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science, behavioural sciences, design, media studies, and several other fields of study.
Human–computer interaction – the intersection of computer science and behavioral sciences, this field involves the study, planning, and design of the interaction between people (users) and computers.

Computer science

computer scientistcomputer sciencescomputer scientists
As a field of research, human–computer interaction is situated at the intersection of computer science, behavioural sciences, design, media studies, and several other fields of study.
Human–computer interaction considers the challenges in making computers useful, usable, and accessible.

Graphical user interface

GUIgraphicalgraphical interface
Desktop applications, internet browsers, handheld computers,ERP, and computer kiosks make use of the prevalent graphical user interfaces (GUI) of today.
The graphical user interface (GUI ) is a form of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and audio indicator such as primary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.

Stuart Card

Stuart K. CardStu Card
The term was popularized by Stuart K. Card, Allen Newell, and Thomas P. Moran in their seminal 1983 book, The Psychology of Human–Computer Interaction, although the authors first used the term in 1980 and the first known use was in 1975.
Stuart K. Card (born c. 1946), an American researcher and retired Senior Research Fellow at Xerox PARC, is considered to be one of the pioneers of applying human factors in human–computer interaction.

Embodied agent

Embodied conversational agentandroids and virtual embodied agentsconversational agents
Voice user interfaces (VUI) are used for speech recognition and synthesizing systems, and the emerging multi-modal and Graphical user interfaces (GUI) allow humans to engage with embodied character agents in a way that cannot be achieved with other interface paradigms.
Graphically embodied agents aim to unite gesture, facial expression and speech to enable face-to-face communication with users, providing a powerful means of human-computer interaction.

Computer graphics

graphicsCGCG artwork
"Because human–computer interaction studies a human and a machine in communication, it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side. On the machine side, techniques in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages, and development environments are relevant. On the human side, communication theory, graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and human factors such as computer user satisfaction are relevant. And, of course, engineering and design methods are relevant."
Further advances in computing led to greater advancements in interactive computer graphics.

Thomas P. Moran

The term was popularized by Stuart K. Card, Allen Newell, and Thomas P. Moran in their seminal 1983 book, The Psychology of Human–Computer Interaction, although the authors first used the term in 1980 and the first known use was in 1975.
He has been active in the field of human computer interaction for a very long time.

Three Mile Island accident

Three Mile IslandThree Mile Island nuclear accidentaccident at Three Mile Island
A classic example is the Three Mile Island accident, a nuclear meltdown accident, where investigations concluded that the design of the human-machine interface was at least partly responsible for the disaster.
The mechanical failures were compounded by the initial failure of plant operators to recognize the situation as a loss-of-coolant accident due to inadequate training and human factors, such as human-computer interaction design oversights relating to ambiguous control room indicators in the power plant's user interface.

User interface

UIinterfaceweb interface
Poorly designed human-machine interfaces can lead to many unexpected problems.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.

Interaction design

interaction designerdigital designinteraction designers
Various different strategies delineating methods for human–PC interaction design have developed since the ascent of the field during the 1980s.
Common topics of interaction design include design, human–computer interaction, and software development.

Human factors and ergonomics

ergonomicshuman factorsergonomic
"Because human–computer interaction studies a human and a machine in communication, it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side. On the machine side, techniques in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages, and development environments are relevant. On the human side, communication theory, graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and human factors such as computer user satisfaction are relevant. And, of course, engineering and design methods are relevant."
Specializations within the field of cognitive ergonomics may include usability, human–computer interaction, and user experience engineering.

Usability

user-friendlyease of useuser friendly
In human-computer interaction and computer science, usability studies the elegance and clarity with which the interaction with a computer program or a web site (web usability) is designed.

User experience

UXexperienceUser Experience (UX)
Present day models will in general center around a steady input and discussion between clients, creators, and specialists and push for specialized frameworks to be folded over the sorts of encounters clients need to have, as opposed to wrapping user experience around a finished framework.
It includes the practical, experiential, affective, meaningful and valuable aspects of human–computer interaction and product ownership.

Personal information management

PIMPersonal Information Management (PIM)personal data management
Personal information management (PIM) studies how people acquire and use personal information (computer based and other) to complete tasks.
PIM shares considerable, potentially synergistic overlap with disciplines such as cognitive science, human-computer interaction, information science, artificial intelligence, database management and information retrieval.

End-user development

End user developmentEnd-user programmingEnd User Programming
End-user development studies how ordinary users could routinely tailor applications to their own needs and to invent new applications based on their understanding of their own domains.
Various EUD approaches exist, and it is an active research topic within the field of computer science and human-computer interaction.

Computer user satisfaction

user satisfaction
"Because human–computer interaction studies a human and a machine in communication, it draws from supporting knowledge on both the machine and the human side. On the machine side, techniques in computer graphics, operating systems, programming languages, and development environments are relevant. On the human side, communication theory, graphic and industrial design disciplines, linguistics, social sciences, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and human factors such as computer user satisfaction are relevant. And, of course, engineering and design methods are relevant."
However, scholars distinguish between user satisfaction and usability as part of Human-Computer Interaction.

Eye tracking

eye trackereye-trackingeye trackers
The influence of emotions in human-computer interaction has been studied in fields such as financial decision making using ECG and organisational knowledge sharing using eye tracking and face readers as affect-detection channels.
Eye trackers are used in research on the visual system, in psychology, in psycholinguistics, marketing, as an input device for human-computer interaction, and in product design.

Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems

CHICHI (conference)Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI)
One of the main conferences for new research in human–computer interaction is the annually held Association for Computing Machinery's (ACM) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, usually referred to by its short name CHI (pronounced kai, or khai).
The ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI) series of academic conferences is generally considered the most prestigious in the field of human–computer interaction and is one of the top ranked conferences in computer science.

SIGCHI

ACM SIGCHIACMSIGCHI Social Impact Award
CHI is organized by ACM Special Interest Group on Computer–Human Interaction (SIGCHI).
The Special Interest Group on Computer–Human Interaction (SIGCHI) is one of the Association for Computing Machinery's special interest groups which is focused on human–computer interactions (HCI).

Human–robot interaction

human-robot interactionHuman robot interactionRobot-Human Interaction
Human–robot interaction is a multidisciplinary field with contributions from human–computer interaction, artificial intelligence, robotics, natural language understanding, design, and social sciences.

Ubiquitous computing

pervasive computingubiquitousPervasive
Ubiquitous computing touches on distributed computing, mobile computing, location computing, mobile networking, sensor networks, human–computer interaction, context-aware smart home technologies, and artificial intelligence.

ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology

UISTACM UISTACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST)
The ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (UIST) is an annual conference for technical innovations in human–computer interfaces.

Brain–computer interface

brain-computer interfacetechnopathybrain-computer interfaces
A brain–computer interface (BCI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
Next to active and reactive BCI that are used for directed control, passive BCIs allow for assessing and interpreting changes in the user state during Human-Computer Interaction (HCI).

Activity theory

ActivityActivity-oriented approachCultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT)
* Activity theory: utilized in HCI to characterize and consider the setting where human cooperations with PCs occur.
Some changes were introduced, apparently by importing notions from human–computer interaction theory.

Mindfulness and technology

In the field of Human-Computer Interaction, research is being done on Techno-spirituality — the study of how technology can facilitate feelings of awe, wonder, transcendence, and mindfulness and on Slow design, which facilitates self-reflection.