Hydrogeology

hydrogeologicalhydrogeologistgeohydrologyhydrogeologistshydrogeologicgroundwater hydrologyhydrologic(geo)hydrologicfurther reading sectiongeohydrological
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).wikipedia
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Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterpore water
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, also called groundwater hydrology.

Darcy's law

Darcy’s lawDarcyDarcy flow
The mathematical relationships used to describe the flow of water through porous media are Darcy's law, the diffusion and Laplace equations, which have applications in many diverse fields.
The law was formulated by Henry Darcy based on results of experiments on the flow of water through beds of sand, forming the basis of hydrogeology, a branch of earth sciences.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
Hydrogeology is an interdisciplinary subject; it can be difficult to account fully for the chemical, physical, biological and even legal interactions between soil, water, nature and society.
The study of the distribution and movement of groundwater is hydrogeology, of glaciers is glaciology, of inland waters is limnology and distribution of oceans is oceanography.

Specific storage

specific yieldstorativityspecific storage (S s )
Aquifers are broadly classified as being either confined or unconfined (water table aquifers), and either saturated or unsaturated; the type of aquifer affects what properties control the flow of water in that medium (e.g., the release of water from storage for confined aquifers is related to the storativity, while it is related to the specific yield for unconfined aquifers).
In the field of hydrogeology, storage properties are physical properties that characterize the capacity of an aquifer to release groundwater.

Aquifer

aquifersaquitardaquiclude
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology.

Well

wellswater wellwater wells
Hydraulic head is a directly measurable property that can take on any value (because of the arbitrary datum involved in the z term); ψ can be measured with a pressure transducer (this value can be negative, e.g., suction, but is positive in saturated aquifers), and z can be measured relative to a surveyed datum (typically the top of the well casing).
The site of a well can be selected by a hydrogeologist, or groundwater surveyor.

Drawdown (hydrology)

drawdowndraw downdraw-down
For example: aquifer drawdown or overdrafting and the pumping of fossil water may be a contributing factor to sea-level rise. A record of hydraulic head through time at a well is a hydrograph or, the changes in hydraulic head recorded during the pumping of a well in a test are called drawdown.

Aquifer test

pumping testThiem solutionpump test
Therefore, a common task of the hydrogeologist is determining aquifer properties using aquifer tests. The Theis equation is a very simple (yet still very useful) analytic solution to the groundwater flow equation, typically used to analyze the results of an aquifer test or slug test.
Aquifer testing is a common tool that hydrogeologists use to characterize a system of aquifers, aquitards and flow system boundaries.

Porosity

porousporepores
Often the porosity or effective porosity is used as an upper bound to the specific yield.
Used in geology, hydrogeology, soil science, and building science, the porosity of a porous medium (such as rock or sediment) describes the fraction of void space in the material, where the void may contain, for example, air or water.

Porous medium

porous mediaporous materialsporous
Hydrogeology, as stated above, is a branch of the earth sciences dealing with the flow of water through aquifers and other shallow porous media (typically less than 450 m below the land surface).
The concept of porous media is used in many areas of applied science and engineering: filtration, mechanics (acoustics, geomechanics, soil mechanics, rock mechanics), engineering (petroleum engineering, bioremediation, construction engineering), geosciences (hydrogeology, petroleum geology, geophysics), biology and biophysics, material science.

Oscar Edward Meinzer

Meinzer, Oscar E.O. E. Meinzer
Oscar Edward Meinzer was an American scientist who is often called the "father of modern groundwater hydrology".
Oscar Edward Meinzer (November 28, 1876 – June 14, 1948) was an American hydrogeologist who has been called the "father of modern groundwater hydrology".

Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologic
Hydrogeology (hydro- meaning water, and -geology meaning the study of the Earth) is the area of geology that deals with the distribution and movement of groundwater in the soil and rocks of the Earth's crust (commonly in aquifers).
Groundwater hydrology, or hydrogeology, is used to locate groundwater, which can often provide a ready supply of uncontaminated water and is especially important in arid regions, and to monitor the spread of contaminants in groundwater wells.

Groundwater flow equation

groundwater flow
No matter which method we use to solve the groundwater flow equation, we need both initial conditions The Theis equation is a very simple (yet still very useful) analytic solution to the groundwater flow equation, typically used to analyze the results of an aquifer test or slug test.
Used in hydrogeology, the groundwater flow equation is the mathematical relationship which is used to describe the flow of groundwater through an aquifer.

Earth science

Earth Sciencesgeosciencesgeoscience
Hydrogeology, as stated above, is a branch of the earth sciences dealing with the flow of water through aquifers and other shallow porous media (typically less than 450 m below the land surface).

Soil science

soil scientistsoil sciencessoil scientists
The very shallow flow of water in the subsurface (the upper 3 m) is pertinent to the fields of soil science, agriculture and civil engineering, as well as to hydrogeology.

Groundwater model

groundwater modelingComputer modelsgroundwater salinity models
A quick survey of the main numerical methods used in hydrogeology, and some of the most basic principles are shown below and further discussed in the Groundwater model article.
Groundwater models are computer models of groundwater flow systems, and are used by hydrogeologists.

Vadose zone

vadoseunsaturated zonesaturated
The water content is very important in vadose zone hydrology, where the hydraulic conductivity is a strongly nonlinear function of water content; this complicates the solution of the unsaturated groundwater flow equation.
Movement of water within the vadose zone is studied within soil physics and hydrology, particularly hydrogeology, and is of importance to agriculture, contaminant transport, and flood control.

MODFLOW

SEAWAT
MODFLOW is a well-known example of a general finite difference groundwater flow model.
The program is used by hydrogeologists to simulate the flow of groundwater through aquifers.

Slug test

The Theis equation is a very simple (yet still very useful) analytic solution to the groundwater flow equation, typically used to analyze the results of an aquifer test or slug test.
It is a method used by hydrogeologists and civil engineers to determine the transmissivity/hydraulic conductivity and storativity of the material the well is completed in.

Hydrograph

unit hydrographfalling limbhydrographical patterns
A record of hydraulic head through time at a well is a hydrograph or, the changes in hydraulic head recorded during the pumping of a well in a test are called drawdown.
In subsurface hydrology (hydrogeology), a hydrograph is a record of the water level (the observed hydraulic head in wells screened across an aquifer).

Water table

watertablegroundwater tableperched lake
Aquifers are broadly classified as being either confined or unconfined (water table aquifers), and either saturated or unsaturated; the type of aquifer affects what properties control the flow of water in that medium (e.g., the release of water from storage for confined aquifers is related to the storativity, while it is related to the specific yield for unconfined aquifers).

Hydrogeophysics

Thus, the geophysical methods for mapping subsurface properties combine with hydrogeology to use proper, accurate methods to map shallow hydrological study sites.

SahysMod

Soil salinity and groundwater model
SahysMod is a computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands, using different hydrogeologic and aquifer conditions, varying water management options, including the use of ground water for irrigation, and several crop rotation schedules, whereby the spatial variations are accounted for through a network of polygons.

Flownet

The method is often used in civil engineering, hydrogeology or soil mechanics as a first check for problems of flow under hydraulic structures like dams or sheet pile walls.

Permeability (Earth sciences)

permeabilitypermeableimpermeable
Intrinsic permeability is a secondary medium property which does not depend on the viscosity and density of the fluid (K and T are specific to water); it is used more in the petroleum industry.