Hungarian general in 19th-century hussar style gala uniform; with characteristic tight dolman jacket, loose-hanging pelisse over-jacket, and busby
Hungarian hussar in the 16th century. Woodcut by Jost Amman
Polish Winged Hussar, painting by Aleksander Orłowski
Hussar of the Magdeburg Hussar Commando (1763, drawing from Richard Knötel, Uniformenkunde, 1893)
Hessian hussars in America
Portrait of Russian hussar Evgraf Davydov by Kiprensky (1810s)
Prussian Hussar in 1744
French 4th Hussar at the Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807. "Vive l'Empereur!" by Édouard Detaille, 1891
French 9th Hussar by Victor Huen
Cornet Henry John Wilkin, a British Hussar from the Crimean War
Chilean founding father Manuel Rodríguez, wearing the Húsares de la Muerte uniform
Confederate hussar from the 1st Virginia
Swedish hussar regiments 1895–1910
An officer of the British 11th Hussars (PAO) in the full dress of 1856, including dolman, pelisse, busby and sabretache
Hussars of the King's German Legion in 1813, all armed with the 1796 sabre
Hungarian hussars in battle during the Hungarian Revolution of 1848
Gendarmes of Mecklenburg-Strelitz in 1900
A Danish Guard Hussar in mounted parade uniform, including the red pelisse, sabretache and shabraque
An ERC 90 Sagaie of the 1st Parachute Hussar Regiment of the French Army in Côte d'Ivoire in 2003
Alfonso XIII of Spain wearing a Regiment no. 4 "Pavia Húsares (Hussars) uniform, 1912
Winston Churchill as Cornet of the 4th Queen's Own Hussars, aged 21 (1895)

Member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries.

- Hussar

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Shock troops


United States Army preparing for air assault training, 2015

Polish Winged Hussars, elite heavy cavalry used by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, have also been described as shock troops.

Military Frontier

Borderland of the Habsburg monarchy and later the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire.

King Matthias Corvinus's anti-Ottoman defense system in 1500
Migration of the Serbs (Seoba Srba), by Paja Jovanović, portrays Serbian Patriarch Arsenije III Čarnojević, surrounded by soldiers, flocks of sheep and women with babies, leading some 36,000 families from his seat in Peć, to what is now Vojvodina in 1690, after the failure of a Serb revolt.
Various Frontier troops, 1756
Map of the Military Frontier in the middle of the 19th century (marked with a red outline)
Map of Military Frontier sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Pomorišje in 1699-1718
Map of Military Frontier sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Pomorišje in 1718-1744
Map of Military Frontier sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Pomorišje in 1744-1750
Map of Military Frontier sections in Syrmia, Bačka, and Banat in 1751-1873
Map of Military Frontier sections in Banat, Syrmia, and Bačka (18th-19th century)
Map of Military Frontier sections in Banat, Syrmia, and Bačka in 1849 - Banatian and Slavonian military frontier and Schajkasch Battalion
Map of the Slavonian Military Frontier in 1849
Map of the Croatian Military Frontier in 1868

But, they did lead to development of the Pandur infantry and the Hussar cavalry.

Light cavalry

Light cavalry comprises lightly armed and armored cavalry troops mounted on fast horses, as opposed to heavy cavalry, where the mounted riders (and sometimes the warhorses) were heavily armored.

Polish-Lithuanian light cavalry during the Battle of Orsha in 1514, by Hans Krell
The famous Charge of the Light Brigade, in the Battle of Balaclava in 1854 (painted by William Simpson in 1855)
Mongol soldier on horseback, preparing a mounted archery shot
French 4th Hussar at the Battle of Friedland, 14 June 1807. "Vive l'Empereur!" by Édouard Detaille, 1891.
Polish cavalry at the Battle of Somosierra in Spain, 1808

European examples of light cavalry included stradiots, hobelars, hussars, chasseurs à cheval, cossacks, chevau-légers, uhlans, and some dragoons.


Historically, cavalry (from the French word cavalerie, itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback.

French 4th Hussars at the Battle of Friedland, 1807
A trumpeter of the Representative Cavalry Squadron in the Polish Army
A Polish winged hussar
Assyrian cavalry
Parthian horseman, now on display at the Palazzo Madama, Turin
Warrior's departure; an Athenian amphora dated 550–540 BC
Tombstone of a Roman auxiliary trooper from Cologne, Germany. Second half of the first century AD
Reenactor as a Roman auxiliary cavalryman
Chinese caltrop jar
Mongols at war 14th century
A bas-relief of a soldier and horse with saddle and stirrups, from the tomb of Chinese Emperor Taizong of Tang (r 626–649), c 650
The Qianlong Emperor in ceremonial armor on horseback, painted by Giuseppe Castiglione, dated 1739 or 1758
A mounted samurai with bow and arrows, wearing a horned helmet. Circa 1878
In the Battle of Ichi-no-Tani, Japanese cavalry moving down a mountain-side
Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra
Coin of Chandragupta II or Vikramaditya, one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire during times referred to as the Golden Age of India
Rajput warrior on horseback
Akbar leads the Mughal Army during a campaign
Horse-mounted Normans charging in the Bayeux Tapestry, 11th century
A 13th-century depiction of a riding horse. Note resemblance to the modern Paso Fino
A Hussite war wagon: it enabled peasants to defeat knights
Arab camelry
A Moroccan with his Arabian horse along the Barbary coast
Kanem-Bu warriors armed with spears in the retinue of a mounted war chief. The Earth and Its Inhabitants, 1892
Knighted cavalry and noblemen, painting by Jan van Eyck (c. 1390–1441)
Husarz (Polish Hussar) by Józef Brandt
Cavalry charge at Eylau, painted by Jean-Antoine-Siméon Fort
British infantry formed into anti-cavalry squares at the Battle of Quatre Bras
The charge of the Venezuelan First Division's cavalry at the Battle of Carabobo
"The Thin Red Line" at the Battle of Balaclava, where the 93rd Regiment held off Russian Cavalry
Monument to the Spanish Regiment of light cavalry of Alcántara
The charge of the 21st Lancers at Omdurman
19th Lancers near Mametz during the Battle of the Somme, 15 July 1916
Algerian spahis of the French Army 1886
Union Cavalry capture Confederate guns at Culpepper
Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome
Austro-Hungarian cavalry, 1898
German cavalryman in September 1914, German South-West Africa
Dead German cavalry horses after the Battle of Halen - where the Belgian cavalry, fighting dismounted, decimated their still mounted German counterparts
A British cavalry trooper in marching order (1914–1918)
German dragoons, armed with lances, after the capture of Warsaw, August 1915
Lithuanian lancers training in the 1930s
Turkish cavalry during mopping‐up operation 1922
Polish uhlan with wz. 35 anti-tank rifle. Military instruction published in Warsaw in 1938
A German cavalry patrol in May 1940, during the Battle of France
Mongolian cavalry in the Khalkhin Gol (1939)
U.S. Special Forces and Combat Controllers on horseback with the Northern Alliance of Afghanistan, which frequently used horses as military transport
Italian Army regiment “Lancieri di Montebello” (8th) on public duties in Rome 2019
Horse-mounted color guard from Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow
A cavalryman of Hakkapeliitta, the Finnish cavalry of Thirty Years' War, featured on a 1940 Finnish stamp
Mongol mounted archer of Genghis Khan late 12th century.
Tatar vanguard in Eastern Europe 13th–14th centuries.
Manikin of a Safavid Qizilbash, showing characteristic red cap (Sa'dabad Palace, Tehran).
Persian Zamburak.
Ottoman Sipahi.
An Ottoman Mamluk cavalryman from 1810, armed with a pistol.
Akinci of the Balkans.
Ottoman Ghazi cavalrymen during the Battle of Nicopolis.<ref>{{cite web|last=Lokman |url= |title=Battle of Nicopolis (1396) |year=1588 |work=Hünernâme |url-status=dead |archive-url= |archive-date=2013-05-29 }}</ref>
Washington National Guard cavalry pictured in Tacoma, Washington in 1907.
French cuirassiers, wearing breastplates and helmets, parade through Paris on the way to battle, August 1914.
Spanish light cavalry (cazadores) during the Rif War 1921.
Polish PZL W-3 Sokół of the 66 Air Cavalry Squadron, 25th Aeromobile Cavalry Brigade.
The mounted President's Bodyguard of the Indian Army
French Republican Guard – 2008 Bastille Day military parade
The President's Body Guard of the Pakistan Army, 2006.
Troopers of the Blues and Royals on mounted duty in Whitehall, London
Turkmenistan ceremonial cavalry in the Independence Day parade 2011
A Mongolian military horseman, 2013
Representative Cavalry Squadron of the Polish Army on military parade in Warsaw, 2006

An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations depending on era and tactics, such as cavalryman, horseman, trooper, cataphract, knight, hussar, uhlan, mamluk, cuirassier, lancer, dragoon, or horse archer.


Type of backsword with a curved blade associated with the light cavalry of the early modern and Napoleonic periods.

Sheathed French sabres of the sailors of the Guard, First French Empire
A szabla used by Polish Hussars, 1614
The Sword Dance (1890) by Paja Jovanović
A British Hussar general with a scabbarded kilij of Turkish manufacture (1812)
The briquet, typical infantry sabre of the Napoleonic Wars
French Navy sabre of the 19th century, boarding sabre
Lieutenant Colonel Teófilo Marxuach's M1902 officer's sabre and scabbard at the National Historic Trust site at Castillo San Cristóbal in San Juan, Puerto Rico

Originally associated with Central European cavalry such as the hussars, the sabre became widespread in Western Europe during the Thirty Years' War.


Dragoons were originally a class of mounted infantry, who used horses for mobility, but dismounted to fight on foot.

Mounted Russian dragoon armed with an infantry long gun, c. 1710
Cartoon of a French dragoon intimidating a Huguenot in the dragonnades
French dragoon of the Volontaires de Saxe regiment, mid-18th century
French Dragoons with captured Prussian flag at the Battle of Jena
German dragoons near Reims 1914
Baden dragoon in a World War I monument at Karlsruhe. 
 While almost an anachronism after the early stages of that war, German dragoons did see continuing service on the Eastern Front until 1917. Note the functional Stahlhelm helmet.
Memorial stained glass window at Royal Military College of Canada of 2770 LCol KL Jefferson, a member of the 12th Manitoba Dragoons, an armoured regiment of the Canadian Army and Canadian Forces
United States dragoons charging Mexican infantry at the Battle of Resaca de la Palma in May 1846.

Their original responsibilities for scouting and picket duty had passed to hussars and similar light cavalry corps in the French, Austrian, Prussian, and other armies.

Kingdom of Hungary

Monarchy in Central Europe that existed for nearly a millennium, from the Middle Ages into the 20th century.

The Kingdom of Hungary (dark green) and Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914
King Stephen I of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary (dark green) and Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (light green) within Austria-Hungary in 1914
The Holy Crown of Hungary along with other regalia
Hungary (including Croatia) in 1190, during the rule of Béla III
The Meeting of Ladislaus IV and Rudolf I during the Battle on the Marchfeld, painting by Mór Than (1873)
Local autonomies (including Cumania, Székely Land and Transylvanian Saxons) in the late 13th century
King Charles I of Hungary
The administrative divisions of medieval Hungary
Louis I of Hungary on Heroes Square, Budapest
King Sigismund of Hungary
Matthias Corvinus as depicted in Johannes de Thurocz's Chronica Hungarorum
Western conquests of Matthias Corvinus
The Battle of Buda (1686): Hungarians and the Holy League (1684) reconquering Buda
The Battle of Kuruc-Labanc, kuruc preparing to attack traveling coach and riders, c. 1705
Counties of the Kingdom of Hungary around 1880
Distribution of Hungarians in the Kingdom of Hungary and the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia (1890)
Ethnic map of the Hungary proper publicized by the Hungarian Trianon delegation. Regions with population density below 20 persons/km2 are left blank and the corresponding population is represented in the nearest region with population density above that limit. The vibrant, dominant red color was deliberately chosen to mark Hungarians while the light purple color of the Romanians, who were already the majority in the whole of Transylvania back then, is shadow-like.
Coronation of Francis Joseph I and Elisabeth at Matthias Church, Buda, 8 June 1867
The Treaty of Trianon: Hungary lost 72% of its territory, its sea access, half of its 10 biggest cities and all of its precious metal mines; 3,425,000 ethnic Hungarians found themselves separated from their motherland.
Miklós Horthy was regent of Hungary from 1920 to 1944
István Bethlen, the Prime Minister of Hungary
The Kingdom of Hungary in 1942, during World War II

In the 15th century, the Black Army of Hungary was a modern mercenary army, with the Hussars the most skilled troops of the Hungarian cavalry.


Tall, cylindrical military cap, usually with a visor, and sometimes tapered at the top.

A French Naval Fusilier's shako, c. 1830
Members of the Hungarian Károlyi Hussar Regiment wearing shakos, 1849.
Portrait of George Anthony Legh Keck holding a shako
Shako of the French Royal Guard as worn from 1816 to 1830.
Swedish shako m/1815 of the Kronoberg Regiment, worn from 1815 to 1831.
Depiction of Prince Albert demonstrating the Albert shako for the British Army
Photo portrait of Alfred Redl, an Austrian military officer, in a shako, 1907.
Members of the UCLA Bruin Marching Band wearing shakos.

Originally these hats were part of the clothing commonly worn by shepherds, before being added to the uniform of the Hungarian hussar in the early 18th century.

Kingdom of Hungary (1301–1526)

In the Late Middle Ages, the Kingdom of Hungary, a country in Central Europe, experienced a period of interregnum in the early 14th century.

Kingdom of Hungary (yellow) around 1400
Oligarchs controlled parts of the Kingdom during the interregnum
Kingdom of Hungary (yellow) around 1400
Holy Crown of Hungary
The castle at Kremnitz (Körmöcbánya, Kremnica), a mining town founded by German miners from Bohemia
Charles I's golden forint
Privilegium pro Slavis (1381)
Louis I the Great in Zadar in Dalmatia
Sigismund of Luxemburg and his queen, Barbara of Cilli at the Council of Constance
Sigismund's hunting castle at Tata
Munich Codex (1466): the first Hungarian translation of the Bible
Hunyadi Castle at Vajdahunyad (present-day Hunedoara, Romania)
John Hunyadi's tomb in the St Michael's Cathedral in Gyulafehérvár (present-day Alba Iulia, Romania)
King Matthias the Just at around 50 years old (contemporary sculpture from Buda Castle)
Campaigns of the "Black Army of Hungary"

Many of them were organized into mobile military units known as hussars.

Military uniform

Standardised dress worn by members of the armed forces and paramilitaries of various nations.

Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Indonesian and Indian military personnel in uniform during a parade in Rome, Italy
Roman centurion (Historical reenactment).
Facing colours were introduced to distinguish the various regiments. Here, the Régiment du Lyonnais with red and green facings on the standard grey uniform (1720–1734)
Uniforms used by European military forces from 1670 to 1865
Solaks, the Janissary archer bodyguard of the Sultan by Lambert de Vos, c. 1575
Uniforms used by the Prussian Army from 1701 to 1919
Uniforms used by the Royal Navy during the mid-19th century
Colour plate from the War of the Rebellion Atlas depicting Union and Confederate uniforms
Coldstream Guards on parade in their scarlet dress uniform. By the 20th century most militaries had relegated their more colourful uniforms for ceremonial use only.
Test uniforms created in 1912 by Edouard Detaille for the French infantry in order to lessen the visibility of the troops on the battlefield as can be seen on the campaign dresses (right).
Italian troops wearing steel helmets during the Spanish Civil War
Operational uniforms used by the Belgian, British, French and German forces during the Second World War
Uniforms and military equipment dating to the Second World War on display
Members of the Brazilian Army's Independence Dragoons. The soldier on the left is wearing the unit's ceremonial uniform, while the other is wearing combat fatigues.
Members of the French Army in parade dress
Field grey has been retained in the dress uniforms of the German Army
Soldiers of the Assam Regiment of the Indian Army in parade dress
Indonesian generals in their service dress uniforms, or PDH 1
A female contingent from the Russian Armed Forces in their formal uniforms during a parade, 2013.
Royal Irish Rangers soldiers and officers in Numbers 8, 14, 10, 1, 2 and 12 dress, flanked by a bandsman, bugler, piper and drummer in full-dress.
A yeoman dressed in BDU is reenlisted by a United States Army general dressed in ACUs. The ACU replaced the BDU as the army's combat uniform during the 21st century
U.S. Marines in MARPAT combat uniforms. The marines was one of several service branches in the U.S. to adopt multi-scale camouflage during the 21st century.
The rise of rifles and smokeless powder led to the decline more-colourful uniforms in favour of drab.
Soldiers of the Canadian Army in CADPAT camouflage uniforms. Camouflaged uniforms are used to make its wearers less visible.
18th century Prussian grenadier mitre caps. Some military units have historically adopted tall headgear as a part of their uniform to exaggerate the wearer's height.

Thus the distinctive and colourful clothing of the Hungarian hussars became a model for hussar units all over Europe.