Hundred Years' War

Hundred Years WarHundred Years’ WarHundred Year's WarThe Hundred Years' Warwar100 Years WarFrench warsThe Hundred Years Warwar with Franceloss of England's French territories
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts lasting 116 years waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.wikipedia
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Kingdom of France

FranceFrenchFranco
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts lasting 116 years waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War.

Angevin Empire

AngevinPlantagenet EmpireAngevins
For this reason, English monarchs had historically held not only the English crown, but also titles and lands within France, the possession of which made them vassals to the kings of France.
This defeat set the scene for further conflicts between England and France, leading up to the Hundred Years' War.

Battle of Agincourt

AgincourtBattle of Azincourtvictory at Agincourt
Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crécy, Poitiers, Agincourt and Verneuil—raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph, and persuaded the English to continue pouring money and manpower into the war over many decades.
The Battle of Agincourt (Azincourt ) was one of the English victories in the Hundred Years' War.

Battle of Poitiers

PoitiersBattle of Poitiers (1356)battle
Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crécy, Poitiers, Agincourt and Verneuil—raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph, and persuaded the English to continue pouring money and manpower into the war over many decades.
The Battle of Poitiers was a major English victory in the Hundred Years' War.

Battle of Verneuil

Verneuil
Several overwhelming English victories in the war—especially at Crécy, Poitiers, Agincourt and Verneuil—raised the prospects of an ultimate English triumph, and persuaded the English to continue pouring money and manpower into the war over many decades.
The Battle of Verneuil was a strategically important battle of the Hundred Years' War, fought on 17 August 1424 near Verneuil in Normandy and a significant English victory.

English claims to the French throne

Franceclaim to the French throneEnglish Kings of France
Isabella claimed the throne of France for her son, but the French rejected it, maintaining that Isabella could not transmit a right she did not possess.
Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France.

House of Valois

ValoisValois-AngoulêmeValois dynasty
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts lasting 116 years waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
These events helped launch the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453) between England and France.

Kingdom of England

EnglandEnglishAnglo
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts lasting 116 years waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the French House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
From the 1340s the kings of England also laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais.

Siege of Orléans

Siege of OrleansBattle of OrléansOrléans
Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay, Formigny, and later Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent.
The Siege of Orléans (12 October 1428 – 8 May 1429) was the watershed of the Hundred Years' War between France and England.

Henry V of England

Henry VKing Henry VHenry of Monmouth
However, the death of Henry V and succession of his infant son, with the dysfunctional government that ruled and the loss of Burgundy as an ally, prevented the English kings from ever completing the conquest of France.
Despite his relatively short reign, Henry's outstanding military successes in the Hundred Years' War against France, most notably in his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415, made England one of the strongest military powers in Europe.

Edward III of England

Edward IIIKing Edward IIIKing Edward III of England
His closest male relative was his nephew Edward III of England, whose mother, Isabella of France, was sister of the deceased king.
This started what became known as the Hundred Years' War.

Henry VI of England

Henry VIKing Henry VIKing Henry VI of England
However, the death of Henry V and succession of his infant son, with the dysfunctional government that ruled and the loss of Burgundy as an ally, prevented the English kings from ever completing the conquest of France.
Henry inherited the long-running Hundred Years' War (1337–1453), in which his uncle Charles VII contested his claim to the French throne.

Hundred Years' War (1337–1360)

Hundred Years' WarEdwardian PhaseEdwardian War
Historians commonly divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389), and the Lancastrian War (1415–1453).
The Edwardian War was the first phase of the Hundred Years' War between France and England.

Battle of Formigny

Formigny
Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay, Formigny, and later Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent.
The Battle of Formigny, fought on 15 April 1450, was a major battle of the Hundred Years' War between the kingdom of England and the kingdom of France.

Hundred Years' War (1369–1389)

Caroline WarTreaty of BrugesCaroline phase
Historians commonly divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389), and the Lancastrian War (1415–1453).
The Caroline War was the second phase of the Hundred Years' War between France and England, following the Edwardian War.

Philip VI of France

Philip VIKing Philip VIPhilip of Valois
The throne passed instead to Philip, Count of Valois, a patrilineal cousin of Charles IV, who would become Philip VI of France, the first king of the House of Valois.
The result was the beginning of the Hundred Years' War in 1337.

Auld Alliance

Franco-Scottish alliancealliancean alliance
French monarchs systematically sought to check the growth of English power, stripping away lands as the opportunity arose, particularly whenever England was at war with Scotland, an ally of France.
The alliance played an important role in conflicts between both countries and England, such as the Wars of Scottish Independence, the Hundred Years' War, the War of the League of Cambrai and the Rough Wooing.

Battle of Patay

Pataybattle at Patay
Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay, Formigny, and later Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent.
The Battle of Patay (18 June 1429) was the culminating engagement of the Loire Campaign of the Hundred Years' War between the French and English in north-central France.

Hundred Years' War (1415–1453)

Hundred Years' War1415–53 phaseLancastrian War
Historians commonly divide the war into three phases separated by truces: the Edwardian War (1337–1360), the Caroline War (1369–1389), and the Lancastrian War (1415–1453).
The Lancastrian War was the third and final phase of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War.

Battle of Castillon

CastillonBattle of CastillionFrench victory at Castillon
Starting in 1429, decisive French victories at Orléans, Patay, Formigny, and later Castillon concluded the war in favour of the House of Valois, with England permanently losing most of its possessions on the continent.
A decisive French victory, it is considered to mark the end of the Hundred Years' War.

War of the Breton Succession

Breton War of SuccessionWar of Breton Successionwar of succession
Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession (1341–1365), the Castilian Civil War (1366–1369), the War of the Two Peters (1356–1369) in Aragon, and the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were availed of by the parties to advance their agendas.
The war formed an integral part of the early Hundred Years' War due to the involvement of the French and English governments in the conflict; the French supported the Blois (female heir) whilst the English backed Montfort (male heir).

Charles IV of France

Charles IVCharlesKing Charles IV
In 1328, Charles IV of France died without sons or brothers.
However, the dispute on the succession to the French throne between the Valois monarchs descended in male line from Charles's grandfather Philip III of France, and the English monarchs descended from Charles's sister Isabella, was a factor of the Hundred Years' War.

History of Europe

European historyModern European historyEurope
Later historians adopted the term "Hundred Years' War" as a historiographical periodisation to encompass all of these events, thus constructing the longest military conflict in European history.
In Scandinavia, the Kalmar Union dominated the political landscape, while England fought with Scotland in the Wars of Scottish Independence and with France in the Hundred Years' War.

War of the Two Peters

The War of the Two PetersWar of the Two Pedros
Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession (1341–1365), the Castilian Civil War (1366–1369), the War of the Two Peters (1356–1369) in Aragon, and the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were availed of by the parties to advance their agendas.
The War of the Two Peters can thus be considered an extension of the wider Hundred Years' War as well as the Castilian Civil War.

Castilian Civil War

civil warCivil War in Castilecivil wars of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries
Local conflicts in neighbouring areas, which were contemporarily related to the war, including the War of the Breton Succession (1341–1365), the Castilian Civil War (1366–1369), the War of the Two Peters (1356–1369) in Aragon, and the 1383–85 crisis in Portugal, were availed of by the parties to advance their agendas.
It became part of the larger conflict then raging between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France: the Hundred Years' War.