Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridizationhybridizenatural hybridhybridisationintergeneric hybridhybridizeshybridizedhybridise
In biology, a hybrid is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.wikipedia
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Heterosis

hybrid vigorhybrid vigourhybrid corn
Hybrids are not always intermediates between their parents (such as in blending inheritance), but can show hybrid vigour, often growing larger or taller than either parent.
Heterosis, hybrid vigor, or outbreeding enhancement, is the improved or increased function of any biological quality in a hybrid offspring.

Hybrid speciation

hybrid specieshybridnew species
A few animal species and many plant species, however, are the result of hybrid speciation, including important crop plants such as wheat, where the number of chromosomes has been doubled.
Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation where hybridization between two different species leads to a new species, reproductively isolated from the parent species.

Species

specificspecific namespecific epithet
In taxonomy, a key question is how closely related the parent species are.
For example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear.

Beefalo

cattalobison hybridsbison-cattle hybrid cows
It is also more occasionally done in the livestock and pet trades; some well-known wild × domestic hybrids are beefalo and wolfdogs.
Beefalo, also referred to as cattalo or the Canadian hybrid, are a fertile hybrid offspring of domestic cattle (Bos taurus), usually a male in managed breeding programs, and the American bison (Bison bison), usually a female in managed breeding programs.

Reproductive isolation

reproductively isolatedisolating mechanismsisolating mechanism
Species are reproductively isolated by strong barriers to hybridisation, which include morphological differences, differing times of fertility, mating behaviors and cues, and physiological rejection of sperm cells or the developing embryo.
The reason for the absence of inter-species mating is that B. americanus mates in early summer and B. fowleri in late summer.

Wolfdog

wolf-dog hybridwolf-dog hybridizationwolfdogs
It is also more occasionally done in the livestock and pet trades; some well-known wild × domestic hybrids are beefalo and wolfdogs.
A wolfdog is a canine produced by the mating of a domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) with a gray wolf (Canis lupus), eastern timber wolf (Canis lycaon), red wolf (Canis rufus), or Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) to produce a hybrid.

Liger

ligersligress
Conspicuous hybrids are popularly named with portmanteau words, starting in the 1920s with the breeding of tiger–lion hybrids (liger and tigon).
The liger is a hybrid offspring of a male lion (Panthera leo) and a female tiger (Panthera tigris). The liger has parents in the same genus but of different species.

Foundation stock

foundation bloodstockfoundation sirefoundation
Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds (usually called cultivars in reference to plants); crossbreeds between them (without any wild stock) are sometimes also imprecisely referred to as "hybrids".
Foundation bloodstock or foundation stock are animals that are the progenitors, or foundation, of a new breed (or crossbreed or hybrid), or of a given bloodline within such.

Tigon

tigonstiglontiglons" or "tigons
Conspicuous hybrids are popularly named with portmanteau words, starting in the 1920s with the breeding of tiger–lion hybrids (liger and tigon).
A tigon or tiglon is a hybrid cross between a male tiger (Panthera tigris) and a female lion (Panthera leo). Thus, it has parents with the same genus but of different species.

Selective breeding

artificial selectionselectively bredbreeding
Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds (usually called cultivars in reference to plants); crossbreeds between them (without any wild stock) are sometimes also imprecisely referred to as "hybrids".
Two purebred animals of different breeds produce a crossbreed, and crossbred plants are called hybrids.

Crossbreed

cross-breedingcrossbredcrossbreeding
Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds (usually called cultivars in reference to plants); crossbreeds between them (without any wild stock) are sometimes also imprecisely referred to as "hybrids".
In animal breeding, crossbreeds are crosses within a single species, while hybrids are crosses between different species.

Hybrid zone

hybridizationoverlap in distributionzones of hybridization
Hybridisation can occur in the zones where geographical subspecies overlap.
A hybrid zone exists where the ranges of two interbreeding species or diverged intraspecific lineages meet and cross-fertilize.

Population

populationspopulacepopulated
Population hybrids result from the crossing of plants or animals in one population with those of another population.
The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is potentially possible between any pair within the area, and where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas.

Wheat

cornTriticumdwarf wheat
A few animal species and many plant species, however, are the result of hybrid speciation, including important crop plants such as wheat, where the number of chromosomes has been doubled.
Because wheat self-pollinates, creating hybrid varieties is extremely labor-intensive; the high cost of hybrid wheat seed relative to its moderate benefits have kept farmers from adopting them widely despite nearly 90 years of effort.

Breed

breedsbredstandardized breed
Human selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants has resulted is the development of distinct breeds (usually called cultivars in reference to plants); crossbreeds between them (without any wild stock) are sometimes also imprecisely referred to as "hybrids".
Crosses between animal or plant variants above the level of breed/cultivar (i.e. between species, subspecies, botanical variety, even different genera) are referred to as hybrids.

Dominance (genetics)

autosomal recessiveautosomal dominantrecessive
The cross between two different homozygous lines produces an F1 hybrid that is heterozygous; having two alleles, one contributed by each parent and typically one is dominant and the other recessive.
However, when these hybrid plants were crossed, the offspring plants showed the two original phenotypes, in a characteristic 3:1 ratio, the more common phenotype being that of the parental hybrid plants.

F1 hybrid

F1F 1 hybridF2
Single cross hybrids result from the cross between two true-breeding organisms which produces an F1 hybrid (first filial generation).
Crossing two genetically different plants produces a hybrid seed.

Gamebird hybrids

between chickensgamebird, domestic fowl and duck hybridshybrid
Interfamilial hybrids, such as between chickens and guineafowl or pheasants, are reliably described but extremely rare.
These hybrid species may sometimes occur naturally in the wild or more commonly through the deliberate or inadvertent intervention of humans.

Limenitis arthemis

White admiralred-spotted purpleL. astyanax
For example, the butterfly Limenitis arthemis has two major subspecies in North America, L. a. arthemis (the white admiral) and L. a. astyanax (the red-spotted purple).
Individuals of the northern group, called white admirals, have a conspicuous white band that traverse both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the wing, while those of the southern group, called red-spotted purples, lack that trait as they have evolved to mimic the poisonous pipevine swallowtail (Battus philenor). Due to overlap in distribution among the two major groups, intermediates are numerous as hybridization occurs frequently.

Genetic pollution

genetic swampinggenetically polluted [1]
The genetic mixing may threaten many species with extinction, while genetic erosion in crop plants may be damaging the gene pools of many species for future breeding.
While intentional crossbreeding between two genetically distinct varieties is described as hybridization with the subsequent introgression of genes, Rifkin, who had played a leading role in the ethical debate for over a decade before, used genetic pollution to describe what he considered to be problems that might occur due the unintentional process of (modernly) genetically modified organisms (GMOs) dispersing their genes into the natural environment by breeding with wild plants or animals.

Sheep

ramlambdomestic sheep
Intergeneric hybrids result from matings between different genera, such as between sheep and goats.
However, they are separate species, so hybrids rarely occur, and are always infertile.

Hinny

hinniesGinnet
For example, donkeys have 62 chromosomes, horses have 64 chromosomes, and mules or hinnies have 63 chromosomes.
A hinny is a domestic equine hybrid that is the offspring of a male horse, a stallion, and a female donkey, a jenny.

Lonicera fly

Lonicera'' fly
The Lonicera fly is a natural hybrid.
The Lonicera fly, a hybrid in the genus Rhagoletis, is a North American fruit fly of the family Tephritidae.

Donkey

burroassdonkeys
For example, donkeys have 62 chromosomes, horses have 64 chromosomes, and mules or hinnies have 63 chromosomes.
The hybrid between a jack and a mare is a mule, valued as a working and riding animal in many countries.

Bird hybrid

hybridizationhybridHybridisation
Commonly, hybrids also combine traits seen only separately in one parent or the other (e.g., a bird hybrid might combine the yellow head of one parent with the orange belly of the other).
A "successful" hybrid is one demonstrated to produce fertile offspring.