A report on Hydropower

The Three Gorges Dam in China; the hydroelectric dam is the world's largest power station by installed capacity.
A water piston from the Nongshu by Wang Zhen (fl. 1290–1333)
Saint Anthony Falls, United States; hydropower was used here to mill flour.
Directly water-powered ore mill, late nineteenth century
Benoît Fourneyron, the French engineer who developed the first hydropower turbine
A shishi-odoshi powered by falling water breaks the quietness of a Japanese garden with the sound of a bamboo rocker arm hitting a rock.
A conventional dammed-hydro facility (hydroelectric dam) is the most common type of hydroelectric power generation.
Chief Joseph Dam near Bridgeport, Washington, is a major run-of-the-river station without a sizeable reservoir.
Micro hydro in Northwest Vietnam
The upper reservoir and dam of the Ffestiniog Pumped Storage Scheme in Wales. The lower power station can generate 360 MW of electricity.

Use of falling or fast-running water to produce electricity or to power machines.

- Hydropower
The Three Gorges Dam in China; the hydroelectric dam is the world's largest power station by installed capacity.

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Canadian Horseshoe Falls at right

Niagara Falls

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Group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States.

Group of three waterfalls at the southern end of Niagara Gorge, spanning the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States.

Canadian Horseshoe Falls at right
American Falls (large waterfall center-left) and Bridal Veil Falls (right)
Niagara Escarpment (in red). Niagara Falls is center-right between Lake Ontario and Lake Erie.
Damage from wind and ice on Goat Island, 1903
American Falls diverted during erosion control efforts in 1969
Louis Hennepin is depicted in front of the falls in this 1698 print.
Horseshoe Falls, 1869
American Falls frozen over with people on the ice, 1911
Aerial photograph of Niagara Falls, 1931
Hand-colored lithograph of the (double-decked) Niagara Suspension Bridge, c. 1856
Niagara Cantilever Bridge, c. 1895
The Rainbow Bridge, the first bridge downstream from the falls
New York side of Niagara Gorge, c. 1901
Ten 5,000 HP Westinghouse generators at Edward Dean Adams Power Plant
Robert Moses Niagara Power Plant in Lewiston, New York
The Welland Canal connects Lake Ontario and Lake Erie through a series of eight locks, allowing ships to bypass the 51 m high Niagara Falls
Bobby Leach and his barrel after his trip over Niagara Falls, (1911 photo)
Annie Edson Taylor posing with her wooden barrel (1901)
Charles Stephens in his barrel, prior to his fatal July 1920 attempt
Blondin carrying his manager, Harry Colcord, on a tightrope
Advertising broadside for trip to Niagara Falls from Massachusetts, 1895
Prospect Point Observation Tower (also known as the Niagara Falls Observation Tower)
Skylon Tower as seen from a helicopter on the Canadian side
The opening title from the theatrical trailer of the 1953 film Niagara.
José María Heredia y Heredia plaque at Table Rock
A General View of the Falls of Niagara by Alvan Fisher, 1820
Distant View of Niagara Falls by Thomas Cole, 1830
Niagara Fälle. Les chûtes du Niagara. Niagara Falls by Karl Bodmer, circa 1832
Voute sous la Chute du Niagara – Niagara Falls, circa 1841
Niagara by Frederic Edwin Church, 1857
Underneath Niagara Falls by Ferdinand Richardt, 1862
Niagara by Louis Rémy Mignot, circa 1866
Falls of Niagara from Below by Albert Bierstadt, 1869
Niagara Falls by William Morris Hunt, 1878
Niagara Falls, circa 1880

Augustus and Peter Porter purchased this area and all of American Falls in 1805 from the New York state government, and enlarged the original canal to provide hydraulic power for their gristmill and tannery.

The Arabs transformed agriculture during the Golden Age of Islam by spreading major crops and techniques such as irrigation across the Old World.

Arab Agricultural Revolution

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The transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World.

The transformation in agriculture from the 8th to the 13th century in the Islamic region of the Old World.

The Arabs transformed agriculture during the Golden Age of Islam by spreading major crops and techniques such as irrigation across the Old World.
Medieval Islamic arboriculture: Ibn Bassal and Abū l-Khayr al-Ishbīlī described in detail how to propagate and care for trees such as olive and date palm.
Village scene with poultry, sheep and goats from a copy of the Maqamat al-Hariri illustrated by al-Wasiti, 1237
Arab sheep herders, by Antonio Leto
The ancient Bahr Yussef canal connects the Fayyum depression to the River Nile some 25 km away.
The animal-powered sakia irrigation wheel was improved in and diffused further from Islamic Spain.
Agricultural scene from a mediaeval Arabic manuscript from al-Andalus (Islamic Spain) c. 1200
Irrigating by hand in the 20th century
Islamic Golden Age innovation: the Moors brought a new architecture, including gardens with water engineering, as in the Alhambra's Generalife Palace, to Al-Andalus.
Roman and Islamic systems: the Albolafia irrigation water wheel in front of the Roman bridge at Córdoba, Spain.

During the period, irrigated cultivation developed due to the growing use of animal power, water power and wind power.

Sawing logs into finished lumber with a basic "portable" sawmill

Sawmill

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Facility where logs are cut into lumber.

Facility where logs are cut into lumber.

Sawing logs into finished lumber with a basic "portable" sawmill
An American sawmill,
Early 20th-century sawmill, maintained at Jerome, Arizona.
Scheme of the water-driven sawmill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor. The 3rd-century mill incorporated a crank and connecting rod mechanism.
Illustration of a human-powered sawmill with a gang-saw, published in 1582.
"De Salamander" a wind driven sawmill in Leidschendam, The Netherlands. Built in 1792, it was used until 1953, when it fell into disrepair. It was fully restored in 1989.
A sawmill in the interior of Australia,
Modern reconstruction Sutter's mill in California, where gold was first found in 1848.
A sawmill of Naistenlahti in Tampere, Finland, 1890s
Oregon Mill using energy efficient ponding to move logs
Inside a modern sawmill equipped with laser-guided technology
Wood traveling on sawmill machinery
Sawdust waste from the mill
A sawmill in Armata, on mount Smolikas, Epirus, Greece.
A preserved water powered sawmill, Norfolk, England.
Making planks from logs
Sawmill in Luchon, France, near 1840 by Eugène de Malbos
Sawmill workers posing with saw blades, Rainy River District, between 1900-1909.
Sawmill with the floating logs in Kotka, Finland.
Logs at sawmill at Manitoulin Island [190-?]

By the 11th century, hydropowered sawmills were in widespread use in the medieval Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east.

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom

Water

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Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

Inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a solvent ).

A water molecule consists of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom
The three common states of matter
Phase diagram of water (simplified)
Tetrahedral structure of water
Model of hydrogen bonds (1) between molecules of water
Water cycle
Overview of photosynthesis (green) and respiration (red)
Water fountain
An environmental science program – a student from Iowa State University sampling water
Total water withdrawals for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes per capita, measured in cubic metres (m³) per year in 2010
A young girl drinking bottled water
Water availability: the fraction of the population using improved water sources by country
Roadside fresh water outlet from glacier, Nubra
Hazard symbol for non-potable water
Water is used for fighting wildfires.
San Andrés island, Colombia
Water can be used to cook foods such as noodles
Sterile water for injection
Band 5 ALMA receiver is an instrument specifically designed to detect water in the universe.
South polar ice cap of Mars during Martian south summer 2000
An estimate of the proportion of people in developing countries with access to potable water 1970–2000
People come to Inda Abba Hadera spring (Inda Sillasie, Ethiopia) to wash in holy water
Icosahedron as a part of Spinoza monument in Amsterdam.
Water requirement per tonne of food product
Irrigation of field crops
Specific heat capacity of water

Hydroelectricity is electricity obtained from hydropower.

The elephant clock was one of the most famous inventions of al-Jazari.

Ismail al-Jazari

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Polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, artisan, artist and mathematician from the Artuqid Dynasty of Jazira in Mesopotamia.

Polymath: a scholar, inventor, mechanical engineer, artisan, artist and mathematician from the Artuqid Dynasty of Jazira in Mesopotamia.

The elephant clock was one of the most famous inventions of al-Jazari.
Diagram of a hydropowered perpetual flute from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices by Al-Jazari in 1206.
Al-Jazari's hydropowered saqiya chain pump device.
Al-Jazari's Peacock Fountain
Al-Jazari's musical robot band.
The water-clock of the drummers
One of al-Jazari's candle clocks.
Automatic castle clock of al-Jazari, 14th century copy.
The musical robot band designed by al-Jazari.
A table device automaton designed by al-Jazari.
The hand-washing automaton with a flush mechanism designed by al-Jazari.
An illustration of a device invented by al-Jazari.
A sketch of a device designed by al-Jazari. From the manuscript of Kitabal Al-Hial in Aga Khan Museum, Toronto.

Al-Jazari also constructed a water-raising saqiya chain pump which was run by hydropower rather than manual labour, though the Chinese were also using hydropower for chain pumps prior to him.

Animation, based on Lexikon der gesamten Technik (1904)

Water engine

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Positive-displacement engine, often closely resembling a steam engine with similar pistons and valves, that is driven by water pressure.

Positive-displacement engine, often closely resembling a steam engine with similar pistons and valves, that is driven by water pressure.

Animation, based on Lexikon der gesamten Technik (1904)
Detailed cross-section from Lexikon der gesamten Technik (1904)
Freiberg water-column engine (1900)
Reichenbach water-column engine in the Klaushäusl Museum

In the nineteenth century, the terms hydraulic motor and hydraulic engine often implied reference to any motor driven by liquid pressure, including water motors and water engines used in hydropower, but today mentions of hydraulic motors, unless otherwise specified, usually refer more specifically to those that run on hydraulic fluid in the closed hydraulic circuits of hydraulic machinery.

Stereoscopic photograph of the falls by Benjamin Franklin Upton

Saint Anthony Falls

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Only natural major waterfall on the Mississippi River.

Only natural major waterfall on the Mississippi River.

Stereoscopic photograph of the falls by Benjamin Franklin Upton
In winter
The Falls of St. Anthony, a painting of St. Anthony by Albert Bierstadt
Stereoscopic photograph of the suspension bridge connecting St. Anthony and Minneapolis
Mississippi River at Minneapolis in 2008, looking downstream. The bridge in the foreground is the Third Avenue Bridge, behind it are the Upper St Anthony Falls to the left and the upper lock and dam to the right, followed by the Stone Arch Bridge. The new I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge can be seen in the background.
The St. Anthony Falls with upper lock on the left. The Third Avenue Bridge can be seen in the background. Photo taken in October 2005.
Stereoscopic photo of the falls by William H. Jacoby
Another view by Jacoby
Sandstone layered under limestone
Mid 1850s Daguerreotype of St. Anthony Falls
Sawmills over Saint Anthony Falls, ca. 1860.
Looking northeast across the river ca. 1868
A diagram showing the recession of the falls between 1680 and 1887
The falls in the early 20th century
The concrete apron over St. Anthony Falls is engineered to produce the pronounced hydraulic jump evident in this photo.
In 1963 the Stone Arch Bridge was altered to allow clearance for the upper lock
The lower lock
The Falls of Saint Anthony, Alto Mississippi, Henry Lewis, 1847. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum.
The Falls of Saint Anthony, George Catlin, 1871. Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum.

As Minneapolis (and its former neighbor across the river, St. Anthony) developed, the water power at the falls became a source of power for several industries including textile mills, wool, machinery, paper, and wood products, of which the North Star Woolen Mill was successful.