Hydrology

hydrologicalhydrologisthydrologichydrologistshydrologicallyWater Resources EngineeringHistory of hydrologyhydrological conditionsengineeredhydraulic engineering
Hydrology (from Greek: ὕδωρ, "hýdōr" meaning "water" and λόγος, "lógos" meaning "study") is the scientific study of the movement, distribution and management of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.wikipedia
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Civil engineering

Civilcivil engineerCivil and Environmental Engineering
A practitioner of hydrology is called a "hydrologic engineer", working within the fields of civil and environmental engineering.
Because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields.

Surface-water hydrology

surface hydrologyhydrologic regimehydrological regime
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.
Surface-water hydrology is the sub-field of hydrology concerned with above-earth water, in contrast to groundwater hydrology that deals with water below the surface of the Earth.

Physical geography

physiographicphysiographyphysiographically
Hydrologists can also be scientists studying earth or environmental science and physical geography.

Hydrometeorology

hydrometeorologicalhydrometeorologisthydro-meteorological
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.
Hydrometeorology is a branch of meteorology and hydrology that studies the transfer of water and energy between the land surface and the lower atmosphere.

Meteorology

meteorologicalmeteorologistmeteorologists
Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields.
Meteorology and hydrology compose the interdisciplinary field of hydrometeorology.

Earth science

Earth Sciencesgeosciencesgeoscience
Hydrologists can also be scientists studying earth or environmental science and physical geography.

Oceanography

oceanographeroceanographicmarine science
Oceanography and meteorology are not included because water is only one of many important aspects within those fields.
These diverse topics reflect multiple disciplines that oceanographers blend to further knowledge of the world ocean and understanding of processes within: astronomy, biology, chemistry, climatology, geography, geology, hydrology, meteorology and physics.

Isotope hydrology

isotope tracing
Isotope hydrology is a field of hydrology that uses isotopic dating to estimate the age and origins of water and of movement within the hydrologic cycle.

Flood

floodingfloodsflood control
Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health.

Water balance

positive water balancewater
In hydrology, a water balance equation can be used to describe the flow of water in and out of a system.

Ecohydrology

waterecohydrologicalhydroecology
It is considered a sub discipline of hydrology, with an ecological focus.

Antecedent moisture

In hydrology and sewage collection and disposal, antecedent moisture is the relative wetness or dryness of a watershed or sanitary sewershed.

Geomorphology

geomorphologicalgeomorphologistgeomorphic
The Earth's surface and its topography therefore are an intersection of climatic, hydrologic, and biologic action with geologic processes, or alternatively stated, the intersection of the Earth's lithosphere with its hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.

Bernard Palissy

PalissyPalissy the Potter
With the adoption of a more scientific approach, Leonardo da Vinci and Bernard Palissy independently reached an accurate representation of the hydrologic cycle.
Palissy is known for his contributions to the natural sciences, and is famous for discovering principles of geology, hydrology and fossil formation.

Pierre Perrault (scientist)

Pierre PerraultPierre Perrault (author)
Pioneers of the modern science of hydrology include Pierre Perrault, Edme Mariotte and Edmund Halley.
He and Edme Mariotte were primarily responsible for making hydrology an experimental science.

Environmental science

Environmental Sciencesenvironmental scientistenvironmental
Hydrologists can also be scientists studying earth or environmental science and physical geography.
In some classification systems this can also include hydrology, including oceanography.

GIS and hydrology

groundwater and surface water mapping
(See also GIS and hydrology)
Geographic information systems (GISs) have become a useful and important tool in the field of hydrology to study and manage Earth's water resources.

Robert E. Horton

HortonRobert Elmer HortonRobert Horton
Of particular importance were Leroy Sherman's unit hydrograph, the infiltration theory of Robert E. Horton, and C.V. Theis's aquifer test/equation describing well hydraulics.
Robert Elmer Horton (May 18, 1875 – April 22, 1945) was an American civil engineer and soil scientist, considered by many to be the father of modern hydrology.

Rain

rainfallrainwaterrainstorm
One of the main uses of weather radar is to be able to assess the amount of precipitations fallen over large basins for hydrological purposes.

Stream gauge

gauging stationstream gageriver gauge
Methods for measuring flow once the water has reached a river include the stream gauge (see: discharge), and tracer techniques.
A stream gauge, streamgage or gauging station is a location used by hydrologists or environmental scientists to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water.

Discharge (hydrology)

dischargeflow rateoutflow
Methods for measuring flow once the water has reached a river include the stream gauge (see: discharge), and tracer techniques.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.

Rain gauge

pluviometerrain gaugestipping bucket rain gauge
Precipitation can be measured in various ways: disdrometer for precipitation characteristics at a fine time scale; radar for cloud properties, rain rate estimation, hail and snow detection; rain gauge for routine accurate measurements of rain and snowfall; satellite for rainy area identification, rain rate estimation, land-cover/land-use, and soil moisture, for example.
A rain gauge (also known as an udometer, pluviometer, or an ombrometer) is an instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid precipitation over an area in a predefined period of time.

Drainage basin

watershedbasincatchment area
Domains of hydrology include hydrometeorology, surface hydrology, hydrogeology, drainage-basin management and water quality, where water plays the central role.
In hydrology, the drainage basin is a logical unit of focus for studying the movement of water within the hydrological cycle, because the majority of water that discharges from the basin outlet originated as precipitation falling on the basin.

Hydroinformatics

Hydroinformatics draws on and integrates hydraulics, hydrology, environmental engineering and many other disciplines.

Evaporation

evaporateevaporatedevaporates
Evaporation is an important part of the water cycle.
In hydrology, evaporation and transpiration (which involves evaporation within plant stomata) are collectively termed evapotranspiration.