Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologichydrologistshydrologicallywater resources engineeringhydrological conditionsengineeredhydraulic engineeringhydrological regime
Hydrology (from Greek: ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning "water"; and λόγος, "lógos" meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.wikipedia
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Geology

geologicalgeologistgeologic
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.
Modern geology significantly overlaps all other earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences, and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated earth system science and planetary science.

Civil engineering

Civilcivil engineerengineering
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.
Because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields.

Physical geography

physiographicphysiographyphysiographically
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.
Hydrology is predominantly concerned with the amounts and quality of water moving and accumulating on the land surface and in the soils and rocks near the surface and is typified by the hydrological cycle. Thus the field encompasses water in rivers, lakes, aquifers and to an extent glaciers, in which the field examines the process and dynamics involved in these bodies of water. Hydrology has historically had an important connection with engineering and has thus developed a largely quantitative method in its research; however, it does have an earth science side that embraces the systems approach. Similar to most fields of physical geography it has sub-fields that examine the specific bodies of water or their interaction with other spheres e.g. limnology and ecohydrology.

Surface-water hydrology

surface hydrologyhydrologic regimehydrological regime
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.
Surface-water hydrology is a field that encompasses all surface waters of the globe (overland flows, rivers, lakes, wetlands, estuaries, oceans, etc.).

Earth science

geoscienceearth sciencesgeosciences
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.
Physical geography covers aspects of geomorphology, soil study, hydrology, meteorology, climatology, and biogeography.

Hydrometeorology

hydrometeorologicalhydrometeorologisthydro-meteorological
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere.

Meteorology

meteorologistmeteorologicalmeteorologists
Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields.
Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology.

Isotope hydrology

isotope tracing
Isotope hydrology is the study of the isotopic signatures of water.
Isotope hydrology is a field of hydrology that uses isotopic dating to estimate the age and origins of water and of movement within the hydrologic cycle.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
Mitigating and predicting flood, landslide and drought risk.
Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health.

Oceanography

oceanographeroceanographicmarine science
Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields.
These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics.

Water balance

positive water balancewaterwater-balance
Determining the water balance of a region.
In hydrology, a water balance equation can be used to describe the flow of water in and out of a system.

Antecedent moisture

Analyzing the impacts of antecedent moisture on sanitary sewer systems.
In hydrology and sewage collection and disposal, antecedent moisture is the relative wetness or dryness of a watershed or sanitary sewershed.

Geomorphology

geomorphologicalgeomorphologistgeomorphic
Predicting geomorphologic changes, such as erosion or sedimentation.
The Earth's surface and its topography therefore are an intersection of climatic, hydrologic, and biologic action with geologic processes, or alternatively stated, the intersection of the Earth's lithosphere with its hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

Bernard Palissy

Palissy the Potter
With adoption of a more scientific approach, Leonardo da Vinci and Bernard Palissy independently reached an accurate representation of the hydrologic cycle.
Palissy is known for his contributions to the natural sciences, and is famous for discovering principles of geology, hydrology and fossil formation.

Environmental science

environmentalEnvironmentenvironmental scientist
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.
In some classification systems this can also include hydrology, including oceanography.

Pierre Perrault (scientist)

Pierre Perrault
Pioneers of the modern science of hydrology include Pierre Perrault, Edme Mariotte and Edmund Halley.
He and Edme Mariotte were primarily responsible for making hydrology an experimental science.

GIS and hydrology

groundwater and surface water mapping
(See also GIS and hydrology)
Geographic information systems (GISs) have become a useful and important tool in the field of hydrology to study and manage Earth's water resources.

Robert E. Horton

HortonRobert Horton
Of particular importance were Leroy Sherman's unit hydrograph, the infiltration theory of Robert E. Horton, and C.V. Theis's aquifer test/equation describing well hydraulics.
Robert Elmer Horton (May 18, 1875 – April 22, 1945) was an American civil engineer and soil scientist, considered by many to be the father of modern hydrology.

Stream gauge

gauging stationstream gageriver gauge
Methods for measuring flow once water has reached a river include the stream gauge (see: discharge), and tracer techniques.
A stream gauge, streamgage or gauging station is a location used by hydrologists or environmental scientists to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water.

Discharge (hydrology)

dischargeflow rateoutflow
Methods for measuring flow once water has reached a river include the stream gauge (see: discharge), and tracer techniques.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.

Rain gauge

pluviometerrain gaugesmeteorological observation
Precipitation can be measured in various ways: disdrometer for precipitation characteristics at a fine time scale; radar for cloud properties, rain rate estimation, hail and snow detection; rain gauge for routine accurate measurements of rain and snowfall; satellite for rainy area identification, rain rate estimation, land-cover/land-use, and soil moisture, for example.
A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over a set period of time.

Drainage basin

watershedbasincatchment area
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.
In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin.

Hydroinformatics

Hydroinformatics is the adaptation of information technology to hydrology and water resources applications.
Hydroinformatics draws on and integrates hydraulics, hydrology, environmental engineering and many other disciplines.

Evaporation

evaporateevaporatedevaporates
Evaporation is an important part of the water cycle.
In hydrology, evaporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) are collectively termed evapotranspiration.

Environmental engineering

Environmentalenvironmental engineerengineering
A practitioner of hydrology is a hydrologist, working within the fields of earth or environmental science, physical geography, geology or civil and environmental engineering.
Hydrology