Human subject research

human experimentationhuman experimentsguinea pigtest subjectshuman subjectstest subjectguinea pigsmedical experimentssubjectshuman participants
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.wikipedia
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Clinical trial

clinical trialsclinical studiesclinical study
(A specific, and especially heavily regulated, type of medical human subject research is the "clinical trial", in which drugs, vaccines and medical devices are evaluated.) On the other hand, human subject research in the social sciences often involves surveys which consist of questions to a particular group of people.
Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments (such as novel vaccines, drugs, dietary choices, dietary supplements, and medical devices) and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison.

Survey (human research)

surveysurvey researchsurveys
(A specific, and especially heavily regulated, type of medical human subject research is the "clinical trial", in which drugs, vaccines and medical devices are evaluated.) On the other hand, human subject research in the social sciences often involves surveys which consist of questions to a particular group of people.
In research of human subjects, a survey is a list of questions aimed at extracting specific data from a particular group of people.

Unethical human experimentation

human experimentationlethal human experimentationabuses
As research has become formalized, the academic community has developed formal definitions of "human subject research", largely in response to abuses of human subjects.
Unethical human experimentation is human experimentation that violates the principles of medical ethics.

Informed consent

consentPrior Informed Consentconsensual
Privacy, confidentiality, and informed consent are key concerns, yet it is unclear when social media users qualify as human subjects. They were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects.
Historians cite a series of human subject research experiments to trace the history of informed consent in research.

Medical research

biomedical researchmedical researcherresearch
Established by the World Medical Association, the declaration recommended guidelines for medical doctors conducting biomedical research that involves human subjects.
Medical research on humans, has to strictly follow the medical ethics sanctioned in the Declaration of Helsinki and hospital review board where the research is conducted.

Nazi human experimentation

human experimentationmedical experimentshuman experiments
It has been performed by countries including Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, North Korea, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
Nazi human experimentation was a series of medical experiments on large numbers of prisoners, including children, by Nazi Germany in its concentration camps in the early to mid 1940s, during World War II and the Holocaust.

Unethical human experimentation in the United States

Human experimentation in the United Stateshuman experimentationmedical experimentation
It has been performed by countries including Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, North Korea, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
Unethical human experimentation in the United States describes numerous experiments performed on human test subjects in the United States that have been considered unethical, and were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects.

Research

researcherresearchersoriginal research
The Declaration of Helsinki is widely regarded as the cornerstone document on human research ethics.
Ethical issues may arise in the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation or animal experimentation.

Experiment

experimentalexperimentationexperiments
Clinical trials are experiments done in clinical research.
Human experimentation requires special safeguards against outside variables such as the placebo effect.

Institutional review board

Institutional Review BoardsInstitutional Review Board (IRB)IRB
After the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act in 1906, regulatory bodies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and institutional review boards (IRBs) were gradually introduced.
While the IRB approval and oversight process is designed to protect the rights and welfare of the research subjects, it has been the subject of criticism, by bioethicists and others, for conflicts of interest resulting in lax oversight.

Medical torture

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Typically, the experiments resulted in death, trauma, disfigurement or permanent disability, and as such are considered as examples of medical torture.
Medical torture overlaps with medical interrogation if it involves the use of professional medical expertise to facilitate interrogation or corporal punishment, in the conduct of torturous human experimentation or in providing professional medical sanction and approval for the torture of prisoners.

Nuremberg Code

Nuremberg CodesNuremburg CodeThe Nuremberg Code
After the war, these crimes were tried at what became known as the Doctors' Trial, and the abuses perpetrated led to the development of the Nuremberg Code.
The Nuremberg Code (Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War.

Death of Dan Markingson

Dan Markingson committed suicideDan Markingson
For example, a clinical drug trial case at the University of Minnesota that was under investigation in 2015 for the Death of Dan Markingson was funded by AstraZeneca, a pharmaceutical company headquartered in the United Kingdom.

Operation Whitecoat

Project WhitecoatWhitecoat volunteers
Operation Whitecoat involved the injection of infectious agents into military forces to observe their effects in human subjects.
Although the program was discontinued in 1973, human use research for biodefense purposes is still conducted at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) at Fort Detrick and at other government and civilian research institutes.

National Research Act

National Research Act of 1974
This led to the 1974 National Research Act, to provide for protection of human subjects in experiments.
The National Research Act created the [[National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research]] to develop guidelines for human subject research and to oversee and regulate the use of human experimentation in medicine.

Vivisection

anti-vivisectionvivisectvivisected
Unit 731, a department of the Imperial Japanese Army located near Harbin (then in the puppet state of Manchukuo, in northeast China), experimented on prisoners by conducting vivisections, dismemberments, and bacterial inoculations.
Unit 731, a biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army, undertook lethal human experimentation during the period that comprised both the Second Sino-Japanese War, and the Second World War (1937–1945).

Unit 731

Unit 543Japanese human experimentationhuman experimentation
Unit 731, a department of the Imperial Japanese Army located near Harbin (then in the puppet state of Manchukuo, in northeast China), experimented on prisoners by conducting vivisections, dismemberments, and bacterial inoculations. Examples include Project MKUltra, Unit 731, Totskoye nuclear exercise, the experiments of Josef Mengele, and the human experimentation conducted by Chester M. Southam.

Duplessis Orphans

Duplessis orphanfalsely certifying thousands of Quebec orphans as mentally illperceived corruption
Labelled as mentally deficient, many of these children were subjected to electroshock, a variety of drug testing and used in other medical experiments.

Consent

consensualaffirmative consentnon-consensual
They were often performed illegally, without the knowledge, consent, or informed consent of the test subjects.
Federal law governs social science research that involves human subjects, and tasks institutional review boards (IRBs) at universities, federal or state agencies, and tribal organizations to oversee social science research that involves human subjects and to make decisions about whether or not informed consent is necessary for a social scientific study to go forward.

Human

humanshuman beinghuman beings
Human subject research is systematic, scientific investigation that can be either interventional (a "trial") or observational (no "test article") and involves human beings as research subjects.

Biological specimen

specimenspecimensbiological specimens
Medical human subject research often involves analysis of biological specimens, epidemiological and behavioral studies and medical chart review studies.

Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
Medical human subject research often involves analysis of biological specimens, epidemiological and behavioral studies and medical chart review studies.

Survey methodology

surveysurveysstatistical survey
Survey methodology includes questionnaires, interviews, and focus groups.