Humid continental climate

Dfbhumid continentalHumid continental climate, cool summerDfacontinentalcontinental climatecontinental Mediterranean climateDwbDsbhumid continental climate (Köppen ''Dfa'')
[[File:Koppen World Map Dfa Dwa Dsa Dfb Dwb Dsb.png|thumb|right|upright=2.25|Humid continental climate worldwide, utilizing the Köppen climate classificationwikipedia
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Köppen climate classification

ClimateKöppenCfb
[[File:Koppen World Map Dfa Dwa Dsa Dfb Dwb Dsb.png|thumb|right|upright=2.25|Humid continental climate worldwide, utilizing the Köppen climate classification A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
Dfa = Hot-summer humid continental climate; coldest month averaging below -0 °C (or -3 °C), at least one month's average temperature above 22 °C, and at least four months averaging above 10 °C. No significant precipitation difference between seasons (neither abovementioned set of conditions fulfilled).

Newfoundland and Labrador

NewfoundlandNLLabrador
In the Northern Hemisphere some of the humid continental climates, typically in Scandinavia, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland are heavily maritime-influenced, with relatively cool summers and winters being just below the freezing mark.
Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador has a subarctic climate, while most of Newfoundland has a humid continental climate (Dfb under the Köppen climate classification system): cool summer subtype.

Climate

climaticclimate systemclimates
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rainforest, monsoon, tropical savanna, humid subtropical, humid continental, oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, desert, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, and polar ice cap.

Siberia

SiberianEastern SiberiaWestern Siberia
More extreme humid continental climates found in northeast China, southern Siberia and the American Midwest combine hotter summer maxima and colder winters than the marine-based variety.
The climate in this southernmost part is Humid continental climate (Köppen Dfb) with cold winters but fairly warm summers lasting at least four months.

Scandinavia

ScandinavianScandinavian countriesNordic
In the Northern Hemisphere some of the humid continental climates, typically in Scandinavia, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland are heavily maritime-influenced, with relatively cool summers and winters being just below the freezing mark.
The central part – from Oslo to Stockholm – has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which gradually gives way to subarctic climate (Dfc) further north and cool marine west coast climate (Cfc) along the northwestern coast.

Nebraska

NEState of NebraskaNeb.
The western states of the central United States (namely Montana, Wyoming, parts of southern Idaho, most of Lincoln County in Eastern Washington, parts of Colorado, parts of Utah, western Nebraska, and parts of western North and South Dakota) have thermal regimes which fit the Dfa climate type, but are quite dry, and are generally grouped with the steppe (BSk) climates.
There are two major climatic zones: the eastern half of the state has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfa), with a unique warmer subtype considered "warm-temperate" near the southern plains like in Kansas and Oklahoma which have a predominantly humid subtropical climate.

Rain

rainfallrainstormtorrential rain
Snowfall occurs in all areas with a humid continental climate and in many such places is more common than rain during the height of winter.
The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rain forest, monsoon, tropical savanna, humid subtropical, humid continental, oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, polar ice cap, and desert.

Semi-arid climate

semi-aridBShBSk
The definition of this climate regarding temperature is as follows: the mean temperature of the coldest month must be below −3 °C (or 0 °C) and there must be at least four months whose mean temperatures are at or above 10 °C. In addition, the location in question must not be semi-arid or arid.
Cold semi-arid climates (type "BSk") tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate.

Biome

biotabiomesmajor habitat type
Biomes within this climate regime include temperate woodlands, temperate grasslands, temperate deciduous, temperate evergreen forests, and coniferous forests.
210 Warm Continental Division (Köppen: portion of Dcb)

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
The western states of the central United States (namely Montana, Wyoming, parts of southern Idaho, most of Lincoln County in Eastern Washington, parts of Colorado, parts of Utah, western Nebraska, and parts of western North and South Dakota) have thermal regimes which fit the Dfa climate type, but are quite dry, and are generally grouped with the steppe (BSk) climates.
To the east of the 100th meridian, the climate ranges from humid continental in the north to humid subtropical in the south.

Precipitation

rainfallhydrometeorannual precipitation
Precipitation is relatively well distributed year-round in many areas with this climate (f), while others may see a marked reduction in wintry precipitation, which increases the chances of a wintertime drought (w).
The five primary classifications can be further divided into secondary classifications such as rain forest, monsoon, tropical savanna, humid subtropical, humid continental, oceanic climate, Mediterranean climate, steppe, subarctic climate, tundra, polar ice cap, and desert.

Serbia

🇷🇸SRBSerbian
Within Europe, the Dfa climate type is present near the Black Sea in southern Ukraine, the Southern Federal District of Russia, southern Moldova, Serbia, parts of southern Romania, and Bulgaria, but tends to be drier and can be even semi-arid in these places.
With mean January temperatures around 0 C, and mean July temperatures of 22 C, it can be classified as a warm-humid continental or humid subtropical climate.

Russia

🇷🇺RUSRussian
Within Europe, the Dfa climate type is present near the Black Sea in southern Ukraine, the Southern Federal District of Russia, southern Moldova, Serbia, parts of southern Romania, and Bulgaria, but tends to be drier and can be even semi-arid in these places. In Europe, it is found in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania and Hungary.
The enormous size of Russia and the remoteness of many areas from the sea result in the dominance of the humid continental climate, which is prevalent in all parts of the country except for the tundra and the extreme southwest.

Estonia

🇪🇪ESTEstonian
In Europe, it is found in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania and Hungary.
The territory of Estonia consists of a mainland and 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea, covering a total area of 45227 km2, water 2839 km2, land area 42388 km2, and is influenced by a humid continental climate.

100th meridian west

100th meridian100° westhundredth meridian
Within North America, this climate includes small areas of central and southeast Canada, and portions of the central and eastern United States from the 100th meridian eastward to the Atlantic.
In the central Great Plains, the meridian roughly marks the western boundary of the normal reach of moist air from the Gulf of Mexico, and the approximate boundary (although some areas do push the boundary slightly farther east) between the semi-arid climate to the west and the humid continental (north of about 37°N) and humid subtropical (south of about 37°N) climates to the east.

Climate of New England

New EnglandNew England climate
Much of New England falls into this subtype.
Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, and most of Massachusetts have a humid continental climate (Dfb in Köppen climate classification).

Aspen, Colorado

AspenAspen, COCity of Aspen
In the Western Hemisphere, high-altitude locations as South Lake Tahoe, California, and Aspen, Colorado, in the western United States exhibit local Dfb climates.
Under the Köppen climate classification, Aspen has a humid continental climate (Köppen: Dfb) owing to its high elevation.

Sweden

🇸🇪SwedishSWE
In Europe, it is found in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania and Hungary.
The country can be divided into three types of climate: the southernmost part has an oceanic climate, the central part has a humid continental climate and the northernmost part has a subarctic climate.

Norway

Norwegian🇳🇴NOR
In Europe, it is found in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania and Hungary.
Parts of southeastern Norway including parts of Mjøsa have warm-summer humid continental climates (Köppen Dfb), while the more southern and western coasts are mostly of the oceanic climate (Cfb).

Japan

🇯🇵JPNJapanese
Northern Japan has a similar climate.
The northernmost zone, Hokkaido, has a humid continental climate with long, cold winters and very warm to cool summers.

Latvia

🇱🇻LatvianRepublic of Latvia
In Europe, it is found in Ukraine, Belarus, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania and Hungary.
Latvia has a temperate climate that has been described in various sources as either humid continental (Köppen Dfb) or oceanic/maritime (Köppen Cfb).

Hokkaido

HokkaidōHokkaido PrefectureHokkaido, Japan
Tōhoku, between Tokyo and Hokkaidō and Western coast of Japan also has a climate with Köppen classification Dfa, but is wetter even than that part of North America with this climate type.
Most of the island falls in the humid continental climate zone with Köppen climate classification Dfb (hemiboreal) in most areas but Dfa (hot summer humid continental) in some inland lowlands.

South Lake Tahoe, California

South Lake TahoeLake TahoeLake Tahoe, California
In the Western Hemisphere, high-altitude locations as South Lake Tahoe, California, and Aspen, Colorado, in the western United States exhibit local Dfb climates.
The climate is either classified as a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen Csb), using the 27 F isotherm of the original Köppen scheme, or a continental Mediterranean climate (Köppen Dsb), using the 32 F isotherm preferred by some climatologists.

Continental climate

continentalDsbhumid continental
*Continental climate
Humid continental climate

Climatology

climatologistclimate scienceclimatological
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.