Hungarian language

HungarianMagyarHungarian-languagehuHungarian-speakingHun:hunCsángóhu:hun.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries.wikipedia
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Hungary

🇭🇺HungarianHUN
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries.
The official language is Hungarian, which is the most widely spoken Uralic language in the world.

Finno-Ugric languages

Finno-UgricFinno-Ugric languageFinno-Ugric language family
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries.
The three most-spoken Uralic languages, Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, are all included in Finno-Ugric, although linguistic roots common to both branches of the traditional Finno-Ugric language tree (Finno-Permic and Ugric) are distant.

Transylvania

TransylvanianTransilvaniaSiebenbürgen
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia (Mur region).
In Romanian, the region is known as Ardeal or Transilvania ; in Hungarian as Erdély ; in German as Siebenbürgen ; and in Turkish as Transilvanya but historically as Erdel or Erdelistan; see also other denominations.

Vojvodina

Autonomous Province of VojvodinaAP VojvodinaSerbia
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia (Mur region).
Hungarian: Vajdaság Autonóm Tartomány

Prekmurje

HungarianMuravidékeastern Slovenia
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia (Mur region).
It is named after the Mur River, which separates it from the rest of Slovenia (a literal translation from Slovene would be Over-Mur or Transmurania). In Hungarian, the region is known as Muravidék, and in German as Übermurgebiet.

Mansi language

MansiMansi literary languagemns
Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the Ugric branch within Uralic/Finno-Ugric, along with the Mansi and Khanty languages of western Siberia (Khanty–Mansia region), but it is no longer clear that it is a valid group.
It is one of the Uralic languages, often considered particularly closely related to its neighbor Khanty as well as to Hungarian.

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family.
Finnish demonstrates an affiliation with other Uralic languages (such as Hungarian) in several respects including:

Ugric languages

UgricUgric languagelinguistic relatives
Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the Ugric branch within Uralic/Finno-Ugric, along with the Mansi and Khanty languages of western Siberia (Khanty–Mansia region), but it is no longer clear that it is a valid group.
Ugric includes three subgroups: Hungarian, Khanty, and Mansi.

Komondor

Turkish kopuz ‘lute’); komondor ‘mop dog’ (< *kumandur < Cuman). Hungarian borrowed many words from neighbouring Slavic languages; e.g., tégla ‘brick’; mák ‘poppy’; karácsony ‘Christmas’ ).
The Komondor (in Hungarian, the plural form of komondor is komondorok ), also known as the Hungarian sheepdog, is a large, white-coloured Hungarian breed of livestock guardian dog with a long, corded coat.

Croatia

🇭🇷CroatianRepublic of Croatia
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia (Mur region).
Its primary focus was the establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian, along with the promotion of Croatian literature and culture.

Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug

Khanty–MansiKhanty-MansiYugra
Hungarian has traditionally been assigned to the Ugric branch within Uralic/Finno-Ugric, along with the Mansi and Khanty languages of western Siberia (Khanty–Mansia region), but it is no longer clear that it is a valid group.
The local languages, Khanty language and Mansi language, enjoy special status in the autonomous okrug and along with their distant relative Hungarian are part of the Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric languages.

Cumans

CumanKumanPolovtsy
Turkic loans from this period come mainly from the Pechenegs and Cumanians, who settled in Hungary during the 12th and 13th centuries; e.g., koboz ‘cobza’ (cf.
The Hungarian term for the Cumans is Kun (also Qoun; Kunok), which in Old Hungarian meant "nomad", but was later applied solely to the Cumans.

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
The European Union has 24 official languages: Bulgarian, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hungarian, Italian, Irish, Latvian, Lithuanian, Maltese, Polish, Portuguese, Romanian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish, and Swedish.

Uralic languages

UralicUralic language familyUralic language
Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family.
The Uralic languages with the most native speakers are Hungarian, Finnish, and Estonian, which are official languages in Hungary, Finland, and Estonia, respectively, and in the European Union.

Serbia

🇷🇸SRBSerbian
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia (Mur region).
Recognized minority languages are: Hungarian, Bosnian, Slovak, Croatian, Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn.

Pseudoscientific language comparison

Pseudolinguisticspseudoscientific comparisonsfringe theory
There have been attempts, dismissed by mainstream linguists as pseudoscientific comparisons, to show that Hungarian is related to other languages, such as Hebrew, Hunnic, Sumerian, Egyptian, Etruscan, Basque, Persian, Pelasgian, Greek, Chinese, Sanskrit, English, Tibetan, Magar, Quechua, Armenian, Japanese, and at least 40 other languages.
These include languages of ancient civilizations such as Egyptian, Etruscan or Sumerian; language isolates or near-isolates such as Basque, Japanese and Ainu; and languages that are unrelated to their geographical neighbors such as Hungarian.

Hungarian literature

HungarianliteratureHungary
A more extensive body of Hungarian literature arose after 1300.
Hungarian literature is the body of written works primarily produced in Hungarian, and may also include works written in other languages (mostly Latin), either produced by Hungarians or having topics which are closely related to Hungarian culture.

Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany

deed of the foundationCharter of the Tihany Benedictine Abbeycharter of Tihany
The earliest remaining fragments of the language are found in the establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany from 1055, intermingled with Latin text.
The Establishing charter of the abbey of Tihany is a document known for including the oldest written words in the Hungarian language.

Slovenia

🇸🇮SlovenianSlovene
Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine (Subcarpathia), central and western Romania (Transylvania), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia (Mur region). Today the language holds official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Austria and Slovenia.
Hungarian and Italian, spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual.

Kingdom of Hungary

HungaryHungarianHungarians
The Kingdom of Hungary was founded in 1000 by Stephen I.
The Hungarian name (Magyar Királyság) was used in the 1840s, and then again from the 1860s to 1946.

Ferenc Kazinczy

KazinczyKazinczy FerencKazinczy, Ferenc
In the 18th century a group of writers, most notably Ferenc Kazinczy, spearheaded a process of nyelvújítás (language revitalization).
Ferenc Kazinczy (in older English: Francis Kazinczy, October 27, 1759 – August 23, 1831) was a Hungarian author, poet, translator, neologist, the most indefatigable agent in the regeneration of the Hungarian language and literature at the turn of the 19th century.

Vowel harmony

harmonizeharmonysynharmonism
The standard language lost its diphthongs, and several postpositions transformed into suffixes, including reá "onto" (the phrase utu rea "onto the way" found in the 1055 text would later become útra). There were also changes in the system of vowel harmony.
When the vowel triggers lie within the root or stem of a word and the affixes contain the targets, this is called stem-controlled vowel harmony (the opposite situation is called dominant). This is fairly common among languages with vowel harmony and may be seen in the Hungarian dative suffix:

Hungarians in Slovakia

HungariansHungarianHungarian ethnicity
Today the language holds official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Austria and Slovenia.
According to the 2011 Slovak census, 458,467 people (or 8.5% of the population) declared themselves Hungarians, while 508,714 (9.4% of the population) stated that Hungarian was their mother tongue.

Hungarians in Serbia

HungariansHungarianethnic Hungarian
Today the language holds official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Austria and Slovenia.
Hungarian is listed as one of the six official languages of Vojvodina, autonomous province which traditionally fosters multilingualism, multiculturalism and multiconfessionalism.

Hungarians in Romania

Hungariansethnic HungarianHungarian
Today the language holds official status nationally in Hungary and regionally in Romania, Slovakia, Serbia, Austria and Slovenia.
The Hungarian minority of Romania (Hungarian: Magyarok Romániában, Romanian: Maghiarii din România) is the largest ethnic minority in Romania, consisting of 1,227,623 people and making up 6.1% of the total population, according to the 2011 census.