Human musculoskeletal system

Features of the human activity system from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
The body contains three types of muscle tissue: (a) skeletal muscle, (b) smooth muscle, and (c) cardiac muscle.
On the anterior and posterior views of the muscular system above, superficial muscles (those at the surface) are shown on the right side of the body while deep muscles (those underneath the superficial muscles) are shown on the left half of the body. For the legs, superficial muscles are shown in the anterior view while the posterior view shows both superficial and deep muscles.
Human synovial joint composition

Organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.

- Human musculoskeletal system

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Orthopedic surgery

This fracture of the lower cervical vertebrae is one of the conditions treated by orthopedic surgeons and neurosurgeons.
Hugh Owen Thomas, a pioneer of modern orthopedic surgery
X-ray of a hip replacement
This image, taken in September 2006, shows extensive repair work to the right acetabulum 6 years after it was carried out (2000). The onset of arthritis, a bone/joint disease, has made further joint damage visible.
Radiography to identify eventual bone fractures after a knee injury.
Orthopedic implants to repair fractures to the radius and ulna. Note the visible break in the ulna. (right forearm)
Anterior and lateral view x-rays of fractured left leg with internal fixation after surgery

Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (alternatively spelt orthopaedics), is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.

Muscular system

Organ system consisting of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.

The human muscles, seen from the front. 19th century illustration.
Three distinct types of muscle (L to R): Smooth (non-striated) muscle in internal organs, cardiac or heart muscle, and skeletal muscle.
Skeletal muscles, viewed from the front
Skeletal muscles, viewed from the back

Together with the skeletal system in the human, it forms the musculoskeletal system, which is responsible for the movement of the body.

Musculoskeletal disorder

Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common musculoskeletal disorder, and is often treated with a splint.
Deaths from musculoskeletal diseases per million persons in 2012

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or pain in the human musculoskeletal system, including the joints, ligaments, muscles, nerves, tendons, and structures that support limbs, neck and back.


Humans (Homo sapiens) are the most abundant and widespread species of primate, characterized by bipedalism and large, complex brains.

Reconstruction of Lucy, the first Australopithecus afarensis skeleton found
Overview map of the peopling of the world by early human migration during the Upper Paleolithic, following to the Southern Dispersal paradigm.
Routes taken by barbarian invaders of the Roman Empire during the Migration Period
Humans and their domesticated animals represent 96% of all mammalian biomass on earth, whereas all wild mammals represent only 4%.
Basic anatomical features of female and male humans. These models have had body hair and male facial hair removed and head hair trimmed. The female model is wearing red nail polish on her toenails and a ring.
A graphical representation of the standard human karyotype, including both the male (XY) and female (XX) sex chromosomes.
A 10 mm human embryo at 5 weeks
Humans living in Bali, Indonesia, preparing a meal.
Changes in the number and order of genes (A-D) create genetic diversity within and between population
A Libyan, a Nubian, a Syrian, and an Egyptian, drawing by an unknown artist after a mural of the tomb of Seti I.
Drawing of the human brain, showing several important structures
Illustration of grief from Charles Darwin's 1872 book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals.
Parents can display familial love for their children
The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian
The SCMaglev, the fastest train in the world clocking in at 375 mph as of 2015
Shango, the Orisha of fire, lightning, and thunder, in the Yoruba religion, depicted on horseback
The Dunhuang map, a star map showing the North Polar region. China circa 700.
Humans often live in family-based social structures.
The United Nations Headquarters in New York City, which houses one of the world's largest political organizations
The Silk Road (red) and spice trade routes (blue)

The most commonly defined body systems in humans are the nervous, the cardiovascular, the digestive, the endocrine, the immune, the integumentary, the lymphatic, the musculoskeletal, the reproductive, the respiratory, and the urinary system.

Physical therapy

One of the medical profession.

Military physical therapists working with patients on balance problems, orthopedic, amputee, Examining patient's strength, flexibility, joint range of motion balance and gait.
Exercise to shoulder and elbow to increase motion following fracture and dislocation of humerus is being given by an Army therapist to a soldier patient.
Treatment by orthopedic physical therapists

Physical therapy is a professional career which has many specialties including musculoskeletal, orthopedics, cardiopulmonary, neurology, endocrinology, sports medicine, geriatrics, pediatrics, women's health, wound care and electromyography.

Repetitive strain injury

Poor ergonomic techniques by computer users is one of many causes of repetitive strain injury
Ergonomics: the science of designing the job, equipment, and workplace

A repetitive strain injury (RSI) is an injury to part of the musculoskeletal or nervous system caused by repetitive use, vibrations, compression or long periods in a fixed position.

Systemic scleroderma

Autoimmune rheumatic disease characterised by excessive production and accumulation of collagen, called fibrosis, in the skin and internal organs and by injuries to small arteries.

Clinical appearance of acrosclerotic piece-meal necrosis of the thumb in a patient with systemic sclerosis.
Endoscopic image of peptic stricture, or narrowing of the esophagus near the junction with the stomach due to chronic gastroesophageal reflux: This is the most common cause of dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, in scleroderma.
Micrograph showing thrombotic microangiopathy, the histomorphologic finding seen in scleroderma renal crisis, kidney biopsy, PAS stain

Diffuse scleroderma can cause musculoskeletal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, and other complications.

Temporomandibular joint dysfunction

Umbrella term covering pain and dysfunction of the muscles of mastication (the muscles that move the jaw) and the temporomandibular joints (the joints which connect the mandible to the skull).

Temporomandibular joint
Modern digitalised panoramic X-ray devices are capable to take TMJ images, which provides information about articular fossa and condyle.
A lower, full coverage occlusal splint after 8 years in use.
An upper, full coverage occlusal splint.
Left medial and lateral pterygoid muscles
Left temporalis muscle
Left masseter muscle (red highlight)

TMD has been considered as a type of musculoskeletal, neuromuscular, or rheumatological disorder.

Veterinary medicine

Branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, disorder, and injury in animals.

A veterinary technician in Ethiopia shows the owner of an ailing donkey how to sanitize the site of infection.
Fragments of the Kahun Papyrus on veterinary medicine, early 2nd millennium BCE)
Manuscript page of Hippiatrica (14th century)
Claude Bourgelat established the earliest veterinary school in Lyon in 1762.
Surgery on a dog
US and South African army veterinary technicians prepare a dog for spaying.
An eye examination of a kitten is underway prior to the kitten's adoption.

This includes those performing roles which are also found in human medicine, such as practitioners dealing with musculoskeletal disorders, including osteopaths, chiropractors, and physiotherapists.


Infectious disease caused by a pathogen ( an infectious agent, such as a bacterium, virus, parasite or prion) that has jumped from an animal (usually a vertebrate) to a human.

A dog with rabies.
Possibilities for zoonotic disease transmissions

Research has proved the importance for continued clinical veterinarian education on occupational risks associated with musculoskeletal injuries, animal bites, needle-sticks, and cuts.