A report on Humayun

Portrait of Humayun
Babur celebrates the birth of Humayun in the Charbagh of Kabul.
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.
Raja Todar Mal, an ally of Sher Shah Suri, constructed the Rohtas Fort to check Humayun from Persia, and also halt the local Muslim tribes from joining the claimant emperor.
Humayun, detail of miniature of the Baburnama
Humayun's Genealogical Order up to Timur
Humayun and his Mughal Army defeats Kamran Mirza in 1553.
Shah Tahmasp provided Humayun with 12,000 cavalry and 300 veterans of his personal guard along with provisions, so that his guests may recover their lost domains.
Shah Tahmasp I and the Mughal Emperor Humayun in Isfahan.
The infant Akbar presents a painting to his father Humayun.
Humayun is reunited with Akbar.
Humayun receiving the head of his opponent, Qaracha Khan.
An image from an album commissioned by Shah Jahan shows Humayun sitting beneath a tree in his garden in India.
Copper coin of Humayun
Tomb entrance view
Humayun's Tomb in Delhi, India, was commissioned by his chief wife, Bega Begum

The second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556.

- Humayun
Portrait of Humayun

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Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630

Akbar

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The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

The third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.

Akbar by Govardhan, c. 1630
Akbar as a boy
Mughal Empire under Akbar's period (yellow)
Mughal Emperor Akbar training an elephant
Akbar hawking with Mughal chieftains and nobleman accompanied by his guardian Bairam Khan
Young Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana son of Bairam Khan being received by Akbar
Mughal Emperor Akbar shoots the Rajput warrior Jaimal during the Siege of Chittorgarh in 1568
Bullocks dragging siege-guns uphill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort in 1568
The court of young Akbar, age 13, showing his first imperial act: the arrest of an unruly courtier, who was once a favourite of Akbar's father. Illustration from a manuscript of the Akbarnama
Falcon Mohur of Akbar, minted in Asir. This coin was issued in the name of Akbar, to commemorate the capture of the strategic Asirgarh Fort of the Khandesh Sultanate on 17 January 1601 CE. Legend: "Allah is great, Khordad Ilahi 45, struck at Asir".
Diwan-i-Khas (Hall of Private Audience) in Fatehpur Sikri
Silver coin of Akbar with inscriptions of the Islamic declaration of faith, the declaration reads: "There is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah."
Portrait of Empress Mariam-uz-Zamani, commonly known as Jodha Bai, giving birth to Prince Salim, the future emperor Jahangir.
Death of Bahadur Shah of Gujarat at Diu, in front of the Portuguese in 1537
Portuguese ambush against the galleys of Seydi Ali Reis (Akbar's allies) in the Indian Ocean.
The Akbari Mosque, overlooking the Ganges
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar invocation of a Dua prayer.
The Mughal Emperor Akbar welcomes his son Prince Salim at Fatehpur Sikri, (Akbarnameh).
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Silver square rupee of Akbar, Lahore mint, struck in Aban month of Ilahi
The great Mogul discoursing with a Humble Fakir
Akbar triumphantly enters Surat
Akbar hunting with cheetahs, c. 1602
Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak presenting Akbarnama to Akbar, Mughal miniature
Gate of Akbar's mausoleum at Sikandra, Agra, 1795
Potrait of Jalaluddin Muhammad Akbar with Mariam Zamani Begum, drawn as per Akbar's description.

Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, who helped the young emperor expand and consolidate Mughal domains in India.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century

Babur

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The founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

The founder of the Mughal Empire in the Indian subcontinent.

Idealized portrait of Babur, early 17th century
Babur Family Tree
17th-century portrait of Babur
Coin minted by Babur during his time as ruler of Kabul. Dated 1507/8
Babur leaves for Hindustan from Kabul
The meeting between Babur and Sultan Ali Mirza near Samarkand
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Mughal artillery and troops in action during the Battle of Panipat (1526)
Babur encounters the Jain statues at the Urvah valley in Gwalior in 1527. He ordered them to be destroyed
Babur crossing the Indus River
Babur and his heir Humayun
Bobur Square, Andijan, Uzbekistan in 2012
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Notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza.

Imagined sketch of Sher Shah Suri by Afghan artist Abdul Ghafoor Breshna

Sher Shah Suri

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Sher Shah Suri

Sher Shah Suri

Imagined sketch of Sher Shah Suri by Afghan artist Abdul Ghafoor Breshna
An inspection of Sher Shah Suri's Great North Road
Rupiya released by Sher Shah Suri, 1538–1545 CE, was the first Rupee
Sher Shah Suri Tomb at Sasaram
The Tomb (covered in green)
Lal Darwaza, the southern gate of Shergarh
Rohtas Fort's Kabuli Gate
Qila-i-Kuhna mosque, built by Sher Shah in 1541
Sher Mandal built in his honour by the Mughals
Copper Dam issued from Narnaul mint

In 1537, when Babur's son Humayun was elsewhere on an expedition, Sher Shah overran the state of Bengal and established the Suri dynasty.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))

Mughal Empire

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Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Early-modern empire that controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries.

The empire at its greatest extent in c. 1700 under Aurangzeb ((r. 1658 – 1707))
Akbar holds a religious assembly of different faiths in the Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Horsemen of the invading Maratha Empire
Shah Alam II on horseback
Portrait of Bahadur Shah II
Coin of Aurangzeb, minted in Kabul, dated 1691/2
Miniature painting - Portrait of an Old Mughal Courtier Wearing Muslin
Muslim Lady Reclining or An Indian Girl with a Hookah, painted in Dacca, 18th century
Ruins of the Great Caravanserai in Dhaka.
Ghulam Hamdani Mushafi, the poet first believed to have coined the name "Urdu" around 1780 AD for a language that went by a multiplicity of names before his time.
Mir Taqi Mir, an Urdu poet of the 18th century Mughal Empire
The Taj Mahal in the 1870s
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan
Buland Darwaza in Fatehpur Sikiri, Agra, India
Lalbagh Fort aerial view in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Shalimar Bagh in Srinagar, Kashmir, India
Illustration by the 17th-century Mughal artist Ustad Mansur
"Alexander Visits the Sage Plato in His Mountain Cave"; illustration by the 16th-century Indian artist Basawan, in a folio from a quintet of the 13th-century Indian poet Amir Khusrau Dihlavi
Folio from Farhang-i-Jahangiri, a Persian dictionary compiled during the Mughal era.
Mughal matchlock rifle, 16th century.
Mughal musketeer, 17th century.
The remnants of the empire in 1751

The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun (reigned 1530–1556), who was forced into exile in Persia by rebels.

Portrait of Kamran, c. 1600-1605

Kamran Mirza

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The second son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire and the first Mughal Emperor.

The second son of Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire and the first Mughal Emperor.

Portrait of Kamran, c. 1600-1605
Kamran ki Baradari

He was half-brother to Babur's eldest son Humayun, who would go on and inherit the Mughal throne, but he was full-brother to Babur's third son, Askari.

Death of Bahadur Shah in front of Diu during negotiations with the Portuguese, in 1537. Akbar Nama, end of 16th century.

Bahadur Shah of Gujarat

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Sultan of the Muzaffarid dynasty who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India from 1526 to 1535 and again from 1536 to 1537.

Sultan of the Muzaffarid dynasty who reigned over the Gujarat Sultanate, a late medieval kingdom in India from 1526 to 1535 and again from 1536 to 1537.

Death of Bahadur Shah in front of Diu during negotiations with the Portuguese, in 1537. Akbar Nama, end of 16th century.
Death of Bahadur Shah in front of Diu during negotiations with the Portuguese, in 1537. Akbar Nama, end of 16th century.
A copper coin of Bahadur
The Mughal Emperor Humayun, fights Bahadur Shah of Gujarat, in the year 1535.

In 1532, Gujarat came under attack of the Mughal Emperor Humayun and fell.

Artistic portrait of Empress Consort of Emperor Humayun and Queen Mother of Mughal Emperor Akbar

Hamida Banu Begum

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Hamida Banu Begum (c.

Hamida Banu Begum (c.

Artistic portrait of Empress Consort of Emperor Humayun and Queen Mother of Mughal Emperor Akbar
Young Akbar recognizes his mother. An illustration from the Akbarnama.
Akbar's mother travels by boat to Agra. An illustration from the Akbarnama.
Cenotaph of Hamida Banu Begum along with that of Dara Shikoh and others, in a side chamber of Humayun's Tomb, Delhi.

undefined 1527 – 29 August 1604), was a wife of the second Mughal emperor Humayun and the mother of his successor, the third Mughal emperor Akbar.

Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by Emperor Ashoka, from Chilzina in Kandahar, 3rd century BC.

Kandahar

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City in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1010 m. It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, with a population of about 614,118.

City in Afghanistan, located in the south of the country on the Arghandab River, at an elevation of 1010 m. It is Afghanistan's second largest city after Kabul, with a population of about 614,118.

Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by Emperor Ashoka, from Chilzina in Kandahar, 3rd century BC.
A miniature from Padshahnama depicting the surrender of the Shi'a Safavid garrison at what is now Old Kandahar in 1638 to the Mughal army of Shah Jahan
This lithograph is taken from plate 23 of Afghaunistan by Lieutenant James Rattray, 1848. He sketched Kandahar in December 1841 from the rooftop of the former residence of the province's governor, Sirdar Meer Dil Khaun, who was brother to the Emir. Pictured on the left is the tomb of Ahmed Shah Durrani and on the right the Bala Hissar (fort) and citadel.
Painting by Abdul Ghafoor Breshna depicting the 1747 coronation of Ahmad Shah Durrani, who is regarded as the founding father of Afghanistan (Father of the Nation).
British and allied forces at Kandahar after the 1880 Battle of Kandahar, during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The large defensive wall around the city was finally removed in the early 1930s by the order of King Nader Khan, the father of King Zahir Shah.
Street in the city, 1973
The Mausoleum of Mirwais Hotak
U.S. Army troops in 2009 passing by the starting point of the Army Ten-Miler run at their base next to Kandahar International Airport.
Afghan National Security Forces and members of ISAF providing security in 2012.
U.S. Ambassador Ryan Crocker and Toryalai Wesa, the Governor of Kandahar Province.
View of the airport in 2005
A Kam Air passenger plane at Kandahar International Airport in 2012
Children from the Zarghona Ana High School watch members of Afghan National Security Force and Kandahar Provincial Reconstruction Team prepare for the Kandahar Nursing and Midwifery Institute grand opening ceremony in 2012.
An 1881 photo showing the ruined Old Kandahar citadel of Shah Hussain Hotak that was destroyed by the Afsharid forces of Nader Shah in 1738. This destroyed fortress is still standing today.
Ancient city of Old Kandahar (red) and Chilzina mountainous outcrop (blue) on the western side of Kandahar.
The original model plan of the Aino Mina neighbourhood, which began in 2003 by Mahmud Karzai and associates.
The mausoleum of Baba Wali Kandhari next to the Arghandab Valley, in the northern outskirts of the city.
The mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Durrani in the centre of the city, which also serves as the Congregational Mosque and contains a sacred cloak that used to be worn by Islam's Prophet Muhammad.
Al-Jadeed indoor shopping centre in the Shahre Naw section of the city.
Local children watching a football match at the playground of Ahmad Shah Baba High School.
Arghandab Valley
Mausoleum of Ahmad Shah Durrani
Governor's Mansion
A gathering of tribal and religious leaders following a shura held by Afghan President Hamid Karzai in June 2010 to start a dialogue for peace with the Taliban.

In 1554, Babur's son, Humayun, handed it over to the Safavid Shah Tahmasp in return of 12,000 soldiers he received from the Shah to reconquer India.

Lahore

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Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

Capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab, is Pakistan's 2nd largest city after Karachi, and is the 26th largest city in the world.

The Lava Temple at the Lahore Fort dates from the Sikh period, and is dedicated to the Hindu deity Lava
The Data Darbar shrine, one of Pakistan's most important, was built to commemorate the patron saint of Lahore, Ali Hujwiri, who lived in the city during the Ghaznavid era in the 11th century.
The Neevin Mosque is one of Lahore's few remaining medieval era buildings.
Grave of Nur Jahan
Lahore's Wazir Khan Mosque is considered to be the most ornately decorated Mughal-era mosque.
The Begum Shahi Mosque was completed in 1614 in honour of Jahangir's mother, Mariam-uz-Zamani.
The iconic Alamgiri Gate of the Lahore Fort was built in 1674, and faces Aurangzeb's Badshahi Mosque.
Wazir Khan Mosque painting by William Carpenter, 1866.
The Sunehri Mosque was built in the Walled City of Lahore in the early 18th century, when the Mughal Empire was in decline.
The Tomb of Asif Khan was one of several monuments plundered for its precious building materials during the Sikh period.
Lahore's Hazuri Bagh is at the centre of an ensemble of Mughal and Sikh era monuments, including the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore Fort, Roshnai Gate, and the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh.
The marble Hazuri Bagh Baradari was built in 1818 to celebrate Ranjit Singh's acquisition of the Koh-i-Noor diamond.
Map of the Old City and environs.
The Shah Alami area of Lahore's Walled City in 1890
Having been constructed in the immediate aftermath of the 1857 Sepoy Mutiny, the design of the Lahore Railway Station was highly militarised in order to defend the structure from any further potential uprisings against British rule.
The Mall, Lahore's pre-independence commercial core, features many examples of colonial architecture.
Sections of the Walled City of Lahore have been under restoration since 2012 in conjunction with the Agha Khan Trust for Culture.
Cityscape of Lahore
The area around the Wazir Khan Mosque exemplifies the Walled City's urban form
Built in 2012, Grand Jamia Mosque in Southern Lahore is a blend of Mughal and modern architecture.
A syncretic architectural style that blends Islamic, Hindu, and Western motifs took root during the colonial era, as shown at Aitchison College.
Much of old Lahore features colonial-era buildings, such as the Tollinton Market.
Lahore's Lawrence Garden was laid in 1862.
Kalma Underpass
Lahore Metrobus
The Orange Line is Pakistan's first metro rail line.
Allama Iqbal International Airport
The Azadi Chowk is located near the Badshahi Mosque.
Lahore Ring Road
Lahore Canal during the spring Basant festival
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Government College University
University of the Punjab
University of Engineering and Technology, Main Block.
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort
Tomb of Jahangir
Shahi Hammam
Samadhi of Ranjit Singh
Gurdwara Dera Sahib
Haveli of Nau Nihal Singh
Hazuri Bagh
Gurdwara Janam Asthan Guru Ram Das
Lahore Museum
Lahore High Court
King Edward Medical University
Islamic Summit Minar
Minar-e-Pakistan
Grand Jamia Mosque
Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
WAPDA House
Arfa Karim tower in Lahore
Expo Centre Lahore
PIA Head Office
Emporium Mall
Wazir Khan Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
Lahore Fort (Shahi Qila)
Minar-e-Pakistan at night
Shalimar Gardens
Pakistan playing against Argentina in 2005.
Gaddafi Stadium is one of the largest stadiums of Pakistan with a capacity of 27,000 spectators.
Gymkhana Club

The city became a refuge to Humayun and his cousin Kamran Mirza when Sher Shah Suri rose in power on the Gangetic Plains, displacing Mughal power.

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.

Mughal emperors

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The Mughal emperors were the supreme head of state of the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

The Mughal emperors were the supreme head of state of the Mughal Empire on the Indian subcontinent, mainly corresponding to the modern countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Bangladesh.

Genealogy of the Mughal Dynasty. Only principal offspring of each emperor are provided in the chart.
Group portrait of Mughal rulers, from Babur to Aurangzeb, with the Mughal ancestor Timur seated in the middle. On the left: Shah Jahan, Akbar and Babur, with Abu Sa'id of Samarkand and Timur's son, Miran Shah. On the right: Aurangzeb, Jahangir and Humayun, and two of Timur's other offspring Umar Shaykh and Muhammad Sultan. Created c. 1707–12
Shah Jahan, accompanied by his three sons: Dara Shikoh, Shah Shuja and Aurangzeb, and their maternal grandfather Asaf Khan IV
Akbar Shah II and his four sons

The instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven into exile in Persia by rebels.