Human spaceflight

space travelmannedmanned spaceflightcrewedmanned space flightcrewed spaceflightspaceflightpassengercrewed spacecrafthuman space exploration
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.wikipedia
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Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
A type of artificial satellite, spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, Earth observation, meteorology, navigation, space colonization, planetary exploration, and transportation of humans and cargo.

Vostok 1

first human spaceflightthe first manned spaceflightVostok
The first human spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 as a part of the Vostok program, with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first crewed spaceflight in history.

Space tourism

space touristspace touristsPersonal spaceflight
The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight, and a number of non-governmental companies have been working to develop a space tourism industry.
Space tourism is human space travel for recreational purposes.

List of private spaceflight companies

private spaceflight companiesspace tourism startup companiescommercial providers
The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight, and a number of non-governmental companies have been working to develop a space tourism industry.
This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer—or are planning to offer—equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human.

Commercial Crew Development

Commercial CrewCommercial Crew ProgramCCDev
NASA has also played a role to stimulate private spaceflight through programs such as Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Commercial Crew Development (CCDev).
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a human spaceflight development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA.

SpaceShipOne

Scaled Composites SpaceShipOneSpace Ship OneSpaceship One
The first private human spaceflight took place on 21 June 2004, when SpaceShipOne conducted a suborbital flight, and a number of non-governmental companies have been working to develop a space tourism industry.
SpaceShipOne completed the first manned private spaceflight in 2004.

Private spaceflight

privatecommercialcommercial spaceflight
NASA has also played a role to stimulate private spaceflight through programs such as Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) and Commercial Crew Development (CCDev).
Private spaceflight in Earth orbit includes communications satellites, satellite television, satellite radio, astronaut transport and sub-orbital and orbital space tourism.

International Space Station

ISSInternational Space Station (ISS)Space Station
Humans have been continuously present in space for on the International Space Station.
This data will be used to determine whether high duration human spaceflight and space colonisation are feasible.

Shenzhou program

ShenzhouShenzhou programmeShenzhou 12
Russia and China have human spaceflight capability with the Soyuz program and Shenzhou program.
China's first efforts at human spaceflight started in 1968 with a projected launch date of 1973.

Vostok programme

VostokVostok programVostok space programme
The first human spaceflight was launched by the Soviet Union on 12 April 1961 as a part of the Vostok program, with cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.

Apollo program

ApolloProject ApolloApollo space program
The US started the three-man Apollo program in 1961 to accomplish this, launched by the Saturn family of launch vehicles, and the interim two-man Project Gemini in 1962, which flew 10 missions launched by Titan II rockets in 1965 and 1966.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

Mercury-Atlas 6

Friendship 7MA-6Mercury 6
The first American in orbit was John Glenn aboard Friendship 7, launched 20 February 1962 on a Mercury-Atlas rocket.
Piloted by astronaut John Glenn and operated by NASA as part of Project Mercury, it was the fifth human spaceflight, preceded by Soviet orbital flights Vostok 1 and 2 and American sub-orbital flights Mercury-Redstone 3 and 4.

Project Gemini

GeminiGemini programGemini spacecraft
The US started the three-man Apollo program in 1961 to accomplish this, launched by the Saturn family of launch vehicles, and the interim two-man Project Gemini in 1962, which flew 10 missions launched by Titan II rockets in 1965 and 1966.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.

Intercontinental ballistic missile

ICBMintercontinental ballistic missilesICBMs
Human spaceflight capability was first developed during the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR), which developed the first intercontinental ballistic missile rockets to deliver nuclear weapons.
The first human spaceflight in history was accomplished on a derivative of R-7, Vostok, on 12 April 1961, by Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.

Vostok 6

first woman to have flown in spacesolo flightVostok6
The USSR launched five more cosmonauts in Vostok capsules, including the first woman in space, Valentina Tereshkova aboard Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963.
Vostok 6 (Восток-6, Orient 6 or East 6) was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space.

Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle

Mercury-RedstoneRedstoneMercury-Redstone rocket
The US launched its first astronaut, Alan Shepard, on a suborbital flight aboard Freedom 7 on a Mercury-Redstone rocket, on 5 May 1961.
The four subsequent Mercury human spaceflights used the more powerful Atlas booster to enter low Earth orbit.

Apollo 11

1969 moon landingmoon landingfirst moon landing
In July 1969, Apollo 11 accomplished Kennedy's goal by landing Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon 21 July and returning them safely on 24 July along with Command Module pilot Michael Collins.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon.

Apollo 8

8Apollo 8 missionApollo8
The US succeeded in developing the Saturn V rocket necessary to send the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon, and sent Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders into 10 orbits around the Moon in Apollo 8 in December 1968.
Apollo 8 launched on December 21, 1968, and was the second crewed spaceflight mission flown in the United States Apollo space program after Apollo 7, which stayed in Earth orbit.

North American X-15

X-15North American X-15A-2X-15 rocket plane
The US also made two flights in the North American X-15 (90 and 91) piloted by Joseph A. Walker that exceeded the Kármán line, the internationally recognized 100 km altitude used by the FAI to denote the edge of space.
Of these, 8 pilots flew a combined 13 flights which met the Air Force spaceflight criterion by exceeding the altitude of 50 mi, thus qualifying these pilots as being astronauts.

Voskhod programme

VoskhodVoskhod programVoskhod 3
Meanwhile, the USSR remained silent about their intentions to send humans to the Moon, and proceeded to stretch the limits of their single-pilot Vostok capsule into a two- or three-person Voskhod capsule to compete with Gemini.
The Voskhod programme (Восхо́д, Ascent or Dawn) was the second Soviet human spaceflight project.

Neil Armstrong

Neil A. ArmstrongArmstrongJanet Shearon Armstrong
In July 1969, Apollo 11 accomplished Kennedy's goal by landing Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on the Moon 21 July and returning them safely on 24 July along with Command Module pilot Michael Collins.
He was also a participant in the U.S. Air Force's Man in Space Soonest and X-20 Dyna-Soar human spaceflight programs.

Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

solid rocket boosterssolid rocket boosterSRBs
Plans for the Shuttle were scaled back to reduce development risk, cost, and time, replacing the piloted flyback booster with two reusable solid rocket boosters, and the smaller orbiter would use an expendable external propellant tank to feed its hydrogen-fueled main engines.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid-propellant rocket to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.

Human mission to Mars

manned mission to Marshuman missionhuman missions to Mars
Other components of the system included a permanent modular space station, reusable space tug and nuclear interplanetary ferry, leading to a human expedition to Mars as early as 1986, or as late as 2000, depending on the level of funding allocated.
Conceptual work for missions that would involve human explorers has been ongoing since the 1950s, with planned missions typically being stated as taking place anywhere between 10 and 30 years from the time they are drafted.

Low Earth orbit

Low EarthLEOlow-Earth orbit
These rockets were large enough to be adapted to carry the first artificial satellites into low Earth orbit.
The altitude record for human spaceflights in LEO was Gemini 11 with an apogee of.

Shenzhou 5

Shenzhou V1st manned Chinese spacecraftfirst Chinese human spaceflight
China later designed the Shenzhou spacecraft resembling the Russian Soyuz, and became the third nation to achieve independent human spaceflight capability by launching Yang Liwei on a 21-hour flight aboard Shenzhou 5 on 15 October 2003.
Shenzhou 5 was the first human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program, launched on 15 October 2003.