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Hybrid (biology)

hybridhybridshybridization
Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation where hybridization between two different species leads to a new species, reproductively isolated from the parent species.
A few animal species and many plant species, however, are the result of hybrid speciation, including important crop plants such as wheat, where the number of chromosomes has been doubled.

Speciation

divergedspeciatedtrichotomy
Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation where hybridization between two different species leads to a new species, reproductively isolated from the parent species.
New species can also be created through hybridisation followed, if the hybrid is favoured by natural selection, by reproductive isolation.

Clymene dolphin

Stenella clymene
While not very common, a few animal species are the result of hybridization, mostly insects such as the Lonicera fly, some fish, with a mammal, the clymene dolphin, and a few birds.
It is the only confirmed case of hybrid speciation in marine mammals, descending from the spinner dolphin and the striped dolphin.

Polyphyly

polyphyleticdiphyleticartificial group
Hybrid species are by their nature polyphyletic.
However hybrid speciation arguably leads to polyphyletic species.

Species complex

species groupsuperspeciescryptic species
Rapidly diverging species can sometimes form multiple hybrid species, giving rise to a species complex, like several physically divergent but closely related genera of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi.
Hybrid speciation can be a component in the evolution of a species complex.

Heliconius

heliconiidHeliconpreoccupied
Hybridisation may have led to the species rich Heliconius butterflies, though the conclusion has been criticized.
Hybrid speciation has been hypothesized to occur in this genus and may contribute to the diverse mimicry found in Heliconius butterflies.

Secondary contact

Secondary contact
There are four primary outcomes of secondary contact: fusion of the two populations back into one, reinforcement, the formation of a hybrid zone, and the formation of a new species through hybrid speciation.

Saxifraga

saxifragePepper Saxifragesaxifrages
Garden flowers in the genus Saxifraga are often hybrids, and a tetraploid natural hybrid, Saxifraga osloenis is thought to have formed at the end of the last ice age.
Saxifraga osloensis Knaben - Oslo saxifrage, a natural hybrid species

Polyploidy

tetraploidpolyploidtriploid
Garden flowers in the genus Saxifraga are often hybrids, and a tetraploid natural hybrid, Saxifraga osloenis is thought to have formed at the end of the last ice age. Having multiple sets of chromosomes is called polyploidy (or polyploidity).
Indeed, homoploid speciation (i.e., hybrid speciation without a change in chromosome number) has been evidenced for some fungal species (e.g., the basidiomycota Microbotryum violaceum ).

Hybrid name

nothospeciesnothogenushybrid names
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid species is also called a nothospecies.
Iris germanica or Iris ×germanica is a species derived by hybrid speciation

Species

specificspecific namespecific epithet
Hybrid speciation is a form of speciation where hybridization between two different species leads to a new species, reproductively isolated from the parent species.

Botanical nomenclature

specific epithetnomenclaturesubspecies epithet
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid species is also called a nothospecies.

Natural selection

selectionselectiveselected
A hybrid may occasionally be better fitted to the local environment than the parental lineage and as such natural selection may favor these individuals.

Reproductive isolation

reproductively isolatedisolating mechanismsisolating mechanism
If reproductive isolation is subsequently achieved, a separate species may arise.

Ecological speciation

ecological
Reproductive isolation may be genetic, ecological, behavioural, spatial, or a combination of these.

Introgression

introgressive hybridizationintrogressedhybrid introgression
This will lead to an influx of foreign genes in the parent population, a situation called an introgression.

Neanderthal

Homo neanderthalensisNeanderthalsNeanderthal Man
There is evidence that introgression is a ubiquitous phenomenon in plants, animals, and even humans, where genetic material from Neanderthals and Denisovans is responsible for much of the immune genes in non-African populations.

Denisovan

DenisovansDenisovaDenisova 8
There is evidence that introgression is a ubiquitous phenomenon in plants, animals, and even humans, where genetic material from Neanderthals and Denisovans is responsible for much of the immune genes in non-African populations.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune responses
There is evidence that introgression is a ubiquitous phenomenon in plants, animals, and even humans, where genetic material from Neanderthals and Denisovans is responsible for much of the immune genes in non-African populations.

Grizzly bear

grizzly bearsgrizzlyGrizzlies
While grizzly bears and polar bears may have offspring, a grizzly–polar bear hybrid will likely be less suited in either of the ecological roles than the parents themselves.

Polar bear

polar bearsPolar bear huntingU. maritimus
While grizzly bears and polar bears may have offspring, a grizzly–polar bear hybrid will likely be less suited in either of the ecological roles than the parents themselves.

Grizzly–polar bear hybrid

grizzly-polar bear hybridgrolar bearinterbreeding
While grizzly bears and polar bears may have offspring, a grizzly–polar bear hybrid will likely be less suited in either of the ecological roles than the parents themselves.

Lion

lionsAfrican lionmane
Likewise, lions and tigers have historically overlapped in a portion of their range and can theoretically produce wild hybrids: ligers, which are a cross between a male lion and female tiger, and tigons, which are a cross between a male tiger and a female lion; however, tigers and lions have thus far only hybridized in captivity.

Tiger

tigerstigressPanthera tigris
Likewise, lions and tigers have historically overlapped in a portion of their range and can theoretically produce wild hybrids: ligers, which are a cross between a male lion and female tiger, and tigons, which are a cross between a male tiger and a female lion; however, tigers and lions have thus far only hybridized in captivity.

Liger

ligersligress
Likewise, lions and tigers have historically overlapped in a portion of their range and can theoretically produce wild hybrids: ligers, which are a cross between a male lion and female tiger, and tigons, which are a cross between a male tiger and a female lion; however, tigers and lions have thus far only hybridized in captivity.