A report on Hungary

Roman provinces: Illyricum, Macedonia, Dacia, Moesia, Pannonia, Thracia
Attila, king of the Huns (434/444–453)
Italian fresco – Hungarian warrior shooting backwards
Hungarian Conquest (of the Carpathian Basin) – painting by Mihály Munkácsy
Hungarian raids in the 10th century
King Saint Stephen, the first King of Hungary, converted the nation to Christianity.
The Holy Crown (Szent Korona), one of the key symbols of Hungary
Christ Pantocrator on the Holy Crown of Hungary. Hungary is traditionally a Christian country.
A map of lands ruled by Louis the Great
Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus
Painting commemorating the Siege of Eger, a major victory against the Ottomans
Francis II Rákóczi, leader of the war of independence against Habsburg rule in 1703–11
Count István Széchenyi offered one year's income to establish the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Lajos Kossuth, Regent-President during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
The Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen consisted of the territories of the Kingdom of Hungary (16) and the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (17).
5 July 1848: The opening ceremony of the first parliament which was based on popular representation. The members of the first responsible government are on the balcony.
Coronation of Francis Joseph I and Elisabeth Amalie at Matthias Church, Buda, 8 June 1867
Hungarian-built dreadnought battleship SMS Szent István during World War I
With the Treaty of Trianon, Hungary lost 72% of its territory, its sea ports and 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians
Miklós Horthy, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary (1920–1944)
Kingdom of Hungary, 1941–44
Jewish women being arrested on Wesselényi Street in Budapest during the Holocaust, c. undefined 20–22 October 1944
The Széchenyi Chain Bridge and the Buda Castle in ruins after World War II (1946)
A destroyed Soviet tank in Budapest during the Revolution of 1956. Times Man of the Year for 1956 was the Hungarian Freedom Fighter.
János Kádár, General Secretary of MSZMP, the Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party (1956–1988)
The Visegrád Group signing ceremony in February 1991
Geographic map of Hungary
The Sándor Palace is the official residence of the President of Hungary.
The Hungarian Parliament Building on the banks of the Danube in Budapest
The original and future seat of the Curia, Hungary's highest court
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Meeting of the leaders of the Visegrád Group, Germany and France in 2013
United Nations conference in the assembly hall of the House of Magnates in the Hungarian Parliament Building
HDF 34th Special Forces Battalion
JAS 39 Gripen multirole combat aircraft
Hungary is part of the European Union's internal market with 508 million consumers and part of Schengen Area
A proportional representation of Hungary's exports, 2019
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Albert Szent-Györgyi won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of Vitamin C. The Nobel Prize has been awarded to 13 Hungarians.
Founded in 1782, the Budapest University of Technology and Economics is the oldest institute of technology in the world.
The research and development centre of Gedeon Richter Plc., one of the largest biotechnology companies in Central and Eastern Europe, in Budapest.
Siemens Desiro passenger trains on the Hungarian State Railways network, which is one of the densest in the world.
Population density in Hungary by district
Budapest
Towns and villages in Hungary
Regions of Central and Eastern Europe inhabited by Hungarian speakers today
King Saint Stephen offering the Hungarian crown to Virgin Mary – painting by Gyula Benczúr, in the St. Stephen's Basilica
Rector's Council Hall of Budapest Business School, the first public business school in the world, founded in 1857
Szent István Hospital on Üllői Avenue, Budapest. Together with Szent László Hospital, they form the largest hospital complex in Hungary, built at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries.
Eszterháza Palace, the "Hungarian Versailles", in Fertőd, Győr-Moson-Sopron County
Romanesque Ják Abbey, Vas County, built between 1220 and 1256
The Museum of Applied Arts, an Art Nouveau building designed by Ödön Lechner
The Hungarian State Opera House on Andrássy út (a World Heritage Site)
Ferenc Liszt, one of the greatest pianists of all time; a renowned composer and conductor
Béla Bartók, a composer of great influence in the early 20th century; one of the founders of ethnomusicology
The alphabet of the Székely-Hungarian runiform; the country switched to the Latin alphabet during the reign of King Saint Stephen (1000–1038)
The oldest extant Hungarian poem, the Old Hungarian Lamentations of Mary (1190s)
Sándor Petőfi, Hungarian poet and revolutionary
Sándor Márai, Hungarian writer and journalist
Hortobágyi palacsinta in Sopron
Dobos torte
The famous Tokaji wine. It was called Vinum Regum, Rex Vinorum ("Wine of Kings, King of Wines") by Louis XIV of France.
Hungarians in traditional garments / folk costumes dancing the csárdás
Hungary men's national water polo team is considered among the best in the world, holding the world record for Olympic golds and overall medals.
The Groupama Aréna, home of Ferencvárosi TC, a UEFA Category 4 Stadium
Ferenc Puskás, the greatest top division scorer of the 20th century. The FIFA Puskás Award is named in his honour.
A map of the lands ruled by Louis the Great in Pallas's Great Encyclopedia
Map of the lands ruled by Matthias Corvinus. Designed by Dr. Lajos Baróti.

Landlocked country in Central Europe.

- Hungary

346 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Budapest

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Buda during the Middle Ages, woodcut from the Nuremberg Chronicle (1493)
Retaking of Buda from the Ottoman Empire, painted by Frans Geffels in 1686
Millennium Underground (1894–1896), the second oldest metro in the world (after the Metropolitan line of the London Underground)
The Hungarian State Opera House, built in the time of Austria-Hungary
Bond of the City of Budapest, issued 1. Mai 1911
Soviet tanks in Budapest (1956)
Satellite imagery of Budapest
The most famous Budapest bridge, the Chain Bridge, the icon of the city's 19th century development, built in 1849
The Hungarian Parliament, completed in 1904
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MOL Group solar powered filling station in Budapest. It is the second most valuable company in Central and Eastern Europe
Research and development centre of Richter Gedeon in Budapest
Budapest Stock Exchange at Liberty Square, it is the 2nd largest stock exchange in CEE
Model United Nations conference in the assembly hall of House of Magnates
Old building (from 1890) of the Hungarian Royal Curia, that operated as the highest court in the Kingdom of Hungary between 1723 and 1949. Now it houses a museum.
U.S. President George W. Bush meets with Hungarian President László Sólyom at Sándor Palace in Budapest.
The Holy Trinity column in the Holy Trinity Square, Buda Castle Hill
The City Park Ice Rink located in the City Park, the Vajdahunyad Castle is in the background
Park on Margaret Island
Aerial panorama with Margaret Island
Széchenyi Thermal Bath in the City Park
Budapest International Airport arrivals and departures lounge between terminal 2A and 2B, named SkyCourt
Budapest metro and rapid transit network within the city and to suburbs
Green Line 4, a driverless metro line with real-time PIDS system at Kálvin square, a transfer station to Blue Line 3
CAF Tram on Line 17 at Széll Kálmán Square
A Volvo 7900A Hybrid in Budapest on Line 5 operated by BKK
Megyeri Bridge on M0 highway ring road around Budapest
Keleti Railway Station (Budapest East Central)
Hungarian Academy of Sciences seat in Budapest, founded in 1825 by Count István Széchenyi
Hungarian State Opera House
Sziget Festival Budapest. One of the largest music festivals in Europe provides a multicultural, diverse meeting point for locals and foreigners every year.
Hungarian Television seat in 2009 at Liberty square in District V
Puskás Aréna is the national stadium and the László Papp Budapest Sports Arena.
Lewis Hamilton during the 2015 Hungarian Grand Prix on Hungaroring
Main Building of the Budapest University of Technology and Economics, the oldest institute of technology in the world, founded in 1782
Rector's Council Hall of Budapest Business School, the first public business school in the world, founded in 1857
Main Building of the Liszt Ferenc Academy of Music, founded in 1875
Well-preserved Baroque University Church
Boscolo Budapest Hotel, café in the ground floor, a 107-room hotel above
Interior of Gerbeaud Café
Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall, Prince Charles and Chief Rabbi Róbert Frölich in the Dohány Street Synagogue, the largest synagogue in Europe

Budapest is the capital and most populous city of Hungary.

Slovakia

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Landlocked country in Central Europe.

Landlocked country in Central Europe.

A Venus from Moravany nad Váhom, which dates back to 22,800 BC
Left: a Celtic Biatec coin
Right: five Slovak crowns
A Roman inscription at the castle hill of Trenčín (178–179 AD)
A statue of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius in Žilina. In 863, they introduced Christianity to what is now Slovakia.
Scire vos volumus, a letter written in 879 by Pope John VIII to Svatopluk I
Certain and disputed borders of Great Moravia under Svatopluk I (according to modern historians)
Stephen I, King of Hungary
One of the commanders of a Slovak volunteers' army captain Ján Francisci-Rimavský during the fight for independence from the Kingdom of Hungary
Czechoslovak declaration of independence by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk in the United States, 1918.
Adolf Hitler greeting Jozef Tiso, president of the (First) Slovak Republic, a client state of Nazi Germany during World War II, 1941.
Troops of Slovak anti-Nazi resistance movement in 1944.
The Velvet Revolution ended 41 years of authoritarian Communist rule in Czechoslovakia in 1989.
Slovakia became a member of the European Union in 2004 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
A topographical map of Slovakia
Slovak Paradise National Park
Domica Cave
Belá River
Rupicapra rupicapra tatrica in the Tatra Mountains
Former Slovak Prime Minister Peter Pellegrini with former U.S. President Donald Trump in the White House, 2019
Embassy of Japan in Bratislava
Bratislava, capital and largest city of Slovakia
National Bank of Slovakia in Bratislava
High-rise buildings in Bratislava's new business district
Slovakia is part of the Schengen Area, the EU single market, and since 2009, the Eurozone (dark blue)
High-rise buildings in Bratislava's business districts
ESET headquarters in Bratislava
A proportional representation of Slovakia's exports, 2019
Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce
Bojnice Castle
The centre of Bardejov – a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Cable cars at Jasná in the Tatra Mountains.
Spiš Castle
Population density in Slovakia. The two biggest cities are clearly visible, Bratislava in the far west and Košice in the east.
The Slovak alphabet has 46 characters, of which 3 are digraphs and 18 contain diacritics.
Comenius University headquarters in Bratislava
Wooden folk architecture can be seen in the well-preserved village of Vlkolínec, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Slovaks wearing folk costumes from Eastern Slovakia
Main altar in the Basilica of St. James, crafted by Master Paul of Levoča, 1517. It is the tallest wooden altar in the world.
Ľudovít Štúr, the creator of standard Slovak
Halušky with bryndza cheese, kapustnica soup and Zlatý Bažant dark beer—examples of Slovak cuisine
The Slovak national ice hockey team celebrating a victory against Sweden at the 2010 Winter Olympics
Football stadium Tehelné pole in Bratislava. Football is the most popular sport in Slovakia.

It is bordered by Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Hungary to the south, Austria to the southwest, and the Czech Republic to the northwest.

Kingdom of Hungary

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Monarchy in Central Europe that existed for nearly a millennium, from the Middle Ages into the 20th century.

Monarchy in Central Europe that existed for nearly a millennium, from the Middle Ages into the 20th century.

The Kingdom of Hungary (dark green) and Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914
King Stephen I of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary (dark green) and Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914
The Holy Crown of Hungary along with other regalia
Hungary (including Croatia) in 1190, during the rule of Béla III
The Meeting of Ladislaus IV and Rudolf I during the Battle on the Marchfeld, painting by Mór Than (1873)
Local autonomies (including Cumania, Székely Land and Transylvanian Saxons) in the late 13th century
King Charles I of Hungary
The administrative divisions of medieval Hungary
Louis I of Hungary on Heroes Square, Budapest
King Sigismund of Hungary
Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Johannes de Thurocz's Chronica Hungarorum
Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus
The Battle of Buda (1686): Hungarians and the Holy League (1684) reconquering Buda
The Battle of Kuruc-Labanc, kuruc preparing to attack traveling coach and riders, c. 1705
Counties of the Kingdom of Hungary around 1880
Distribution of Hungarians in the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (1890)
Ethnic map of the Hungary proper publicized by the Hungarian Trianon delegation. Regions with population density below 20 persons/km2 are left blank and the corresponding population is represented in the nearest region with population density above that limit. The vibrant, dominant red color was deliberately chosen to mark Hungarians while the light purple color of the Romanians, who were already the majority in the whole of Transylvania back then, is shadow-like.
Coronation of Francis Joseph I and Elisabeth at Matthias Church, Buda, 8 June 1867
The Treaty of Trianon: Hungary lost 72% of its territory, its sea access, half of its 10 biggest cities and all of its precious metal mines; 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians found themselves separated from their motherland.
Miklós Horthy was regent of Hungary from 1920 to 1944
István Bethlen, the Prime Minister of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary in 1942, during World War II
Renaissance portrait of Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary, (marble relief by Giovanni Dalmata (attributed to), Benedetto da Maiano (previous attribution) 1476)

The Kingdom of Hungary was a multiethnic state from its inception until the Treaty of Trianon and it covered what is today Hungary, Slovakia, Transylvania and other parts of Romania, Carpathian Ruthenia (now part of Ukraine), Vojvodina (now part of Serbia), the territory of Burgenland (now part of Austria), Međimurje (now part of Croatia), Prekmurje (now part of Slovenia) and a few villages which are now part of Poland.

Serbia

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Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Landlocked country in Southeastern and Central Europe, situated at the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkans.

Remnants of the Felix Romuliana Imperial Palace, a UNESCO World Heritage Site; as many as 18 Roman emperors were born in modern-day Serbia
The Serbian Empire, a medieval Serbian state that emerged from the Kingdom of Serbia. It was established in 1346 by Dušan the Mighty
The Battle of Kosovo (1389) is particularly important to Serbian history, tradition and national identity.
The Great Migrations of the Serbs, led by Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević
Great Serbian Retreat in 1915 led by Peter I of Serbia. As the part of Entente Powers during WW I, Serbia lost about 850,000 people, a quarter of its pre-war population.
Great Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci, and other Slavs proclaimed the unification of Vojvodina region with the Kingdom of Serbia in Novi Sad in 1918
A group of children wait in line at an unidentified Croatian Ustaše concentration camp in Croatia, for Serbs and Jews during WWII.
A monument commemorating the victims of Sajmište concentration camp, a part of the Holocaust in German-occupied Serbia and genocide of Serbs in Independent State of Croatia.
The principle of non-alignment was the core of Yugoslav and later Serbian diplomacy. The First Non-Aligned Movement Summit Conference took place in Belgrade in September 1961
The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and territories of Serb breakaway states Republika Srpska and Republika Srpska Krajina during the Yugoslav wars
Serbian and other children refugees of the Kosovo War. The war ended with NATO bombing which remains a controversial topic.
Topographic map of Serbia including Kosovo
The Iron Gates, Đerdap National Park.
Picea omorika is a species of coniferous tree endemic to the Tara mountain in western Serbia.
Uvac Gorge, one of the last remaining habitats of the griffon vulture in Europe.
The Church of Saint Sava in Belgrade is one of the largest Orthodox churches in the world.
Map of Serbian language - official (dark blue) or recognized as minority language (light blue).
Building of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade
NIS headquarters in Novi Sad
Serbia is among the world's largest producer of plums as of 2018; plum is considered the national fruit of Serbia.
Serbia Product Exports map 2019
The Fiat 500L is manufactured in the FCA plant in Kragujevac.
Đerdap 1 Hydroelectric Power Station, the largest dam on the Danube river and one of the largest hydro power stations in Europe
Serbian motorway network:
Air Serbia's airplane taking off from Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport
Astrophysicist Milutin Milanković was an important climate science theorist
Nikola Tesla contributed to the design of the modern AC electricity supply system.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1841
The National Museum of Serbia.
Mileševa monastery's White Angel fresco (1235) was in the first Europe-to-America satellite broadcast.
Performance artist Marina Abramović
Miroslav's Gospel (1186) is a 362-page illuminated manuscript on parchment listed in UNESCO's Memory of the World Register.
Ivo Andrić, Yugoslav writer and the 1961 winner of the Nobel Prize in Literature, in his home in Belgrade
Filip Višnjić sings to the gusle by Sreten Stojanović
Exit Festival in Novi Sad, proclaimed as the Best Major European festival at the EU Festival Awards
Serbia won the Eurovision Song Contest 2007.
A Serbian Christmas meal with roast pork, Russian salad and red wine.
Gibanica, a Serbian pastry usually made with cottage cheese and eggs.
Tennis player Novak Djokovic, he has won 20 Grand Slam men's singles titles, including a record nine Australian Open titles.
Nikola Jokić, Two-time NBA MVP and four-time NBA All-Star. Serbia is one of the countries with the largest number of NBA players and with the greatest success in FIBA international competitions.
Serbia men's national water polo team held Olympic Games, World Championship, European Championship, World Cup and World League titles simultaneously in period from 2014 to 2016.
Mothers with children in the Croatian Ustaše Stara Gradiška concentration camp, a camp for Serbs and Jews in the Independent State of Croatia during WWII.

It shares land borders with Hungary to the north, Romania to the northeast, Bulgaria to the southeast, North Macedonia to the south, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina to the west, and Montenegro to the southwest, and claiming a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo.

Austria

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Landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, situated at Eastern Alps.

Landlocked country in the southern part of Central Europe, situated at Eastern Alps.

Venus of Willendorf, 28,000 to 25,000 BC, at the Museum of Natural History Vienna
The Battle of Vienna in 1683 broke the advance of the Ottoman Empire into Europe.
The Congress of Vienna met in 1814–15. The objective of the Congress was to settle the many issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars, the Napoleonic Wars, and the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire.
Map of the German Confederation (1815–1836) with its 39 member states
An ethno-linguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910
Archduke Franz Ferdinand, whose assassination sparked World War I, one of the most disastrous conflicts in human history
German-speaking provinces claimed by German-Austria in 1918: The border of the subsequent Second Republic of Austria is outlined in red.
Adolf Hitler speaking at Heldenplatz, Vienna, 1938
Austria in 1941 when it was known as the "Ostmark"
The liberation of Mauthausen concentration camp, 1945
The United Nations Office in Vienna is one of the four major UN office sites worldwide.
Austria joined the European Union in 1995 and signed the Lisbon Treaty in 2007.
The Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna
The Leopoldine Wing of Hofburg Imperial Palace in Vienna, home to the offices of the Austrian president
The Federal Chancellery on Ballhausplatz
The European Parliament: Austria is one of the 27 EU members.
A topographic map of Austria showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Austria
A proportional representation of Austria exports, 2019
Austria is part of a monetary union, the eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.
The Kölnbrein Dam in Carinthia
Children in Austria, near Au, Vorarlberg
Bilingual sign of Oberwart (in Hungarian Felsőőr) in Burgenland
The birthplaces of foreign-born naturalised residents of Austria
The Basilica of Mariazell is Austria's most popular pilgrimage site.
Stiftsgymnasium Melk is the oldest Austrian school.
The University of Vienna
The campus of the Vienna University of Economics and Business
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–1791)
The Vienna State Opera
Arnold Schwarzenegger is a well-known Austrian and American actor.
Karl Popper
Wiener Schnitzel, a traditional Austrian dish
Innsbruck hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics, as well as the 2012 Winter Youth Olympics, the first in history.
Ski racer Franz Klammer won a gold medal at the 1976 Winter Olympics in Innsbruck.
The campus of JKU University of Linz

The country is bordered by Germany to the northwest, the Czech Republic to the north, Slovakia to the northeast, Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west.

Croatia

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Country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe.

Country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe.

The 1st century-built Pula Arena was the sixth largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire
Kingdom of Croatia c. 925, during the reign of King Tomislav
Coronation of King Tomislav by Oton Iveković
Croatian Ban Nikola Šubić Zrinski is honoured as a national hero for his defence of Szigetvár against the Ottoman Empire
Ban Josip Jelačić at the opening of the first modern Croatian Parliament (Sabor), June 5, 1848. The tricolour flag can be seen in the background.
The Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia was an autonomous kingdom within Austria-Hungary created in 1868 following the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement.
Stjepan Radić, leader of the Croatian Peasant Party who advocated federal organisation of the Yugoslavia, at the assembly in Dubrovnik, 1928
German dictator Adolf Hitler with Quisling and dictator of the Independent State of Croatia Ante Pavelić at the Berghof outside Berchtesgaden, Germany
Cardinal Aloysius Stepinac with the Croatian communist leader Vladimir Bakarić at the celebration of May Day, shortly before Stepinac was arrested by the Communists and taken to court
People of Zagreb celebrating liberation on 12 May 1945 by Croatian Partisans
Josip Broz Tito led SFR Yugoslavia from 1944 to 1980; Pictured: Tito with the US president Richard Nixon in the White House, 1971
The Eternal Flame and 938 marble crosses on the National Memorial Cemetery of Homeland War in Vukovar, commemorates the victims of the Vukovar massacre as one of the symbolic and crucial events in Croatian War of Independence
Croatia became the 28th EU member country on 1 July 2013
Satellite image of Croatia
Bora is a dry, cold wind which blows from the mainland out to sea, whose gusts can reach hurricane strength, particularly in the channel below Velebit, e.g. in the town of Senj
Bottlenose dolphins are protected under Croatian law with Adriatic Dolphin project as the longest ongoing study of a single resident bottlenose dolphin community in the Mediterranean Sea
Wooden trail through nature park Kopački Rit in Osijek-Baranja County
Telašćica Nature Park is one of 444 protected areas of Croatia
Croatian Sabor, parliament's Hall
President Zoran Milanović at the NATO summit on 24 March 2022, Brussels. The accession of Croatia to NATO took place in 2009
Honor guard in the front of Banski Dvori in Zagreb welcoming Pedro Sánchez Prime Minister of Spain and Andrej Plenković Prime Minister of Croatia.
Croatian Air Force and US Navy aircraft participate in multinational training, 2002
Croatian Army forces during “Immediate Response 15”, Military Training Area “Eugen Kvaternik”, Slunj, Croatia, 2015.
Varaždin, capital of Croatia between 1767 and 1776, is the seat of Varaždin county; Pictured: Old Town fortress, one of 15 Croatia's sites inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage tentative list
Croatian counties by GDP (PPS) per capita, 2019
Dubrovnik is one of Croatia's most popular tourist destinations.
Zlatni Rat beach on the Island of Brač is one of the foremost spots of tourism in Croatia
Highway network in Croatia
Pelješac Bridge (under construction), which will connect the peninsula of Pelješac, and through it the southernmost part of Croatia including Dubrovnik, with the Croatian mainland
2011 Croatian population density by county in persons per km2.
Religious believers according to the 2011 census
Map of the Croatian dialects of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina
University of Zagreb is the largest Croatian university and the oldest university in the area covering Central Europe south of Vienna and all of Southeastern Europe (1669)
National and University Library
University Hospital Centre Zagreb
Historic centre of Trogir has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Site since 1997
Trakošćan Castle is one of the best preserved historic buildings in the country
Euphrasian Basilica in Poreč, example of early Byzantine architecture, on the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1997.
Historical nucleus of Split with the 4th-century Diocletian's Palace was inscribed on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites in 1979
Radio Zagreb, now a part of Croatian Radiotelevision, was the first public radio station in Southeast Europe.
Teran wine from Istria region
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Telašćica Nature Park is one of 444 protected areas
Justices of the Constitutional Court of Croatia in 2009
Pelješac Bridge (under construction), which will connect the peninsula of Pelješac, and through it the southernmost part including Dubrovnik, with the Croatian mainland
President Zoran Milanović on NATO summit on 24 March 2022. The accession of Croatia to NATO took place in 2009
Map of the Shtokavian, Chakavian and Kajkavian dialects in Croatia by municipality
A proportional representation of Croatia exports, 2017
HŽ series 6112 manufactured by the Croatian company Končar Group, operated by Croatian Railways
The Baška tablet is the oldest Glagolitic monument in Croatia. It documents the donation of land gifted by Croatian King Dmitar Zvonimir to the Benedictine monastery of St Lucy

It borders Slovenia to the northwest, Hungary to the northeast, Serbia to the east, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro to the southeast, and shares a maritime border with Italy to the west and southwest.

Romania

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Country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Country located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.

Neacșu's letter from 1521, the oldest surviving document written in Old Romanian
Skull from the Peștera cu Oase (the oldest known remains of Homo sapiens in Europe).
Maximum territorial extent of the Kingdom of Dacia during Burebista's reign (early 40s BC.)
Ruins of sanctuaries at Sarmizegetusa Regia (Dacia's capital during the reigns of Burebista and Decebalus)
Gutthiuda, or the land of the Gothic-speaking Thervingi, and the neighbouring tribes (370s AD)
Vlad III of Wallachia (also known as Vlad the Impaler), medieval ruler of Wallachia
Changes in Romania's territory since 1859
Alexandru Ioan Cuza was the first Domnitor (i.e. Prince) of Romania (at that time the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia) between 1862 and 1866
Late 19th century ethnic map of Central Europe depicting predominantly Romanian-inhabited territories in blue. Hungarians are marked in yellow and Germans in pink.
King Carol I of Romania with his nephew Ferdinand I of Romania and great-nephew Carol II of Romania
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940. Of these territories, only Northern Transylvania was regained after the end of World War II.
American B-24 Liberator flying over a burning oil refinery at Ploiești, as part of Operation Tidal Wave on 1 August 1943. Due to its role as a significant supplier of oil to the Axis, Romania was a prime target of Allied strategic bombing in 1943 and 1944.
King Michael I of Romania was forced to abdicate by the Communists in late December 1947, concomitant with the Soviet occupation of the country
Nicolae Ceaușescu ruled Romania as its communist leader from 1965 until 1989
The Romanian Revolution of 1989 was one of the few violent revolutions in the Iron Curtain that brought an end to communist rule
An anti-Communist and anti-FSN rally in Bucharest (1990)
Romania saw large waves of protests against judicial reforms during the 2017–2019 Romanian protests
Romania joined the European Union in 2007 and signed the Treaty of Lisbon
Romania joined NATO in 2004 and hosted its 2008 summit in Bucharest
Topographic map of Romania
Diplomatic missions of Romania
Romania is a noteworthy ally of the United States, being the first NATO member state that agreed to support increasing its defence spending after the 2017 Trump–Iohannis meeting at the White House
Romanian marine troopers during a combined Dutch–Romanian exercise at Vadu beach
Romanian Mircea Geoană, Deputy Secretary General of NATO
A proportional representation of Romania exports, 2019
The CEC Palace is situated on Bucharest's Victory Avenue
The Bucharest Stock Exchange Palace, situated in the capital's historical city centre
Dacia Duster concept at the Geneva Motor Show (2009)
Romania's road network
Graph depicting Romania's electricity supply mix as of 2015
Romanians in Romania by counties (Ethnic maps 1930–2011)
Ethnic map of the Kingdom of Romania based on the 1930 census data
Map of Romanian language frequency as spoken in Romania by districts (according to the 2011 census)
Map highlighting the use of the Romanian language worldwide, both as a native and as a foreign language
The University of Bucharest was opened in 1864
The Colțea Hospital in Bucharest completed a $90 million renovation in 2011.
Sibiu was the 2007 European Capital of Culture and 2019 European Region of Gastronomy
Timișoara was designated the European Capital of Culture in 2021 but will hold this title in 2023 due to COVID-19 postponement
Christmas market in Bucharest

It borders Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, and the Black Sea to the southeast.

Topography of the basin and surrounding mountains

Pannonian Basin

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Large basin situated in south-east central Europe.

Large basin situated in south-east central Europe.

Topography of the basin and surrounding mountains
The Pannonian Basin (marked III.), enclosed by the Carpathians and the Transylvanian Plateau (IV.) to the east and north. Also shown: the Romanian Lowlands (II.) and the Outer Subcarpathian depressions (I.) beyond the Carpathians (also known as Transcarpathia)
The highlighted borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire
A farm on the Hortobágy National Park
The Danube-Tisa-Danube Canal near the village of Rumenka, close to Novi Sad
Biogeographic regions of Europe
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Approximate extent of Pannonian Sea during the Miocene Epoch
Cattle herders in the puszta of Hungary, c. 1852

In terms of modern state boundaries, the Pannonian Basin centres on the territory of Hungary, which lies entirely within the basin, but it also covers parts of southern Slovakia (the Eastern Slovak Lowland), southeast Poland, southwest Ukraine, western Romania, northern Serbia (Vojvodina), the tip of northeast Croatia (Slavonia), northeast Slovenia (Prekmurje), and eastern Austria.

Slovenia

23 links

Country in Central Europe.

Country in Central Europe.

Roman Emona's south wall (reconstruction) in present-day Ljubljana
The Prince's Stone, symbol of the Duchy of Carantania
A depiction of an ancient democratic ritual of Slovene-speaking tribes, which took place on the Prince's Stone in Slovene until 1414
The Ottoman army battling the Habsburgs in present-day Slovenia during the Great Turkish War
The Battles of the Isonzo took place mostly in rugged mountainous areas above the Soča River.
The proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs at Congress Square in Ljubljana on 20 October 1918
The map showing the present territory of Slovenia, with traditional regional boundaries; the Slovene-speaking areas annexed by Italy after WWI are shown in stripes
Partisans fighting for Trieste and Primorje region, 1945
Adolf Hitler and Martin Bormann visiting Maribor in April 1941
Josip Broz Tito and Edvard Kardelj (left) in Dražgoše, Slovenia, 1977.
Slovenian Territorial Defense Units counterattacking the Yugoslav National Army tank who entered Slovenia during the Ten-Day War, 1991
A topographic map of Slovenia
Mount Mangart, in the Julian Alps, is the third-highest peak in Slovenia, after Triglav and Škrlatica.
Solution runnels (also known as rillenkarren) are a karst feature on the Karst Plateau, as in many other karst areas of the world.
Slovenian coast with cliffs
Climate types of Slovenia 1970–2000 and climographs for selected settlements.
Lake Bohinj, largest Slovenian lake, one of the two springs of the Sava River
Olm can be found in the Postojna cave and other caves in the country.
The Carniolan honey bee is native to Slovenia and is a subspecies of the western honey bee.
Modern Lipizzaner grazing
The Government Building and President's Office in Ljubljana
President Borut Pahor
Eurocopter Cougar of the Slovenian Army
Statistical regions: 1. Gorizia, 2. Upper Carniola, 3. Carinthia, 4. Drava, 5. Mura, 6. Central Slovenia, 7. Central Sava, 8. Savinja, 9. Coastal–Karst, 10. Inner Carniola–Karst, 11. Southeast Slovenia, 12. Lower Sava
Since 2007 Slovenia has been part of the Eurozone (dark blue)
GDP per capita development in Slovenia
A proportional representation of Slovenia exports, 2019
Loan-deposit ratio in Slovenia by years – including the 2005–2008 Boom Period
A graphical depiction of Slovenia's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
Postojna Cave
Old town of Piran on Slovenian coast
Lake Bled with its island
Motorways in Slovenia in August 2020
Pendolino ETR 310 tilting train of Slovenian railways in Ljubljana Central train station
The Ljubljana Jože Pučnik Airport is the biggest international airport in the country
Population density in Slovenia by municipality. The four main urban areas are visible: Ljubljana and Kranj (centre), Maribor (northeast) and the Slovene Istria (southwest).
Front cover of a bilingual passport in Slovene and Italian
The National Shrine Mary Help of Christians at Brezje.
University of Ljubljana administration building
University of Maribor administration building
The Sower (1907), by the Impressionist painter Ivan Grohar, became a metaphor for Slovenes and was a reflection of the transition from a rural to an urban culture.
Potica as part of traditional Slovenian Easter breakfast
The more-than-400-year-old Žametovka vine growing outside the Old Vine House in Maribor, Slovenia. To the right of the vine is a daughter vine taken from a cutting of the old vine.
France Prešeren, best-known Slovenian poet
"Zdravljica" (A Toast; part) with rejection mark from Austrian censorship (due to potential revolutionary content); the music of Zdravljica is now the Slovenian national anthem.
Folk musician Lojze Slak
The industrial group Laibach
The National Theatre in Ljubljana
The sculpture of the poet Valentin Vodnik (1758–1819) was created by Alojz Gangl in 1889 as part of Vodnik Monument, the first Slovene national monument.
Smrekar's illustration of Martin Krpan
Alpine skier Tina Maze, a double Olympic gold medalist and the overall winner of the 2012–13 World Cup season
Postojna Cave
Old town of Piran on Slovenian coast
Lake Bled with its island

It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea to the southwest.

Ukraine

16 links

Country in Eastern Europe.

Country in Eastern Europe.

A gold Scythian neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Pokrov (4th century BC).
The furthest extent of Kievan Rus', 1054–1132.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth at its maximum extent in 1619. Poland and the Polish Crown exercised power over much of Ukraine since 1569 and rejected the Ukrainian call for autonomy.
Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky established an independent Cossack state after the 1648 uprising against Poland.
Russia's victory over Charles XII of Sweden and his ally Ivan Mazepa at the Battle of Poltava (1709) destroyed Cossack autonomy.
Polish troops enter Kyiv in May 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War. Following the Peace of Riga signed on 18 March 1921, Poland took control of modern-day western Ukraine while Soviets took control of eastern and central Ukraine.
A starved man on the streets of Kharkiv, 1933. Collectivization of crops and their confiscation by Soviet authorities led to a major famine in Soviet Ukraine known as the Holodomor.
The territorial evolution of the Ukrainian SSR, 1922–1954
Marshal Timoshenko (born in the Budjak region) commanded numerous fronts throughout the war, including the Southwestern Front east of Kyiv in 1941.
Kyiv suffered significant damage during World War II, and was occupied by the Germans from 19 September 1941 until 6 November 1943.
Two future leaders of the Soviet Union, Nikita Khrushchev (left, pre-war CPSU chief in Ukraine) and Leonid Brezhnev (an engineer from Kamianske)
Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk and President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin signed the Belavezha Accords, dissolving the Soviet Union, on 8 December 1991.
Protesters at Independence Square on the first day of the Orange Revolution
Pro-EU demonstration in Kyiv, 27 November 2013, during the Euromaidan protests
Crimea, which Russia annexed in 2014, is shown in pink. Pink in the Donbas area represents areas held by the DPR/LPR separatists in September 2014 (cities in red).
OSCE SMM monitoring the movement of heavy weaponry in eastern Ukraine, 4 March 2015
Simplified depiction of the biomes lying north of the Black Sea. The bright green belt girdling the Black Sea's southern coast, extending westwards, denotes a region of subtropics.
Topographic map of Ukraine (with borders and towns)
Köppen climate classification.
Pine forest near Klavdievo, Bucha Raion, Kyiv Oblast
Chart of the political system of Ukraine
Klovsky Palace, home to the Supreme Court of Ukraine
The Cabinet of Ministers building
President of Georgia Salome Zurabishvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy and European Council President Charles Michel during the 2021 International Conference in Batumi. In 2014, the EU signed association agreements with all three countries.
In January 2016, Ukraine joined the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area (green) with the EU (blue), established by the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement, opening its path towards European integration.
Henadii Lachkov, commander of the Ukrainian contingent in Multi-National Force – Iraq, kisses his country's flag
The Ukrainian frigate Hetman Sahaydachniy (U130)
Ukraine (2021) — major cities and adjacent countries
Kyiv, the financial centre of Ukraine.
Kamianets-Podilskyi Castle, one of the Seven Wonders of Ukraine
HRCS2 multiple unit. Rail transport is heavily utilised in Ukraine.
Electricity production by source, Ukraine
Linguistic map of Ukraine showing most common native language by city, town or village council according to 2001 census
The Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is one of the main Christian cathedrals in Ukraine
The municipal children's hospital in Kremenchuk, Poltava Oblast
The results of the 2014 parliamentary election with People's Front in yellow, Opposition Bloc in blue and Petro Poroshenko Bloc in red
A collection of traditional Ukrainian Easter eggs—pysanky. The design motifs on pysanky date back to early Slavic cultures.
St. Michael's Golden-Domed Cathedral in Kyiv, foremost example of Cossack Baroque and one of Ukraine's most recognizable landmarks
Rushnyk, Ukrainian embroidery
Cossack Mamay playing a kobza
Mykola Lysenko is widely considered to be the father of Ukrainian classical music
Ukrainian footballer Andriy Shevchenko celebrates a goal against Sweden at Euro 2012
Vitali Klitschko and his brother, Wladimir
Varenyky topped with fried onion

It is bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.