Huygens (spacecraft)

HuygensHuygens'' probeHuygens probeHuygens'' spacecraftHuygens'' landerHuygens'' landing probeHuygens'' Titan probeprobe
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.wikipedia
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European Space Agency

ESAEuropeanEuropean Space Agency (ESA)
Built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), it was part of the Cassini–Huygens mission and became the first spacecraft ever to land on Titan and the farthest landing from Earth a spacecraft has ever made.
Later scientific missions in cooperation with NASA include the Cassini–Huygens space probe, to which ESA contributed by building the Titan landing module Huygens.

Lakes of Titan

hydrocarbon lakeshydrocarbon seas and lakeslake
Further data from the Cassini Mission, however, definitely confirmed the existence of permanent liquid hydrocarbon lakes in the polar regions of Titan (see Lakes of Titan).
The discoveries in the polar regions contrast with the findings of the Huygens probe, which landed near Titan's equator on January 14, 2005.

Space probe

probespace probesprobes
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
The NASA probe was launched with ESA lander Huygens on October 1, 1997 from Cape Canaveral.

Titan (moon)

TitanSaturn's moon Titanatmosphere
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
The Huygens probe landed just off the easternmost tip of a bright region now called Adiri.

Saturn

Saturn's atmosphereExploration of Saturnhome planet
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
The orbiter completed two Titan flybys before releasing the Huygens probe on 25 December 2004.

Christiaan Huygens

HuygensHuygens, ChristiaanChristiaan
The probe was named after the Dutch 17th-century astronomer Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655.
The Huygens probe: The lander for the Saturnian moon Titan, part of the Cassini–Huygens mission to Saturn

Very-long-baseline interferometry

very long baseline interferometryVLBIlong-baseline interferometry
Very large radio telescopes on Earth were also listening to Huygens 10-watt transmission using the technique of very long baseline interferometry and aperture synthesis mode.
The tracking of the Huygens probe as it passed through Titan's atmosphere, allowing wind velocity measurements

Timeline of Cassini–Huygens

Timeline of ''Cassini–Huygens20-year missionCassini–Huygens'' timeline
Cassini–Huygens timeline
The Flagship-class unmanned robotic spacecraft comprised both NASA's Cassini probe, and ESA's Huygens lander which was designed to land on Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

Cassini–Huygens

CassiniCassini spacecraftCassini'' spacecraft
Built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), it was part of the Cassini–Huygens mission and became the first spacecraft ever to land on Titan and the farthest landing from Earth a spacecraft has ever made.
The Flagship-class robotic spacecraft comprised both NASA's Cassini probe, and ESA's Huygens lander which landed on Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

Cannes Mandelieu Space Center

Cannes headquarters
Huygens was built under the Prime Contractorship of Aérospatiale in its Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, France, now part of Thales Alenia Space.
the Huygens space probe, which landed on Titan

List of European Space Agency programs and missions

Horizon 2000Horizon 2000+Horizon 2000 cornerstone missions
It succeeds the Horizon 2000 and Horizon 2000+ programmes which launched notable missions such as Huygens, Rosetta and Gaia.

John Zarnecki

The Huygens SSP was developed by the Space Sciences Department of the University of Kent and the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory Space Science Department under the direction of Professor John Zarnecki.
In 1988, Zarnecki was involved in plans to provide instrumentation for a proposed asteroid mission called Vesta, but, when this was dropped in favour of the Cassini–Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, he and his team decided to use their expertise to design the Surface Science Package (SSP) for the Huygens probe.

Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

gas chromatography-mass spectrometryGC-MSgas chromatography
During descent, the GC/MS also analyzed pyrolysis products (i.e., samples altered by heating) passed to it from the Aerosol Collector Pyrolyser.
The Huygens probe of the Cassini–Huygens mission landed one GC-MS on Saturn's largest moon, Titan.

Mass spectrometry

mass spectrometerMSmass spectrometric
The mass spectrometer, a high-voltage quadrupole, collected data to build a model of the molecular masses of each gas, and a more powerful separation of molecular and isotopic species was accomplished by the gas chromatograph.
In early 2005 the Cassini–Huygens mission delivered a specialized GC-MS instrument aboard the Huygens probe through the atmosphere of Titan, the largest moon of the planet Saturn.

Aérospatiale

AerospatialeAérospatiale-CelergSociété Nationale d'Industrie Aérospatiale
Huygens was built under the Prime Contractorship of Aérospatiale in its Cannes Mandelieu Space Center, France, now part of Thales Alenia Space.
Huygens (spacecraft)

Boris Smeds

Some engineers, most notably ESA ESOC employees Claudio Sollazzo and Boris Smeds, felt uneasy about the fact that, in their opinion, this feature had not been tested before launch under sufficiently realistic conditions.
In 2000 Smeds and other ESA engineers questioned the sufficiency of the previous testing of the Alenia Spazio-built communication system on Cassini, and Smeds and his colleague Claudio Sollazzo travelled to the Mojave desert for additional tests, discovering that the design of the receiver on the Cassini orbiter had not taken into account the Doppler shifting of the signals from the Huygens probe.

Lander (spacecraft)

landerlandersimpactor
The Huygens probe, carried to Saturn's moon Titan by the Cassini, was specifically designed to survive landing on land and on liquid.

Titan Saturn System Mission

TandEM (space project)
Titan Saturn System Mission
The probe will descend by parachute, like the Huygens probe of 2005.

Galileo Probe

GalileoGalileo'' probeGalileo atmospheric probe
The signal strength received on Earth from Huygens was comparable to that from the Galileo probe (the Jupiter atmospheric descent probe) as received by the VLA, and was therefore too weak to detect in real time because of the signal modulation by the (then) unknown telemetry.
Huygens spacecraft (carried by Cassini orbiter to Saturn's moon Titan)

Natural satellite

moonmoonssatellite
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.

Spacecraft

spaceshipspaceshipsspace ship
Built and operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), it was part of the Cassini–Huygens mission and became the first spacecraft ever to land on Titan and the farthest landing from Earth a spacecraft has ever made.

Netherlands

Dutch🇳🇱the Netherlands
The probe was named after the Dutch 17th-century astronomer Christiaan Huygens, who discovered Titan in 1655.