A report on Hydroelectricity and Hydropower

The Three Gorges Dam in Central China is the world's largest power–producing facility of any kind.
The Three Gorges Dam in China; the hydroelectric dam is the world's largest power station by installed capacity.
Museum Hydroelectric power plant ″Under the Town″ in Serbia, built in 1900.
A water piston from the Nongshu by Wang Zhen (fl. 1290–1333)
The Warwick Castle water-powered generator house, used for the generation of electricity for the castle from 1894 until 1940
Saint Anthony Falls, United States; hydropower was used here to mill flour.
A micro-hydro facility in Vietnam
Directly water-powered ore mill, late nineteenth century
Pico hydroelectricity in Mondulkiri, Cambodia
Benoît Fourneyron, the French engineer who developed the first hydropower turbine
Measurement of the tailrace and forebay rates at the Limestone Generating Station in Manitoba, Canada.
A shishi-odoshi powered by falling water breaks the quietness of a Japanese garden with the sound of a bamboo rocker arm hitting a rock.
The Ffestiniog Power Station can generate 360 MW of electricity within 60 seconds of the demand arising.
A conventional dammed-hydro facility (hydroelectric dam) is the most common type of hydroelectric power generation.
Merowe Dam in Sudan. Hydroelectric power stations that use dams submerge large areas of land due to the requirement of a reservoir. These changes to land color or albedo, alongside certain projects that concurrently submerge rainforests, can in these specific cases result in the global warming impact, or equivalent life-cycle greenhouse gases of hydroelectricity projects, to potentially exceed that of coal power stations.
Chief Joseph Dam near Bridgeport, Washington, is a major run-of-the-river station without a sizeable reservoir.
The Hoover Dam in the United States is a large conventional dammed-hydro facility, with an installed capacity of 2,080 MW.
Micro hydro in Northwest Vietnam
World renewable energy share (2008)
The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped Storage Scheme in Wales. The lower power station can generate 360 MW of electricity.
Trends in the top five hydroelectricity-producing countries
Share of electricity production from hydropower, 2020

Hydroelectricity, or hydroelectric power, is electricity produced from hydropower.

- Hydroelectricity

Hydropower is now used principally for hydroelectric power generation, and is also applied as one half of an energy storage system known as pumped-storage hydroelectricity.

- Hydropower
The Three Gorges Dam in Central China is the world's largest power–producing facility of any kind.

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Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, Arizona, USA


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Barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water or underground streams.

Barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water or underground streams.

Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, Arizona, USA
Lake Vyrnwy Dam, Wales, finished in 1888
Karapuzha Dam, an earthen dam in the Indian state of Kerala
Imatrankoski Dam on the Vuoksi River in Imatra, Finland
Small dam near Groningen, Netherlands
Afsluitdijk with the Wadden Sea (a part of the North Sea) on the left and the IJsselmeer on the right in the Netherlands
The Roman dam at Cornalvo in Spain has been in use for almost two millennia.
Remains of the Band-e Kaisar dam, built by the Romans in the 3rd century AD
An engraving of the Rideau Canal locks at Bytown
Masonry arch wall, Parramatta, New South Wales, the first engineered dam built in Australia
The Hoover Dam by Ansel Adams, 1942
Gordon Dam, Tasmania, is an arch dam.
Daniel-Johnson Dam, Quebec, is a multiple-arch buttress dam.
The Grand Coulee Dam is an example of a solid gravity dam.
The Hoover Dam is an example of an arch-gravity dam.
The Koshi Barrage of Nepal
Gathright Dam in Virginia is a rock-fill embankment dam.
Redridge Steel Dam, built 1905, Michigan
A timber crib dam in Michigan, 1978
A cofferdam during the construction of locks at the Montgomery Point Lock and Dam
Hydraulic turbine and electric generator
Hydroelectric dam in cross section
Spillway on Llyn Brianne dam, Wales, soon after first fill
The discharge of Takato Dam
Wood and garbage accumulation due to a dam
South Fork Dam failure and resulting flood that destroyed Johnstown in Pennsylvania in 1889
International special sign for works and installations containing dangerous forces

Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity.

In 1928, Congress authorized the project to build a dam that would control floods, provide irrigation water and produce hydroelectric power.

A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835.

Industrial Revolution

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The transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

The transition to new manufacturing processes in Great Britain, continental Europe, and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.

A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835.
A Roberts loom in a weaving shed in 1835.
Handloom weaving in 1747, from William Hogarth's Industry and Idleness
European colonial empires at the start of the Industrial Revolution, superimposed upon modern political boundaries.
A weaver in Nürnberg, c. 1524
A model of the spinning jenny in a museum in Wuppertal. Invented by James Hargreaves in 1764, the spinning jenny was one of the innovations that started the revolution.
The only surviving example of a spinning mule built by the inventor Samuel Crompton. The mule produced high-quality thread with minimal labour. Bolton Museum, Greater Manchester
The interior of Marshall's Temple Works in Leeds, West Yorkshire
Lombe's Mill site today, rebuilt as Derby Silk Mill
The reverberatory furnace could produce cast iron using mined coal. The burning coal remained separate from the iron and so did not contaminate the iron with impurities like sulfur and silica. This opened the way to increased iron production.
The Iron Bridge, Shropshire, England, the world's first bridge constructed of iron opened in 1781.
Horizontal (lower) and vertical (upper) cross-sections of a single puddling furnace. A. Fireplace grate; B. Firebricks; C. Cross binders; D. Fireplace; E. Work door; F. Hearth; G. Cast iron retaining plates; H. Bridge wall
A Watt steam engine. James Watt transformed the steam engine from a reciprocating motion that was used for pumping to a rotating motion suited to industrial applications. Watt and others significantly improved the efficiency of the steam engine.
Newcomen's steam-powered atmospheric engine was the first practical piston steam engine. Subsequent steam engines were to power the Industrial Revolution.
Maudslay's famous early screw-cutting lathes of circa 1797 and 1800
The Middletown milling machine of c. 1818, associated with Robert Johnson and Simeon North
The Thames Tunnel (opened 1843).
Cement was used in the world's first underwater tunnel.
The Crystal Palace housed the Great Exhibition of 1851
The Bridgewater Canal, famous because of its commercial success, crossing the Manchester Ship Canal, one of the last canals to be built.
Construction of the first macadam road in the United States (1823). In the foreground, workers are breaking stones "so as not to exceed 6 ounces in weight or to pass a two-inch ring".
Painting depicting the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway in 1830, the first inter-city railway in the world and which spawned Railway Mania due to its success.
Wedgwood tea and coffee service
Winchester High Street, 1853. The number of High Streets (the primary street for retail in Britain) in towns and cities rapidly grew in the 18th century.
The Black Country in England, west of Birmingham
Manchester, England ("Cottonopolis"), pictured in 1840, showing the mass of factory chimneys
A young "drawer" pulling a coal tub along a mine gallery. In Britain, laws passed in 1842 and 1844 improved mine working conditions.
Luddites smashing a power loom in 1812
Levels of air pollution rose during the Industrial Revolution, sparking the first modern environmental laws to be passed in the mid-19th century.
Slater's Mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
Sächsische Maschinenfabrik in Chemnitz, Germany, 1868
Sir Henry Bessemer's Bessemer converter, the most important technique for making steel from the 1850s to the 1950s. Located in Sheffield (Steel City)
Regional GDP per capita changed very little for most of human history before the Industrial Revolution.
Interior of the London Coal Exchange, c. 1808.
European 17th-century colonial expansion, international trade, and creation of financial markets produced a new legal and financial environment, one which supported and enabled 18th-century industrial growth.
As the Industrial Revolution developed British manufactured output surged ahead of other economies.
William Bell Scott Iron and Coal, 1855–60
William and Mary Presenting the Cap of Liberty to Europe, 1716, Sir James Thornhill. Enthroned in heaven with the Virtues behind them are the royals William III and Mary II who had taken the throne after the Glorious Revolution and signed the English Bill of Rights of 1689. William tramples on arbitrary power and hands the red cap of liberty to Europe where, unlike Britain, absolute monarchy stayed the normal form of power execution. Below William is the French king Louis XIV.
A Philosopher Lecturing on the Orrery by Joseph Wright of Derby (c. 1766). Informal philosophical societies spread scientific advances
A primitive lifestyle living outside the Industrial Revolution
A dog forced to eat trash due to pollution, the Industrial Revolution has forced animals into harsh environments most are unable to survive in, leading to starvation and eventual extinction

This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system.

The introduction of hydroelectric power generation in the Alps enabled the rapid industrialisation of coal-deprived northern Italy, beginning in the 1890s.

Canadian Horseshoe Falls at right

Niagara Falls

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Group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States.

Group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States.

Canadian Horseshoe Falls at right
American Falls (large waterfall center-left) and Bridal Veil Falls (right)
Niagara Escarpment (in red). Niagara Falls is center-right between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.
Damage from wind and ice on Goat Island, 1903
American Falls diverted during erosion control efforts in 1969
Louis Hennepin is depicted in front of the falls in this 1698 print.
Horseshoe Falls, 1869
American Falls frozen over with people on the ice, 1911
Aerial photograph of Niagara Falls, 1931
Hand-colored lithograph of the (double-decked) Niagara Suspension Bridge, c. 1856
Niagara Cantilever Bridge, c. 1895
The Rainbow Bridge, the first bridge downstream from the falls
New York side of Niagara Gorge, c. 1901
Ten 5,000 HP Westinghouse generators at Edward Dean Adams Power Plant
Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant in Lewiston, New York
The Welland Canal connects Lake Ontario and Lake Erie through a series of eight locks, allowing ships to bypass the 51 m high Niagara Falls
Bobby Leach and his barrel after his trip over Niagara Falls, (1911 photo)
Annie Edson Taylor posing with her wooden barrel (1901)
Charles Stephens in his barrel, prior to his fatal July 1920 attempt
Blondin carrying his manager, Harry Colcord, on a tightrope
Advertising broadside for trip to Niagara Falls from Massachusetts, 1895
Prospect Point Observation Tower (also known as the Niagara Falls Observation Tower)
Skylon Tower as seen from a helicopter on the Canadian side
The opening title from the theatrical trailer of the 1953 film Niagara.
José María Heredia y Heredia plaque at Table Rock
A General View of the Falls of Niagara by Alvan Fisher, 1820
Distant View of Niagara Falls by Thomas Cole, 1830
Niagara Fälle. Les chûtes du Niagara. Niagara Falls by Karl Bodmer, circa 1832
Voute sous la Chute du Niagara – Niagara Falls, circa 1841
Niagara by Frederic Edwin Church, 1857
Underneath Niagara Falls by Ferdinand Richardt, 1862
Niagara by Louis Rémy Mignot, circa 1866
Falls of Niagara from Below by Albert Bierstadt, 1869
Niagara Falls by William Morris Hunt, 1878
Niagara Falls, circa 1880

The story of Niagara Falls in the 20th century is largely that of efforts to harness the energy of the falls for hydroelectric power, and to control the development on both sides that threaten the area's natural beauty.

Augustus and Peter Porter purchased this area and all of American Falls in 1805 from the New York state government, and enlarged the original canal to provide hydraulic power for their gristmill and tannery.