Hydrogen economy

hydrogenhydrogen-based economyHydrogen energy50,000,000hydrogen fuelhydrogen fuel cellhydrogen fuel economyHydrogen gas as an energy sourceHydrogen leakhydrogen society
The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for heating, hydrogen vehicles, seasonal energy storage and long distance transport of energy.wikipedia
324 Related Articles

Fossil fuel phase-out

Coal phase outFossil-fuel phase-outphase-out coal
In order to phase out fossil fuels and limit global warming, hydrogen is starting to be used as its combustion only releases clean water, and no to the atmosphere.
In some countries natural gas is being used as a temporary "bridge fuel" to replace coal, in turn to be replaced by renewable sources or a hydrogen economy.

J. B. S. Haldane

J.B.S. HaldaneHaldaneJohn Burdon Sanderson Haldane
The concept was proposed earlier by geneticist J.B.S. Haldane.
He was the first to suggest the central idea of in vitro fertilisation, as well as concepts such as hydrogen economy, cis and trans-acting regulation, coupling reaction, molecular repulsion, the darwin (as a unit of evolution) and organismal cloning.

Underground hydrogen storage

seasonal energy storage
The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for heating, hydrogen vehicles, seasonal energy storage and long distance transport of energy.
The storage of large quantities of hydrogen underground in solution-mined salt domes, aquifers or excavated rock caverns or mines can function as grid energy storage which is essential for the hydrogen economy.

John Bockris

cold fusion work of A&M UniversityJ. O'M. BockrisJohn O'Mara Bockris
The term hydrogen economy was coined by John Bockris during a talk he gave in 1970 at General Motors (GM) Technical Center.
In 1970, Bockris, then a professor at the University of Pennsylvania, said he had found a method for using sunlight to free hydrogen from water and coined the term "hydrogen economy" to describe the application of the anticipated technology.

The Hype about Hydrogen

The Hype about Hydrogen: Fact and Fiction in the Race to Save the Climatecritics
A spike in attention for the concept during the 2000s was repeatedly described as hype by some critics and proponents of alternative technologies.
The Hype about Hydrogen contends that global warming and U.S. reliance on foreign fuel imports cannot be solved by the hypothetical hydrogen economy that has been advanced as a possible solution to these problems, and that "neither government policy nor business investment should be based on the belief that hydrogen cars will have meaningful commercial success in the near or medium term."

Water splitting

break downdecomposition of waterhydrogen evolution
There are more than 352 thermochemical cycles which can be used for water splitting, around a dozen of these cycles such as the iron oxide cycle, cerium(IV) oxide-cerium(III) oxide cycle, zinc zinc-oxide cycle, sulfur-iodine cycle, copper-chlorine cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle are under research and in testing phase to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water and heat without using electricity.
Efficient and economical photochemical water splitting would be a technological breakthrough that could underpin a hydrogen economy.

Lawrence W. Jones

Modern interest in the hydrogen economy can generally be traced to a 1970 technical report by Lawrence W. Jones of the University of Michigan.
He has also contributed to research in medical radioisotope imaging and was an early proponent of the hydrogen fuel economy.

Fuel

fuelsenergy-richFuel type
The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for heating, hydrogen vehicles, seasonal energy storage and long distance transport of energy.

Nuclear power

nuclear energynuclearnuclear industry
Decomposing water, the latter carrier, requires electrical or heat input, generated from some primary energy source (fossil fuel, nuclear power or a renewable energy).
International research is continuing into additional uses of process heat such as hydrogen production (in support of a hydrogen economy), for desalinating sea water, and for use in district heating systems.

Hydrocarbon economy

In the current hydrocarbon economy, transportation is fueled primarily by petroleum and heating by natural gas.
Hydrocarbon economy is often used when talking about possible alternatives like the hydrogen economy.

Hydrogen vehicle

hydrogenhydrogen carhydrogen vehicles
The hydrogen economy is the use of hydrogen as a low carbon fuel, particularly for heating, hydrogen vehicles, seasonal energy storage and long distance transport of energy.
Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy.

Hydride

metal hydridemetal hydrideshydrides
Distinct from storing molecular hydrogen, hydrogen can be stored as a chemical hydride or in some other hydrogen-containing compound.

Hydrogen clathrate

H 2 cagedhydrogen clathrate hydrate
Some suggested adsorbents include activated carbon, nanostructured carbons (including CNTs), MOFs, and hydrogen clathrate hydrate.
This substance is interesting due to its possible use to store hydrogen in a hydrogen economy.

Hydrogen technologies

hydrogen technology
Codes and standards have repeatedly been identified as a major institutional barrier to deploying hydrogen technologies and developing a hydrogen economy.
Some hydrogen technologies are carbon neutral and could have a role in preventing climate change and a possible future hydrogen economy.

Hydrogen station

hydrogen refueling stationsfueling stationhydrogen filling stations
Hydrogen stations which were not situated near a hydrogen pipeline would get supply via hydrogen tanks, compressed hydrogen tube trailers, liquid hydrogen trailers, liquid hydrogen tank trucks or dedicated onsite production.

Sulfur–iodine cycle

sulfur-iodine cycleSulfur iodine cyclethermochemical production of hydrogen
There are more than 352 thermochemical cycles which can be used for water splitting, around a dozen of these cycles such as the iron oxide cycle, cerium(IV) oxide-cerium(III) oxide cycle, zinc zinc-oxide cycle, sulfur-iodine cycle, copper-chlorine cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle are under research and in testing phase to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water and heat without using electricity.
The sulfur-iodine cycle has been proposed as a way to supply hydrogen for a hydrogen-based economy.

Compressed hydrogen tube trailer

tube trailers
Hydrogen stations which were not situated near a hydrogen pipeline would get supply via hydrogen tanks, compressed hydrogen tube trailers, liquid hydrogen trailers, liquid hydrogen tank trucks or dedicated onsite production.

Artificial photosynthesis

artificial leafphotosynthetic cellWater oxidation
Water is broken into hydrogen and oxygen by electrolysis—a photoelectrochemical cell (PEC) process which is also named artificial photosynthesis.

Hydrogen tank

tanktanksMetal hydride storage tanks
The mass of the hydrogen tanks needed for compressed hydrogen reduces the fuel economy of the vehicle.

Liquid hydrogen trailer

liquid hydrogen semi-trailer
Hydrogen stations which were not situated near a hydrogen pipeline would get supply via hydrogen tanks, compressed hydrogen tube trailers, liquid hydrogen trailers, liquid hydrogen tank trucks or dedicated onsite production.

Metal–organic framework

metal-organic frameworkmetal-organic frameworksmetal organic framework
Some suggested adsorbents include activated carbon, nanostructured carbons (including CNTs), MOFs, and hydrogen clathrate hydrate.

Hydrogen highway

distribution problems
The hydrogen infrastructure would consist mainly of industrial hydrogen pipeline transport and hydrogen-equipped filling stations like those found on a hydrogen highway.

Internal combustion engine

engineinternal combustioninternal combustion engines
One of the main offerings of a hydrogen economy is that the fuel can replace the fossil fuel burned in internal combustion engines and turbines as the primary way to convert chemical energy into kinetic or electrical energy, thereby eliminating greenhouse gas emissions and pollution from that engine.
Hydrogen could eventually replace conventional fossil fuels in traditional internal combustion engines.

United States hydrogen policy

Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvementhydrogen policy
The United States have their own hydrogen policy.
The purposes of Title VIII are: "(1) to enable and promote comprehensive development, demonstration, and commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell technology in partnership with industry; (2) to make critical public investments in building strong links to private industry, institutions of higher education, National Laboratories, and research institutions to expand innovation and industrial growth; (3) to build a mature hydrogen economy that creates fuel diversity in the massive transportation sector of the United States; (4) to sharply decrease the dependency of the United States on imported oil, eliminate most emissions from the transportation sector, and greatly enhance our energy security; and (5) to create, strengthen, and protect a sustainable national energy economy."

BC hydrogen highway

Canada
The distribution of hydrogen for the purpose of transportation is currently being tested around the world, particularly in the US (California, Massachusetts), Canada, Japan, the EU (Portugal, Norway, Denmark, Germany), and Iceland, but the cost is very high.