Humorism

humorshumoursfour humoursfour humorshumoral theoryyellow bilehumoralhumourthe four humourshumoral medicine
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers.wikipedia
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Ancient Greek medicine

Greek physicianGreek medicineMedicine in ancient Greece
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers.
Specifically, the ancient Greeks believed health was affected by the humors, geographic location, social class, diet, trauma, beliefs, and mindset.

Temperament

temperconstitutedGood temper
Hippocrates and then Galen suggested that a moderate imbalance in the mixture of these fluids produces temperament (behavioural) type.
Historically, the concept of temperament (originally "temperamentums" in Latin means "mixtures") was a part of the theory of the four humors, with their corresponding four temperaments.

Medicine in ancient Rome

RomeRomanGreco-Roman medicine
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers.
Many of them strongly believed in achieving the right balance of the four humors and restoring the natural heat of patients.

Galen

Galen of PergamonGalenic medicineGalenus
Humoralism, or the doctrine of the four temperaments, as a medical theory retained its popularity for centuries largely through the influence of the writings of Galen (129–201 AD).
Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humorism (also known as the four humors – black bile, yellow bile, blood, and phlegm), as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates.

Alcmaeon of Croton

AlcmaeonAlcamaeonAlkmaeon
The concept of "humors" (i.e. chemical systems regulating human behaviour) became more prominent from the writing of medical theorist Alcmaeon of Croton (C.
It was he who first suggested that health was a state of equilibrium between opposing humors and that illnesses were because of problems in environment, nutrition and lifestyle.

Hippocrates

HippocraticHippocrates of CosHippocrates of Kos
Hippocrates is the one usually credited with applying this idea to medicine. From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Islamic physicians, and dominated the view of the human body among European physicians until at least 1543 when it was first seriously challenged by Andreas Vesalius. Alcmaeon and Hippocrates posited that an extreme excess or deficiency of any of the humours bodily fluid in a person can be a sign of illness.
However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism.

Four temperaments

phlegmaticcholericsanguine
Each corresponds to one of the traditional four temperaments.
460 – c. 370 BC) described the four temperaments as part of the ancient medical concept of humorism, that four bodily fluids affect human personality traits and behaviors.

Melancholia

melancholymelancholicblack bile
Melancholy was one of the four temperaments matching the four humours.

Air (classical element)

airWindAerial Calamity
In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humours became associated with an element.

Fire (classical element)

fireclassical element of fireelemental fire
In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humours became associated with an element.

Earth (classical element)

earthEarth elementclassical element
In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humours became associated with an element.

Water (classical element)

waterwater elementelement of water
In ancient Greek medicine, each of the four humours became associated with an element.

Classical element

four elementsclassical elementselements
Empedocles's theory suggested that four elements: earth, fire, water, and air; earth produce the natural systems.
According to Galen, these elements were used by Hippocrates in describing the human body with an association with the four humours: yellow bile (fire), black bile (earth), blood (air), and phlegm (water).

Phlegm

FlemExcessive phlegm creationproductive
These terms only partly correspond to the modern medical terminology, in which there is no distinction between black and yellow bile and phlegm has a very different meaning.
Humourism is an ancient theory that the human body is filled with four basic substances, called the four humours, which are held in balance when a person is healthy.

The Canon of Medicine

Canon of MedicineCanonQanun
Medieval medical tradition in the "Golden Age of Islam" adopted the theory of humorism from Greco-Roman medicine, notably via the Persian polymath Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025).
The Canon of Medicine is based upon the Four Humours of Hippocratic medicine, but refined in various ways.

Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

physicianIslamic medicinemedicine
Medieval medical tradition in the "Golden Age of Islam" adopted the theory of humorism from Greco-Roman medicine, notably via the Persian polymath Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025). From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Islamic physicians, and dominated the view of the human body among European physicians until at least 1543 when it was first seriously challenged by Andreas Vesalius.
In his work, Al-Ridha is influenced by the concept of humoral medicine

Bile

biliarybiliousgall
These terms only partly correspond to the modern medical terminology, in which there is no distinction between black and yellow bile and phlegm has a very different meaning. The four humors of Hippocratic medicine are black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood (αἷμα, haima).
In medical theories prevalent in the West from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, the body's health depended on the equilibrium of four "humors", or vital fluids, two of which related to bile: blood, phlegm, "yellow bile" (choler), and "black bile".

Medieval medicine of Western Europe

medieval medicinemedieval European medicinemedical school
From Hippocrates onward, the humoral theory was adopted by Greek, Roman and Islamic physicians, and dominated the view of the human body among European physicians until at least 1543 when it was first seriously challenged by Andreas Vesalius.
The body, as a reflection of natural forces, contained four elemental properties expressed to the Greeks as the four humors.

Body fluid

bodily fluidbodily fluidsbody fluids
Alcmaeon and Hippocrates posited that an extreme excess or deficiency of any of the humours bodily fluid in a person can be a sign of illness.

Bloodletting

bleedingblood-lettingblood letting
Typically "eighteenth-century" practices such as bleeding a sick person or applying hot cups to a person were, in fact, based on the humoral theory of imbalances of fluids (blood and bile in those cases).
Bloodletting, whether by a physician or by leeches, was based on an ancient system of medicine in which blood and other bodily fluids were regarded as "humours" that had to remain in proper balance to maintain health.

Complexion

Ben Jonson wrote humor plays, where types were based on their humoral complexion.
The word "complexion" is derived from the Late Latin complexi, which initially referred in general terms to a combination of things, and later in physiological terms, to the balance of humors.

Spleen

splenicsplenetichilum
The connection between spleen (the organ) and melancholy (the temperament) comes from the humoral medicine of the ancient Greeks.

Islamic Golden Age

medieval Islamic worldIslamic civilizationGolden Age of Islam
Medieval medical tradition in the "Golden Age of Islam" adopted the theory of humorism from Greco-Roman medicine, notably via the Persian polymath Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine (1025).
The theory of Humorism was largely dominant during this time.

Humoral immunity

humoralhumoral immune responsehumoral response
For example, modern medicine refers to humoral immunity or humoral regulation when describing substances such as hormones and antibodies that circulate throughout the body.
Humoral immunity is so named because it involves substances found in the humors, or body fluids.

Comedy of humours

comedies of humourshumor playshumours comedy
Ben Jonson wrote humor plays, where types were based on their humoral complexion.
The comedy of humours is a genre of dramatic comedy that focuses on a character or range of characters, each of whom exhibits two or more overriding traits or 'humours' that dominates their personality, desires and conduct.