Human trafficking

traffickingtrafficking in personstraffickedtrafficking in human beingshuman traffickerstrafficking of womenhuman traffickersex traffickingwomenanti-human trafficking
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.wikipedia
1,691 Related Articles

Sexual slavery

sexual exploitationsex slavewhite slavery
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.
Commercial sexual exploitation of adults (often referred to as "sex trafficking") is a type of human trafficking involving the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of people, by coercive or abusive means for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

Debt bondage

bonded labourbonded labordebt slavery
Sometimes the arrangement is structured as debt bondage, with the victim not being permitted or able to pay off the debt.
Although debt bondage, forced labour, and human trafficking are all defined as forms or variations of slavery, each term is distinct.

People smuggling

human smugglingpeople smugglerspeople smuggler
People smuggling (also called human smuggling and migrant smuggling) is a related practice which is characterized by the consent of the person being smuggled.
Unlike human trafficking, people smuggling is characterized by the consent between customer and smuggler - a contractual agreement that typically terminates upon arrival in the destination location.

Unfree labour

forced laborforced labourunfree labor
Human trafficking is the trade of humans for the purpose of forced labour, sexual slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others. Child exploitation may also involve forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, the removal of organs, illicit international adoption, trafficking for early marriage, recruitment as child soldiers, for use in begging or as athletes (such as child camel jockeys or football players ).
The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that at least 12.3 million people are victims of forced labour worldwide; of these, 9.8 million are exploited by private agents and more than 2.4 million are trafficked.

Blue Heart Campaign

Blue Heart Campaign Against Human TraffickingSlavery and Human Trafficking Prevention MonthNational Slavery and Human Trafficking Prevention Month, 2018
UNODC efforts to motivate action launched the Blue Heart Campaign Against Human Trafficking on 6 March 2009, which Mexico launched its own national version of in April 2010.
In 2000, after the UN General Assembly adopted the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, the UNODC became the “guardian” of that protocol and assumed the functions of fighting against human trafficking.

Sweatshop

sweatshopssweat shopsweated labour
Forms of forced labour can include domestic servitude, agricultural labour, sweatshop factory labour, janitorial, food service and other service industry labour, and begging.
Sweatshops are also sometimes implicated in human trafficking when workers have been tricked into starting work without informed consent, or when workers are kept at work through debt bondage or mental duress, all of which are more likely if the workforce is drawn from children or the uneducated rural poor.

Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children

2000 UN TIP ProtocolProtocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in PersonsPalermo Protocol on human trafficking
Although human trafficking can occur at local or domestic levels, it has international implications, as recognized by the United Nations in the [[Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children]] (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or the Palermo Protocol), an international agreement under the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (CTOC) which entered into force on 25 December 2003.
*Defining the crime of trafficking in human beings; To be considered trafficking in persons, a situation must meet three conditions: act (i.e., recruitment), means (i.e., through the use of force or deception) and purpose (i.e., for the purpose of forced labour)

Sex trafficking

traffickingsex traffickerssex-trafficking
Complementary protection against sex trafficking of children is ensured through the Council of Europe [[Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse]] (signed in Lanzarote, 25 October 2007).
Sex trafficking is human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery.

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime

UNODCUnited Nations Drug Control ProgrammeUN Office on Drugs and Crime
The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) has further assisted many non-governmental organizations in their fight against human trafficking.
These are the main themes that UNODC deals with: Alternative Development, anti-corruption, Criminal Justice, Prison Reform and Crime Prevention, Drug Prevention, -Treatment and Care, HIV and AIDS, Human Trafficking and Migrant Smuggling, Money Laundering, Organized Crime, Piracy, Terrorism Prevention.

United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime

Convention against Transnational Organized CrimeConvention against Transnational Organised CrimeUN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime
Although human trafficking can occur at local or domestic levels, it has international implications, as recognized by the United Nations in the [[Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children]] (also referred to as the Trafficking Protocol or the Palermo Protocol), an international agreement under the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (CTOC) which entered into force on 25 December 2003.
All four of these instruments contain elements of the current international law on human trafficking, arms trafficking and money laundering.

Trafficking of children

child traffickingchildrentrafficking
Trafficking of children involves the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, or receipt of children for the purpose of exploitation.
Trafficking of children is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt" of a child for the purpose of slavery, forced labor and exploitation.

Surrogacy

surrogate mothersurrogategestational surrogacy
This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal.
This thinking aligns with concerns brought forth by other groups regarding the relation between surrogacy practices and forms of human trafficking in certain countries with large fertility tourism industries.

Slavery

slaveslavesenslaved
Child exploitation may also involve forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, the removal of organs, illicit international adoption, trafficking for early marriage, recruitment as child soldiers, for use in begging or as athletes (such as child camel jockeys or football players ).
The most common form of modern slave trade is commonly referred to as human trafficking.

Derek Ellerman

In 2002, Derek Ellerman and Katherine Chon founded a non-government organization called Polaris Project to combat human trafficking.
He was a co-founder of Polaris Project, a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization that combats human trafficking and modern slavery.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
In addition, human trafficking is subject to a directive in the European Union.
It aims to detect and stop illegal immigration, human trafficking and terrorist infiltration.

Mata Amritanandamayi

Mata Amritanandamayi DeviAmmaAmmachi
The signatories were: Pope Francis, Mātā Amṛtānandamayī (also known as Amma), Bhikkhuni Thich Nu Chân Không (representing Zen Master Thích Nhất Hạnh), Datuk K Sri Dhammaratana, Chief High Priest of Malaysia, Rabbi Abraham Skorka, Rabbi David Rosen, Abbas Abdalla Abbas Soliman, Undersecretary of State of Al Azhar Alsharif (representing Mohamed Ahmed El-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar), Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi, Sheikh Naziyah Razzaq Jaafar, Special advisor of Grand Ayatollah (representing Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Basheer Hussain al Najafi), Sheikh Omar Abboud, Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Metropolitan Emmanuel of France (representing Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew.)
She has also spoken out against human trafficking and forced prostitution, speaking at the Vatican and signing the Universal Declaration Against Slavery in an event organized by Pope Francis at the Vatican in 2014.

Illegal immigration

illegal immigrantillegal immigrantsundocumented immigrants
She served from 2006 until 2009 in the European Commission's Directorate-General for Justice, Freedom and Security in Brussels, where she was responsible for work to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation of children, as well as for penal aspects of illegal immigration within the unit dealing with the fight against organized crime.
Human smuggling differs from, but is sometimes associated with, human trafficking.

Sex work

servicesprostitutionsex work profession
Trafficked women and children, for instance, are often promised work in the domestic or service industry, but instead are sometimes taken to brothels where they are required to undertake sex work, while their passports and other identification papers are confiscated.
Sex work only refers to voluntary sexual transactions; thus the term does not refer to human trafficking and other coerced or nonconsensual sexual transactions such as child prostitution.

United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons

On 4 November 2010, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to provide humanitarian, legal and financial aid to victims of human trafficking with the aim of increasing the number of those rescued and supported, and broadening the extent of assistance they receive.
On November 4, 2010, U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon launched the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Victims of Trafficking in Persons to provide humanitarian, legal and financial aid to victims of human trafficking with the aim of increasing the number of those rescued and supported, and broadening the extent of assistance they receive.

International Labour Organization

ILOInternational Labour OfficeInternational Labor Organization
According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), forced labour alone (one component of human trafficking) generates an estimated $150 billion in profits per annum as of 2014.
Several thematic and country-specific studies and surveys have since been undertaken, on such diverse aspects of forced labour as bonded labour, human trafficking, forced domestic work, rural servitude, and forced prisoner labour.

Katherine Chon

In 2002, Derek Ellerman and Katherine Chon founded a non-government organization called Polaris Project to combat human trafficking.
They provide services to clients who have survived human trafficking in the Washington, DC and Newark, NJ areas.

Trafficking in Persons Report

Tier 2Tier 1Tier 2 Watchlist
The enactment of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000 by the United States Congress and its subsequent re-authorizations established the Department of State's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, which engages with foreign governments to fight human trafficking and publishes a Trafficking in Persons Report annually.
It ranks governments based on their perceived efforts to acknowledge and combat human trafficking.

Exploitation of labour

exploitationexploitation of workersexploit
Human trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation.

Forced marriage

forced marriagesshotgun marriageforced
This may encompass providing a spouse in the context of forced marriage, or the extraction of organs or tissues, including for surrogacy and ova removal.

Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons

Tier 2 Watch ListMonitor and Combat Trafficking in PersonsNan Kennelly
The enactment of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000 by the United States Congress and its subsequent re-authorizations established the Department of State's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, which engages with foreign governments to fight human trafficking and publishes a Trafficking in Persons Report annually.
The Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) is an agency within the United States Department of State charged with investigating and creating programs to prevent human trafficking both within the United States and internationally.