The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.
World population, 10,000 BCE – 2,000 CE (vertical population scale is logarithmic)
A late Roman sculpture depicting the Tetrarchs, now in Venice, Italy
Cave painting, Lascaux, France, c. 15,000 BCE
Barbarian kingdoms and tribes after the end of the Western Roman Empire
Monumental Cuneiform inscription, Sumer, Mesopotamia, 26th century BCE
A coin of the Ostrogothic leader Theoderic the Great, struck in Milan, Italy, c. AD 491–501
Great Pyramids of Giza, Egypt
A mosaic showing Justinian with the bishop of Ravenna (Italy), bodyguards, and courtiers.
The Buddha
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Persepolis, Achaemenid Empire, 6th century BCE
An 11th-century illustration of Gregory the Great dictating to a secretary
Pillar erected by India's Maurya Emperor Ashoka
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Obelisk of Axum, Ethiopia
Charlemagne's palace chapel at Aachen, completed in 805
Maya observatory, Chichen Itza, Mexico
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
The Pantheon in Rome, Italy, originally a Roman temple, now a Catholic church
A page from the Book of Kells, an illuminated manuscript created in the British Isles in the late 8th or early 9th century
University of Timbuktu, Mali
Medieval French manuscript illustration of the three classes of medieval society: those who prayed (the clergy) those who fought (the knights), and those who worked (the peasantry). The relationship between these classes was governed by feudalism and manorialism. (Li Livres dou Sante, 13th century)
Hagia Sophia, in Istanbul, is among the most recognizable symbols of the Byzantine civilization.
13th-century illustration of a Jew (in pointed Jewish hat) and the Christian Petrus Alphonsi debating
Great Mosque of Kairouan, Tunisia, founded 670 CE
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
Crusader Krak des Chevaliers, Syria
The Bayeux Tapestry (detail) showing William the Conqueror (centre), his half-brothers Robert, Count of Mortain (right) and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux in the Duchy of Normandy (left)
St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City.
Krak des Chevaliers was built during the Crusades for the Knights Hospitallers.
Notre-Dame de Paris in Paris, France: is among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of Christendom.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
A brass "Benin Bronze" from Nigeria
Portrait of Cardinal Hugh of Saint-Cher by Tommaso da Modena, 1352, the first known depiction of spectacles
Chennakesava Temple, Belur, India
The Romanesque Church of Maria Laach, Germany
Battle during 1281 Mongol invasion of Japan
The Gothic interior of Laon Cathedral, France
Angkor Wat temple, Cambodia, early 12th century
Francis of Assisi, depicted by Bonaventura Berlinghieri in 1235, founded the Franciscan Order.
Moai, Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
Sénanque Abbey, Gordes, France
Machu Picchu, Inca Empire, Peru
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
Gutenberg Bible, ca. 1450, produced using movable type
Map of Europe in 1360
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490), Renaissance Italy
Joan of Arc in a 15th-century depiction
1570 world map, showing Europeans' discoveries
Guy of Boulogne crowning Pope Gregory XI in a 15th-century miniature from Froissart's Chroniques
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (formerly Constantinople), Turkey
Clerics studying astronomy and geometry, French, early 15th century
Taj Mahal, Mughal Empire, India
Agricultural calendar, c. 1470, from a manuscript of Pietro de Crescenzi
Ming dynasty section, Great Wall of China
February scene from the 15th-century illuminated manuscript Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Watt's steam engine powered the Industrial Revolution.
Medieval illustration of the spherical Earth in a 14th-century copy of L'Image du monde
Empires of the world in 1898
The first airplane, the Wright Flyer, flew, 1903.
World War I trench warfare
Atomic bombings: Hiroshima, Nagasaki, 1945
Civilians (here, Mỹ Lai, Vietnam, 1968) suffered greatly in 20th-century wars.
Last Moon landing: Apollo 17 (1972)
China urbanized rapidly in the 21st century (Shanghai pictured).

The Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period.

- Middle Ages

Post-classical history (the "Middle Ages," c. undefined 500–1500 CE) witnessed the rise of Christianity, the Islamic Golden Age (c.

- Human history
The Cross of Mathilde, a crux gemmata made for Mathilde, Abbess of Essen (973–1011), who is shown kneeling before the Virgin and Child in the enamel plaque. The figure of Christ is slightly later. Probably made in Cologne or Essen, the cross demonstrates several medieval techniques: cast figurative sculpture, filigree, enamelling, gem polishing and setting, and the reuse of Classical cameos and engraved gems.

5 related topics

Alpha

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.

Renaissance

Florence, the birthplace of the European Renaissance. The architectural perspective, and modern systems and fields of banking and accounting were introduced during the Renaissance.
Portrait of a Young Woman (c. 1480–85) (Simonetta Vespucci) by Sandro Botticelli
View of Florence, birthplace of the Renaissance
Coluccio Salutati
A political map of the Italian Peninsula circa 1494
Pieter Bruegel's The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) reflects the social upheaval and terror that followed the plague that devastated medieval Europe.
Lorenzo de' Medici, ruler of Florence and patron of arts (Portrait by Vasari)
Pico della Mirandola, writer of the famous Oration on the Dignity of Man, which has been called the "Manifesto of the Renaissance".
Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man (c. 1490) demonstrates the effect writers of Antiquity had on Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius' De architectura (1st century BC), Leonardo tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man. (Museum Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice)
Anonymous portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus (c. 1580)
Portrait of Luca Pacioli, father of accounting, painted by Jacopo de' Barbari, 1495, (Museo di Capodimonte).
The world map by Pietro Coppo, Venice, 1520
Alexander VI, a Borgia Pope infamous for his corruption
Adoration of the Magi and Solomon adored by the Queen of Sheba from the Farnese Hours (1546) by Giulio Clovio marks the end of the Italian Renaissance of illuminated manuscript together with the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.
Leonardo Bruni
"What a piece of work is a man, how noble in reason, how infinite in faculties, in form and moving how express and admirable, in action how like an angel, in apprehension how like a god!" – from William Shakespeare's Hamlet.
Château de Chambord (1519–1547), one of the most famous examples of Renaissance architecture
Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I, by Albrecht Dürer, 1519
Erasmus of Rotterdam in 1523, as depicted by Hans Holbein the Younger
São Pedro Papa, 1530–1535, by Grão Vasco Fernandes. A pinnacle piece from when the Portuguese Renaissance had considerable external influence.
The Palace of Facets on the Cathedral Square of the Moscow Kremlin
Theotokos and The Child, the late-17th-century Russian icon by Karp Zolotaryov, with notably realistic depiction of faces and clothing.
The Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo del Escorial, by Juan de Herrera and Juan Bautista de Toledo
A cover of the Lives of the Artists by Giorgio Vasari
Painting of the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre, an event in the French Wars of Religion, by François Dubois

The Renaissance is a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages to modernity and covering the 15th and 16th centuries, characterized by an effort to revive and surpass ideas and achievements of classical antiquity.

Both Michelet and Burckhardt were keen to describe the progress made in the Renaissance towards the modern age.

From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.

Late Middle Ages

The period of European history lasting from AD 1250 to 1500.

The period of European history lasting from AD 1250 to 1500.

From the Apocalypse in a Biblia Pauperum illuminated at Erfurt around the time of the Great Famine. Death sits astride a lion whose long tail ends in a ball of flame (Hell). Famine points to her hungry mouth.
France in the late 15th century: a mosaic of feudal territories
Silver mining and processing in Kutná Hora, Bohemia, 15th century
Ruins of Beckov Castle in Slovakia
Ottoman miniature of the siege of Belgrade in 1456
Battle of Aljubarrota between Portugal and Castile, 1385
Peasants preparing the fields for the winter with a harrow and sowing for the winter grain. The background shows the Louvre castle in Paris, c. 1410; October as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry
Jan Hus
European output of manuscripts 500–1500. The rising trend in medieval book production saw its continuation in the period.
Urban dwelling house, late 15th century, Halberstadt, Germany.
Dante by Domenico di Michelino, from a fresco painted in 1465
A musician plays the vielle in a fourteenth-century Medieval manuscript.
Peasants in fields
Joan of Arc
Charles I

The changes brought about by these developments have led many scholars to view this period as the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern history and of early modern Europe.

Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.

Periodization

Process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified and named blocks of time.

Process or study of categorizing the past into discrete, quantified and named blocks of time.

Petrarch conceived of the idea of a European "Dark Age" which later evolved into the tripartite periodization of Western history into Ancient, Post-classical and Modern.

The term Middle Ages also derives from Petrarch.

6) Contemporary or modern era (Sometimes the nineteenth century and modern are combined. )

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century

Early modern period

Map of the world by Paolo Patrini during the turn of the 18th century
A Japanese depiction of a Portuguese trading carrack. Advances in shipbuilding technology during the Late Middle Ages would pave the way for the global European presence characteristic of the early modern period.
Cishou Temple Pagoda, built in 1576: the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period.
A painting depecting the Qing Chinese celebrating a victory over the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan. This work was a collaboration between Chinese and European painters.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa, c. 1830 by Hokusai, an example of art flourishing in the Edo Period
Map of the Gunpowder Empires, the Mughal Empire being the orange one.
The Mughal ambassador Khan'Alam in 1618 negotiating with Shah Abbas the Great of Iran.
Robert Clive and Mir Jafar after the Battle of Plassey, 1757 by Francis Hayman
Ottoman Empire 1481–1683
Ferdinand Pauwels – Martin Luther hammers his 95 theses to the door
Gutenberg reviewing a press proof (a colored engraving created probably in the 19th century)
15th century Hanging Houses in Cuenca, Spain from the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period.
Battle of Vienna, 12 September 1683
Bourgeoisie takes more and more importance throughout the modern era.
Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army.
The Cantino planisphere (1502), the oldest surviving Portuguese nautical chart showing the results of the explorations of Vasco da Gama to India, Columbus to Central America, Gaspar Corte-Real to Newfoundland and Pedro Álvares Cabral to Brazil. The meridian of Tordesillas, separating the Portuguese and Spanish halves of the world is also depicted
Axum and Adal circa 1500.
John Trumbull's Declaration of Independence, showing the Committee of Five in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia
World Colonization of 1492 (Early Modern World), 1550, 1660, 1754 (Age of Enlightenment), 1822 (Industrial revolution), 1885 (European Hegemony), 1914 (World War I era), 1938 (World War II era), 1959 (Cold War era) and 1974, 2008 (Recent history).
Waldseemüller map with joint sheets, 1507
Model for the Three Superior Planets and Venus from Georg von Peuerbach, Theoricae novae planetarum.
"If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it." An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie; Truth (center) is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right, Philosophy and Reason
Engraved world map (including magnetic declination lines) by Leonhard Euler from his school atlas "Geographischer Atlas bestehend in 44 Land-Charten" first published 1753 in Berlin
Eugène Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830). The French Revolution inspired a wave of revolutions across Europe. Liberalism and Nationalism were popular ideas that challenged Absolute Monarchies in the 19th century.
Gold fueled European exploration of the Americas. Explorers reported Native Americans in Central America, Peru, Ecuador and Colombia were to have had large amounts.
Silver, valued as a precious metal, has been used to make expensive ornaments, fine jewelry, high-value tableware and utensils (silverware), and currency coins.
Spices were among the most luxurious products, the most common being black pepper, cinnamon (and the cheaper alternative cassia), cumin, nutmeg, ginger and cloves.

The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.

However, "Renaissance" is properly used in relation to a diverse series of cultural developments that occurred over several hundred years in many different parts of Europe—especially central and northern Italy—and it spans the transition from late medieval civilisation to the opening of the early modern period.

Map of the late Bronze Age collapse, c. 1200 BC

Ancient history

Map of the late Bronze Age collapse, c. 1200 BC
The core territory of 15th century BCE Assyria, with its two major cities Assur and Nineveh, was upstream of Babylonia and downstream of the states of Mitanni and Hatti.
The Persian Achaemenid Empire at its greatest extent, c. 500 BC
Extent of Iranian influence circa 170 BCE, with the Parthian Empire (mostly speaking Western Iranian languages) in red and other areas dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian) in orange.
Largest expansion of Kingdom of Armenia under Tigranes the Great
The Iron Age Kingdom of Israel (blue) and Kingdom of Judah (yellow)
Khafre's Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. 2500 BC or perhaps earlier)
Pharaohs of Nubia
The Ezana Stone records negus Ezana's conversion to Christianity and conquests of his neighbors.
Nok sculpture of a seated person
Standing Greek-Buddha, Gandhara, 1st century AD.
A political map of the Mauryan Empire, including notable cities, such as the capital Pataliputra, and site of the Buddha's enlightenment.
Oracle bone script from the Shang dynasty
Terracotta Warriors from the time of Qin Shi Huang
The Chinese Han dynasty dominated the East Asia region at the beginning of the first millennium AD
Gold stag with eagle's head, and ten more heads in the antlers. Inspired by Siberian Altai mountain art, possibly Pazyryk, unearthed at Nalinggaotu, Shenmu County, near Xi'an, China. Possibly from Huns of the Northern Chinese prairie. 4th to 3rd centuries BC, or Han Dynasty period. Shaanxi History Museum.
The ruins of Mesoamerican city Teotihuacan
The Parthenon, a temple dedicated to Athena, located on the Acropolis in Athens
Roman Empire 117 CE. The Senatorial provinces were acquired first under the Roman Republic and were under the Roman Senate's control; the Imperial provinces were controlled directly by the Roman emperor.
The Age of Migrations in Europe was deeply detrimental to the late Roman Empire.
Roman cast terracotta of ram-horned Jupiter Ammon, a form of Zeus, 1st century AD. Gods were sometimes borrowed between civilisations and adapted to local conditions.
The Pont du Gard, a Roman aqueduct in France.

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events from the beginning of writing and recorded human history and extending as far as late antiquity.

The western half of the empire, including Hispania, Gaul, and Italy, eventually broke into independent kingdoms in the 5th century CE; the Eastern Roman Empire, governed from Constantinople, is referred to as the Byzantine Empire after 476 CE, the traditional date for the "fall of Rome" and subsequent onset of the Middle Ages.