Hydrocodone

TussionexHycodandihydrocodeinoneHydrocodone bitartrateHydrometVicodanVicodin
Hydrocodone, sold under the brand name Hysingla among others, is an opioid used to treat severe pain of a prolonged duration, if other measures are not sufficient.wikipedia
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Opioid

opioidsopioid-induced constipationopioid analgesic
Hydrocodone, sold under the brand name Hysingla among others, is an opioid used to treat severe pain of a prolonged duration, if other measures are not sufficient.
Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone, oxycodone and fentanyl; antagonist drugs such as naloxone; and endogenous peptides such as the endorphins.

Hydrocodone/paracetamol

VicodinLortabAcetaminophen/hydrocodone
Typically it is sold as the combinations acetaminophen/hydrocodone or ibuprofen/hydrocodone.
Hydrocodone/paracetamol, also known as hydrocodone/acetaminophen, is the combination of the pain medications hydrocodone and paracetamol (acetaminophen).

Hydrocodone/ibuprofen

Vicoprofenibuprofen/hydrocodone
Typically it is sold as the combinations acetaminophen/hydrocodone or ibuprofen/hydrocodone.
The drug combination hydrocodone/ibuprofen (INNs, trade name Vicoprofen) is an analgesic medication used in short-term therapy to relieve severe pain.

Papaver somniferum

opium poppyopium poppiespoppy
It is made from the opium poppy after it has been converted to codeine.
The third is to produce other alkaloids, mainly thebaine and oripavine, that are processed by the pharmaceutical industry into drugs such as hydrocodone and oxycodone.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Rapidly decreasing the dose may result in opioid withdrawal.
Opioids include substances such as heroin, morphine, fentanyl, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone.

Thebacon

acetyldihydrocodeinone
Thebacon (INN; pronounced ), or dihydrocodeinone enol acetate, is a semisynthetic opioid that is similar to hydrocodone and is most commonly synthesised from thebaine.

Dihydrocodeine

DF118dicodideDihydrocodeine bitartrate
In the liver, hydrocodone is transformed into several metabolites, including norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, 6α-hydrocodol (dihydrocodeine), and 6β-hydrocodol.
As is the case with other drugs in this group, the antitussive dose tends to be less than the analgesic dose, and dihydrocodeine is a powerful cough suppressant like all other members of the immediate codeine family (see below) and their cousins hydrocodone, oxycodone and ethylmorphine, whole opium preparations, and the strong opioid hydromorphone.

Chlorphenamine

chlorpheniraminechlorpheniramine maleateDemazin
Chlorphenamine may be combined with the opioid hydrocodone.

Serotonin syndrome

hyperserotonemiaserotonin toxicitycentral toxic serotonin reaction
Serious side effects may include abuse, low blood pressure, seizures, QT prolongation, respiratory depression, and serotonin syndrome.

Codeine

codeine phosphatecodeine hydrochlorideCod'ine
It is made from the opium poppy after it has been converted to codeine. Studies have shown hydrocodone is stronger than codeine but only one-tenth as potent as morphine at binding to receptors and reported to be only 59% as potent as morphine in analgesic properties.
Codeine has been used in the past as the starting material and prototype of a large class of mainly mild to moderately strong opioids; such as hydrocodone (1920 in Germany), oxycodone (1916 in Germany), dihydrocodeine (1908 in Germany), and its derivatives such as nicocodeine (1956 in Austria).

Cold medicine

antitussivecough medicinecough suppressant
It is also used as a cough suppressant in adults.

Morphine

morphiamorphine addictionmorphine sulfate
Studies have shown hydrocodone is stronger than codeine but only one-tenth as potent as morphine at binding to receptors and reported to be only 59% as potent as morphine in analgesic properties.
Past the optimum point for extraction, various processes in the plant produce codeine, thebaine, and in some cases negligible amounts of hydromorphone, dihydromorphine, dihydrocodeine, tetrahydro-thebaine, and hydrocodone (these compounds are rather synthesized from thebaine and oripavine).

Oxycodone

OxyContinEukodalRoxicodone
In one study comparing the potency of hydrocodone to that of oxycodone, it was found that it took 50% more hydrocodone to achieve the same degree of miosis (pupillary contraction).
It is also similar to hydrocodone, differing only in that it has a hydroxyl group at carbon-14.

Purdue Pharma

Purdue Pharma Canada
Purdue Pharma makes pain medicines such as hydromorphone, oxycodone, fentanyl, codeine, and hydrocodone.

Anxiolytic

anxiolysisanti-anxietyanxiolytics
Patients consuming alcohol, other opioids, anticholinergic antihistamines, anti-psychotics, anti-anxiety agents, or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants together with hydrocodone may exhibit an additive CNS depression.
These drugs range from the commonly prescribed hydrocodone, to the often illegal heroin, and all the way to much more potent varieties like fentanyl often used in trauma or end of life pain management.

Paracetamol

acetaminophenPanadolTylenol PM
Paracetamol is also combined with other opioids such as dihydrocodeine, referred to as co-dydramol (BAN), oxycodone or hydrocodone.

Norhydrocodone

In the liver, hydrocodone is transformed into several metabolites, including norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, 6α-hydrocodol (dihydrocodeine), and 6β-hydrocodol.
Norhydrocodone is the major metabolite of the opioid analgesic hydrocodone.

Equianalgesic

Opioid comparisoncompares weakly to other opiatesequivalent in analgesic effect

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
Patients consuming alcohol, other opioids, anticholinergic antihistamines, anti-psychotics, anti-anxiety agents, or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants together with hydrocodone may exhibit an additive CNS depression.

Oxymorphone

oxymorphone hydrochlorideOpanaNumorphan
German patents from the mid-1930s indicate that oxymorphone as well as hydromorphone, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and acetylmorphone can be prepared—without the need for hydrogen gas—from solutions of codeine, morphine, and dionine by refluxing an acidic aqueous solution, or the precursor drug dissolved in ethanol, in the presence of certain metals, namely palladium and platinum in fine powder or colloidal form or platinum black.

CYP2D6

2D6cytochrome P450 2D6cytochrome p-450 cyp2d6
The hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6 converts hydrocodone into hydromorphone, a more potent opioid (5-fold higher binding affinity to the MOR).

Anticholinergic

anticholinergicsanticholinergic druganticholinergic syndrome
Patients consuming alcohol, other opioids, anticholinergic antihistamines, anti-psychotics, anti-anxiety agents, or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants together with hydrocodone may exhibit an additive CNS depression.
Several narcotic and opiate-containing drug preparations, such as those containing hydrocodone and codeine are combined with an anticholinergic agent to deter intentional misuse.

Hydromorphone

DilaudidPalladonedihydromorphinone
In the liver, hydrocodone is transformed into several metabolites, including norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, 6α-hydrocodol (dihydrocodeine), and 6β-hydrocodol.
The semi-synthetic opiates, of which hydromorphone and its codeine analogue hydrocodone are among the best-known and oldest, include a huge number of drugs of varying strengths and with differences among themselves both subtle and stark, allowing for many different options for treatment.

Controlled Substances Act

Schedule ISchedule IISchedule III
The US government imposed tougher prescribing rules for hydrocodone in 2014, changing the drug from Schedule III to Schedule II.

Pain

physical painacute painnociceptive pain
Hydrocodone, sold under the brand name Hysingla among others, is an opioid used to treat severe pain of a prolonged duration, if other measures are not sufficient.