Human Genome Project

human genomeELSIsequencing of the human genomeHuman Genome Project (HGP)sequencingThe Human Genome Project2003complete sequence of the human genomedecodingDecoding the human genome
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.wikipedia
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Human genome

genomehuman DNAhuman geneticist
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
The first human genome sequences were published in nearly complete draft form in February 2001 by the Human Genome Project and Celera Corporation.

Francis Collins

Francis S. CollinsCollinsCollins, Francis
In 1993, Aristides Patrinos succeeded Galas and Francis Collins succeeded James Watson, assuming the role of overall Project Head as Director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Human Genome Research (which would later become the National Human Genome Research Institute).
Francis Sellers Collins (born April 14, 1950) is an American physician-geneticist who discovered the genes associated with a number of diseases and led the Human Genome Project.

Gene

genesnumber of genesgene sequence
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
An automated version of the Sanger method was used in early phases of the Human Genome Project.

James Watson

James D. WatsonWatsonJames Dewey Watson
In 1993, Aristides Patrinos succeeded Galas and Francis Collins succeeded James Watson, assuming the role of overall Project Head as Director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Human Genome Research (which would later become the National Human Genome Research Institute). At that time, David Galas was Director of the renamed “Office of Biological and Environmental Research” in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science and James Watson headed the NIH Genome Program.
Between 1988 and 1992, Watson was associated with the National Institutes of Health, helping to establish the Human Genome Project.

National Human Genome Research Institute

NHGRIHuman Genome Research InstituteHuman Genome Institute
In 1993, Aristides Patrinos succeeded Galas and Francis Collins succeeded James Watson, assuming the role of overall Project Head as Director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Human Genome Research (which would later become the National Human Genome Research Institute).
This Office transitioned to the National Center for Human Genome Research (NCHGR), in 1989 to carry out the role of the NIH in the International Human Genome Project (HGP).

National Institutes of Health

NIHNational Institute of HealthNational Institutes of Health (NIH)
In 1993, Aristides Patrinos succeeded Galas and Francis Collins succeeded James Watson, assuming the role of overall Project Head as Director of the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Center for Human Genome Research (which would later become the National Human Genome Research Institute). Funding came from the US government through the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as well as numerous other groups from around the world.
By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, and launched the Human Genome Project.

University of California, Santa Cruz

UC Santa CruzUniversity of California at Santa CruzUniversity of California Santa Cruz
In May 1985, Robert Sinsheimer organized a workshop at the University of California, Santa Cruz, to discuss sequencing the human genome, but for a number of reasons the NIH was uninterested in pursuing the proposal. This first available rough draft assembly of the genome was completed by the Genome Bioinformatics Group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, primarily led by then graduate student Jim Kent.
Baskin Engineering is home to several research centers, including the Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering and Cyberphysical Systems Research Center, which are gaining recognition, as has the work that UCSC researchers David Haussler and Jim Kent have done on the Human Genome Project, including the widely used UCSC Genome Browser.

Chromosome 1

1first chromosomehuman chromosome 1
In May 2006, another milestone was passed on the way to completion of the project, when the sequence of the last chromosome was published in Nature.
It was the last completed chromosome, sequenced two decades after the beginning of the Human Genome Project.

United States Department of Energy

Department of EnergyU.S. Department of EnergyUS Department of Energy
It also directs research in genomics; the Human Genome Project originated in a DOE initiative.

Genome project

genome projectssequencedgenome annotation
This first available rough draft assembly of the genome was completed by the Genome Bioinformatics Group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, primarily led by then graduate student Jim Kent.
The Human Genome Project was a landmark genome project that is already having a major impact on research across the life sciences, with potential for spurring numerous medical and commercial developments.

Reference genome

reference assemblyGenome referenceHuman reference genome
The Human Genome Project originally aimed to map the nucleotides contained in a human haploid reference genome (more than three billion).
Reference genomes are typically used as a guide on which new genomes are built, enabling them to be assembled much more quickly and cheaply than the initial Human Genome Project.

Genome

genomesgenetic materialgenomic
Ongoing sequencing led to the announcement of the essentially complete genome on April 14, 2003, two years earlier than planned.
The Human Genome Project was organized to map and to sequence the human genome.

Applied Biosystems

ABIApplied Biosystems, Inc.PE Biosystems
Through the 1980s and early 1990s, Applied Biosystems, Inc. operated independently and manufactured biochemicals and automated genetic engineering and diagnostic research instruments, including the principal brand of DNA sequencing machine used by the Human Genome Project consortium centers.

Genomics

genomicgenome biologygenomic analysis
Due to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of genomics (especially in sequence analysis), as well as major advances in computing technology, a 'rough draft' of the genome was finished in 2000 (announced jointly by U.S. President Bill Clinton and the British Prime Minister Tony Blair on June 26, 2000).
A rough draft of the human genome was completed by the Human Genome Project in early 2001, creating much fanfare.

Renato Dulbecco

DulbeccoDulbecco, Renato
At the same time Renato Dulbecco proposed whole genome sequencing in an essay in Science.
In 1986 he was among the scientists who launched the Human Genome Project.

Celera Corporation

Celera GenomicsCeleraCelera Diagnostics
A parallel project was conducted outside the government by the Celera Corporation, or Celera Genomics, which was formally launched in 1998.
These critics pointed to the open access policy for gene sequences from the publicly funded Human Genome Project.

Sequence analysis

Sequence analysesanalysisbiological sequence analysis
Due to widespread international cooperation and advances in the field of genomics (especially in sequence analysis), as well as major advances in computing technology, a 'rough draft' of the genome was finished in 2000 (announced jointly by U.S. President Bill Clinton and the British Prime Minister Tony Blair on June 26, 2000).
This method was eventually used in the human genome project.

Jim Kent

This first available rough draft assembly of the genome was completed by the Genome Bioinformatics Group at the University of California, Santa Cruz, primarily led by then graduate student Jim Kent.
In 2000, he wrote a program, GigAssembler, that allowed the publicly funded Human Genome Project to assemble and publish the first human genome sequence.

Genome Reference Consortium

GRCh38
In March 2009, the Genome Reference Consortium (GRC) released a more accurate version of the human genome, but that still left more than 300 gaps.
At the time the human reference was initially described, it was clear that some regions were recalcitrant to closure with existing technology.

William Flynn Martin

William F. MartinWillian F. Martin
Alvin Trivelpiece sought and obtained the approval of DeLisi's proposal by Deputy Secretary William Flynn Martin.
The Human Genome Project was the crown jewel of 20th century biology.

Ronald W. Davis

Dr. Ronald Davis
Candidate technologies were already being considered for the proposed undertaking at least as early as 1979; Ronald W. Davis and colleagues of Stanford University submitted a proposal to NIH that year and it was turned down as being too ambitious.
Davis, with David Botstein, Mark Skolnick, and Ray White developed the method for constructing a genetic linkage map using restriction fragment length polymorphisms that enabled and led to the Human Genome Project.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MITM.I.T.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
Professor Eric Lander was one of the principal leaders of the Human Genome Project.

Ensembl genome database project

EnsemblEnsembl Genome Browser
Other organizations, such as the UCSC Genome Browser at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and Ensembl present additional data and annotation and powerful tools for visualizing and searching it.
Ensembl genome database project is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project.

Institute for Systems Biology

Lee Hood was the director of a large molecular biotechnology lab at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, and was a key advisor in the Human Genome Project, having overseen development of machines that were instrumental to its later success.

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
The Human Genome Project (HGP) was an international scientific research project with the goal of determining the base pairs that make up human DNA, and of identifying and mapping all of the genes of the human genome from both a physical and a functional standpoint.
Data sets representing entire genomes' worth of DNA sequences, such as those produced by the Human Genome Project, are difficult to use without the annotations that identify the locations of genes and regulatory elements on each chromosome.