hydroponichydrocultureOrganic hydroponic solutionshydroponicallyhydroponic farmhydroponic greenhousehydroponic farminghydroponic farmshydroponic systems hydroponically-grown
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, which is a method of growing plants without soil by instead using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.wikipedia
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aeroponicair-dynaponicsaeroponic garden
To grow 1 kilogram of tomatoes in Intensive farming requires 400 liters of water, in hydroponics 70 liters of water, and only 20 liters of water for aeroponics.
Aeroponic culture differs from both conventional hydroponics, aquaponics, and in-vitro (plant tissue culture) growing.

Hoagland solution

These two researchers developed several formulas for mineral nutrient solutions, known as Hoagland solution.
The Hoagland solution is a hydroponic nutrient solution that was developed by Hoagland and Snyder in 1933, refined by Hoagland and Arnon in 1938 and revised by Arnon in 1950.


cucumbersCucumis sativusIndian cucumber
Plants commonly grown hydroponically include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, lettuces, and marijuana.
The plant may also root in a soilless medium and will sprawl along the ground if it does not have supports.

Nutrient film technique

In the 1960s, Allen Cooper of England developed the Nutrient film technique.
Nutrient film technique (NFT) is a hydroponic technique where in a very shallow stream of water containing all the dissolved nutrients required for plant growth is re-circulated past the bare roots of plants in a watertight gully, also known as channels.


Growstones, made from glass waste, have both more air and water retention space than perlite and peat.
Growstones are a substrate for growing plants that can be used for soilless purposes or as a soil conditioner.


pepperspepperred pepper
Plants commonly grown hydroponically include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, lettuces, and marijuana.
Breeding occurs in several environments dependent on the use of the final variety including but not limited to: conventional, organic, hydroponic, green house and shade house production environments.


Terrestrial plants may be grown with only their roots exposed to the nutritious liquid, or the roots may be physically supported by an inert medium such as perlite or gravel.
In horticulture, perlite can be used as a soil amendment or alone as a medium for hydroponics or for starting cuttings.

Mineral wool

rock woolrockwoolHigh temperature insulation wool
Eurofresh has 318 acre under glass and represents about a third of the commercial hydroponic greenhouse area in the U.S. Eurofresh tomatoes were pesticide-free, grown in rockwool with top irrigation.
Applications of mineral wool include thermal insulation (as both structural insulation and pipe insulation, though it is not as fire-resistant as high-temperature insulation wool), filtration, soundproofing, and hydroponic growth medium.

Dennis Robert Hoagland

Dennis R. HoaglandHoagland
Two other plant nutritionists, Dennis R. Hoagland and Daniel I. Arnon, at the University of California were asked to research Gericke's claims.
He is commonly known especially for his work on hydroponics and the Hoagland solution and established the essentiality of molybdenum for the growth of tomato plants.

The Land (Epcot)

The LandThe Land pavilionLand Pavilion
The Land Pavilion at Walt Disney World's EPCOT Center opened in 1982 and prominently features a variety of hydroponic techniques.
43,000 ft² (0.4 hectares) of the pavilion are dedicated to experimental horticulture techniques in hydroponics, irrigation methods, and integrated pest management.

Wake Island

WakeWake AtollGeography of Wake Island
One of the earliest successes of hydroponics occurred on Wake Island, a rocky atoll in the Pacific Ocean used as a refueling stop for Pan American Airlines.
Wake Island is credited with being one of the early successes of hydroponics, which enabled Pan American Airways to grow vegetables for its passengers, as it was very expensive to airlift in fresh vegetables and the island lacked natural soil.

Plant tissue test

plant-tissueseveral methods
Optimum nutrition concentrations for plant varieties are found empirically by experience and/or by plant tissue tests.


tomatoesSolanum lycopersicumLycopersicon esculentum
Plants commonly grown hydroponically include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, lettuces, and marijuana.
Hydroponic technique is often used in hostile growing environments, as well as high-density plantings.

Cannabis (drug)

Plants commonly grown hydroponically include tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, lettuces, and marijuana.
"Skunk" refers to several named strains of potent cannabis, grown through selective breeding and sometimes hydroponics.

Rice hulls

rice huskrice husk ashrice husks
Parboiled rice husks (PBH) are an agricultural byproduct that would otherwise have little use.
Rice hulls that are parboiled (PBH) are used as a substrate or medium for gardening, including certain hydrocultures.

Wood wool

excelsiorexcelsior (wood wool)variation in senses of the term "wood wool
Wood wool (i.e. wood slivers) have been used since the earliest days of the hydroponics research.

Wood fibre

wood fiberfibersfibre
Wood fibre, produced from steam friction of wood, is a very efficient organic substrate for hydroponics.
Wood fibres can be used as a substrate in hydroponics.

Expanded clay aggregate

expanded clayexpanded clay pelletsaggregate concrete
The various hydroponic media available, such as expanded clay and coconut husk, contain more air space than more traditional potting mixes, delivering increased oxygen to the roots, which is important in epiphytic plants such as orchids and bromeliads, whose roots are exposed to the air in nature.
Common uses are in concrete blocks, concrete slabs, geotechnical fillings, lightweight concrete, water treatment, hydroponics, aquaponics and hydroculture.

Diatomaceous earth

Some bonsai are also grown in soil-free substrates (typically consisting of akadama, grit, diatomaceous earth and other inorganic components) and have their water and nutrients provided in a run-to-waste form.
Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens.

Hydrogen peroxide

H 2 O 2 H2O2HO
The manufacturers consider expanded clay to be an ecologically sustainable and re-usable growing medium because of its ability to be cleaned and sterilized, typically by washing in solutions of white vinegar, chlorine bleach, or hydrogen peroxide, and rinsing completely.
Some horticulturalists and users of hydroponics advocate the use of weak hydrogen peroxide solution in watering solutions.


KK + potassium ion
They are used as a fertilizer in agriculture, horticulture, and hydroponic culture in the form of chloride (KCl), sulfate, or nitrate, representing the 'K' in 'NPK'.

Monopotassium phosphate

potassium dihydrogen phosphateKH 2 PO 4 KDP
MKP powder is often used as a nutrient source in the greenhouse trade and in hydroponics.

Calcium nitrate

Norwegian saltpeterCa(NO 3 ) 2 calcium
The fertilizer grade (15.5-0-0 + 19% Ca) is popular in the greenhouse and hydroponics trades; it contains ammonium nitrate and water, as the "double salt".

Electrical conductivity meter

EC meterconductivity meter
The nutrient solution is changed either on a schedule, such as once per week, or when the concentration drops below a certain level as determined with an electrical conductivity meter.
It has multiple applications in research and engineering, with common usage in hydroponics, aquaculture, aquaponics, and freshwater systems to monitor the amount of nutrients, salts or impurities in the water.

Plant nutrition

nutrientsplant nutrientsnutrient
Hydroponics is a method for growing plants in a water-nutrient solution without the use of nutrient-rich soil.