Hybrid martial arts

Detail of the wrestling fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan.

Hybrid martial arts, also known as hybrid fighting systems or sometimes eclectic martial arts or freestyle martial arts, refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts (eclecticism).

- Hybrid martial arts

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Martial arts

Martial arts are codified systems and traditions of combat practiced for a number of reasons such as self-defense; military and law enforcement applications; competition; physical, mental, and spiritual development; entertainment; and the preservation of a nation's intangible cultural heritage.

Detail of the wrestling fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan.
The martial art of boxing was practiced in ancient Thera.
A Chinese martial artist preparing to throw his opponent during a lei tai contest in Ancient China.
Pankratiasts fighting under the eyes of a judge. Side B of a Panathenaic prize amphora, c. 500 BC.
Bruce Lee (right) and his teacher Ip Man (left).
Jackie Chan, one of the best known actors and martial artists.
Steven Ho executing a Jump Spin Hook Kick
Several martial arts, such as judo, are Olympic sports.
U.S. Army combatives instructor demonstrates a chokehold.
Demonstration of a Ju-Jitsu defense against a knife attack. Berlin 1924

Traditional/historical arts vs. contemporary styles: e.g., folk wrestling compared to modern hybrid martial arts.

Kickboxing

Group of stand-up combat sports and a form of boxing based on kicking and punching.

Kickboxing training in Ebisu, Tokyo.
800 year old Cambodian stone carving of an early version of Pradal Serey. Located at the Bayon temple.
Pankratiasts fighting under the eyes of a judge. Side B of a Panathenaic prize amphora, c. 500 BC.
Old picture of la boxe française
Tatsuo Yamada (left) and his master Choki Motobu (right), 1926
Hook-punch
A kickboxing match in München.
Roundhouse kick

Historically, kickboxing can be considered a hybrid martial art formed from the combination of elements of various traditional styles.

Jeet Kune Do

Bruce Lee with Wing Chun grandmaster Ip Man
The Wing Chun centerline.
Punching from the Wing Chun centerline.
The centerline can be expressed as the height of a triangle.
An animation of mechanical linkage to the shoulders of the triangle illustrates the importance of guarding the centerline.

Jeet Kune Do is an eclectic martial arts philosophy heavily influenced and adapted by the personal philosophy and experiences of martial artist Bruce Lee.

Shooto

Combat sport and mixed martial arts organization that is governed by the Shooto Association and the International Shooto Commission.

Shootist Yuki Nakai (bottom) attempts a Heel Hook at Gerard Gordeau (top) at Vale Tudo Japan Open 1995.

As a fighting system, Shooto is considered a hybrid martial art derived from Shoot Wrestling.

Shoot wrestling

Combat sport that originated in Japan's professional wrestling circuit of the 1970s.

The Pancrastinae statue demonstrates the pancratium, which being similar to modern MMA featured a strong grappling element. This statue is a Roman copy of a lost Greek original, circa 3rd Century B.C.

Shoot wrestling can be used to describe a range of hybrid fighting systems such as shootfighting, shoot boxing and the styles of mixed martial arts done in the Shooto, Pancrase and RINGS promotions.

Mixed martial arts

Full-contact combat sport based on striking, grappling and ground fighting, incorporating techniques from various combat sports from around the world.

Junior dos Santos vs. Shane Carwin, main event of UFC 131 in Vancouver, British Columbia, in 2011
A Chinese martial artist preparing to throw his opponent during a lei tai contest in Ancient China.
The Pancrastinae: A statue portraying the pancratium, an event which took place in the Roman Colosseum. Even as late as the Early Middle Ages, statues were put up in Rome and other cities to honor remarkable pankratiasts. This statue, now part of the Uffizi collection, is a Roman copy of a lost Greek original, circa 3rd century BC.
A scene of Ancient Greek pankratiasts fighting. Originally found on a Panathenaic amphora, Lamberg Collection.
Masahiko Kimura vs. Hélio Gracie, a 1951 bout between Japanese judo fighter Masahiko Kimura and Brazilian jiu jitsu founder Hélio Gracie in Brazil, was an early high-profile mixed martial arts bout.
Bruce Lee popularized the concept of mixed martial arts via his hybrid system of Jeet Kune Do during the late 1960s to early 1970s.
Muhammad Ali vs. Antonio Inoki, a 1976 bout in Japan where boxer Muhammad Ali fought wrestler Antonio Inoki, was an important precursor to MMA contests.
Yuki Nakai fights UFC 1 finalist Gerard Gordeau at Vale Tudo Japan 1995
MMA gloves. They are fingerless gloves which allow both striking and grappling to occur.
Groundfighting in MMA. Differently from other grappling-based martial arts, you are allowed to strike your opponent when fighting on the ground.
Gina Carano applying a Ground-and-Pound on her opponent.
MMA fighter attempts a Triangle-Armbar submission on his opponent.
A ring-side doctor attends to a fighter following a loss.
A Ring used by PRIDE.
An Octagon cage used by the UFC.
Fighter performs a takedown on his opponent.

During the late 1960s to early 1970s, the concept of combining the elements of multiple martial arts was popularized in the West by Bruce Lee via his system of Jeet Kune Do.

Kajukenbo

One example of a Kajukenbo crest

Kajukenbo (Japanese: カジュケンボ Kajukenbo) is a hybrid martial art from Hawaii.

Vale Tudo

Unarmed, full-contact combat sport with relatively few rules.

In Japan, former professional wrestler Satoru Sayama had created in 1985 a hybrid martial arts organization named Shooto, which featured striking with all limbs, takedowns, groundfighting and submissions.

American Tang Soo Do

Detail of the wrestling fresco in tomb 15 at Beni Hasan.

American Tang Soo Do is a hybrid martial art formed in 1966 by Chuck Norris who combined the Korean martial art of Tang Soo Do (Moo Duk Kwan) with Japanese styles of Judo, Shito-ryu Karate and Shotokan Karate.

Kūdō

Azuma Takashi
Member countries (red) and candidate member countries (green) of the Kudo International Federation (October 31, 2011)
Kudo fighters engaging in combat.
Roman Anashkin, famous Russian Kudoka.

Kūdō (空道) is a Japanese hybrid martial art.