Huolongjing

Huo Long JingFire Dragonfire lancesrocket bombs with aerodynamic wings and explosive payloads
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).wikipedia
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Jiao Yu

Huo Long Jing
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
His Huolongjing, translated as the Fire Drake Manual, contains descriptions of fire arrows, fire lances, grenades, firearms, bombards, cannons, exploding cannonballs, land mines, naval mines, rockets, rocket launchers, two-stage rockets, and various gunpowder solutions including poisonous concoctions.

Naval mine

minesmineminesweeping
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.
Precursors to naval mines were first invented by Chinese innovators of Imperial China and were described in thorough detail by the early Ming dynasty artillery officer Jiao Yu, in his 14th century military treatise known as the Huolongjing.

Land mine

minefieldlandminelandmines
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.
A 14th-century military treatise, the Huolongjing (Fire Dragon Manual), describes hollow cast iron cannonball shells filled with gunpowder.

Rocket

rocketsrocketryrocket scientist
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.
Subsequently, rockets are included in the military treatise Huolongjing, also known as the Fire Drake Manual, written by the Chinese artillery officer Jiao Yu in the mid-14th century.

Bomb

bombingbombingsbombs
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.
The Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing describes the use of poisonous gunpowder bombs, including the "wind-and-dust" bomb.

Liu Bowen

Liu JiMíng Liú Jī 明劉基
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
He and Jiao Yu co-edited the military treatise known as the Huolongjing (Fire Dragon Manual).

Hongwu Emperor

Zhu YuanzhangHongwuHongwu Era
The 1412 edition, known as Huolongjing Quanji (Complete Collection of the Fire Dragon Manual), remains largely unchanged from its predecessor with the exception of its preface, which provides an account of Jiao Yu's time in the Hongwu Emperor's army.
Another one, Liu Bowen, became one of Zhu's key advisors, and edited the military-technology treatise titled Huolongjing in later years.

Ming dynasty

MingMing ChinaMing Empire
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).
The Huolongjing, compiled by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen sometime before the latter's death on 16 May 1375 (with a preface added by Jiao in 1412), featured many types of cutting-edge gunpowder weaponry for the time.

Fire lance

fire lancesfire-lanceprototype firearms
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.

Multistage rocket

upper stagefirst stagesecond stage
The Huolongjing also describes and illustrates the oldest known multistage rocket; this was the "fire-dragon issuing from the water" (huo long chu shui), which was known to be used by the Chinese navy.
An illustration and description in the 14th century Chinese Huolongjing by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen shows the oldest known multistage rocket; this was the "fire-dragon issuing from the water" (火龙出水, huǒ lóng chū shuǐ), used mostly by the Chinese navy.

Wujing Zongyao

first known Chinese descriptionCollection of the Most Important Military Techniquesthe earliest record
However soon after the chemical formula for gunpowder was recorded in the Wujing Zongyao of 1044, evidence of state interference in gunpowder affairs began appearing.

Fragmentation (weaponry)

shrapnelfragmentationfragmentation bomb
Some of these low–nitrate gunpowder flamethrowers used poisonous mixtures such as arsenious oxide, and would blast a spray of porcelain shards as fragmentation.
The use of fragmentation in bombs dates to the 14th century, and appears in the Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing.

History of gunpowder

gunpowderinvention of gunpowderblackpowder
By the time of Jiao Yu and his Huolongjing (a book that describes military applications of gunpowder in great detail) in the mid 14th century, the explosive potential of gunpowder was perfected, as the level of nitrate in gunpowder formulas had risen from a range of 12% to 91%, with at least 6 different formulas in use that are considered to have maximum explosive potential for gunpowder.

Flamethrower

flame throwerflamethrowersflame-thrower
The first metal barrels were not designed to withstand high-nitrate gunpowder and a bore-filling projectile; rather, they were designed for the low-nitrate flamethrower fire lance that shot small coviative missiles.

Science and technology of the Song dynasty

Technology of the Song dynastyTechnology of Song DynastyQiao Weiyo
Written later by Jiao Yu in his Huolongjing (mid 14th century), this manuscript recorded an earlier Song-era cast iron cannon known as the 'flying-cloud thunderclap eruptor' (fei yun pi-li pao).

Song Yingxing

Tiangong Kaiwu
In the later Tiangong Kaiwu (The Exploitation of the Works of Nature) treatise, written by Song Yingxing in 1637, the ox bladder described by Jiao Yu is replaced with a lacquer bag and a cord pulled from a hidden ambusher located on the nearby shore, which would release a flint steel–wheel firing mechanism to ignite the fuse of the naval mine.

Wade–Giles

Wade-Gilesformerlyformerly romanized
The Huolongjing (Wade-Giles: Huo Lung Ching; rendered in English as Fire Drake Manual or Fire Dragon Manual), also known as Huoqitu (“Firearm Illustrations”), is a 14th-century military treatise compiled and edited by Jiao Yu and Liu Bowen of the early Ming dynasty (1368–1683).

Gunpowder

black powderpowderblack-powder
The Huolongjing's intended function was to serve as a guide to "fire weapons" involving gunpowder from 1280 to the mid-14th century.

Fire arrow

fire arrowsChinese Fire ArrowFlaming Arrows
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.

Hand cannon

hand cannonsgonnehand-cannon
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.

Cannon

cannonsgunsartillery pieces
Among the weapons described, there include bombs, fire arrows, rockets, land mines, naval mines, fire lances, hand cannons, and cannons mounted on wheeled carriages.

Xiangyang

XiangfanXiangyang CommanderyXiangyang, Hubei
Although the earliest edition of the Huolongjing was published in Xiangyang sometime prior to 1395, its preface was not provided until the Nanyang publication of 1412.

Nanyang, Henan

NanyangNanyang CityNanyang Commandery
Although the earliest edition of the Huolongjing was published in Xiangyang sometime prior to 1395, its preface was not provided until the Nanyang publication of 1412.

Red Turban Rebellion

Red TurbansGuo ZixingRed Turban rebel
In the preface Jiao Yu claims to describe gunpowder weapons that had seen use since 1355 during his involvement in the Red Turban Rebellion and revolt against the Yuan dynasty, while the oldest material found in his text dates to 1280.

Yuan dynasty

YuanYuan ChinaYuan Empire
In the preface Jiao Yu claims to describe gunpowder weapons that had seen use since 1355 during his involvement in the Red Turban Rebellion and revolt against the Yuan dynasty, while the oldest material found in his text dates to 1280.