Hypercalcaemia

hypercalcemiahigh blood calciumhigh blood calcium levelshypercalcemic crisiscalciumhigh calcium levelshigh levels of calcium in the bloodcalcium overloadCalcium serum levelselevated blood calcium
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca 2+ ) level in the blood serum.wikipedia
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Sarcoidosis

pulmonary sarcoidosissarcoidBoeck's sarcoid
Other causes include sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Paget disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), vitamin D toxicity, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia and certain medications such as lithium and hydrochlorothiazide.
Findings that make it likely include large lymph nodes at the root of the lung on both sides, high blood calcium with a normal parathyroid hormone level, or elevated levels of angiotensin converting enzyme in the blood.

Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Most cases are due to primary hyperparathyroidism or cancer.
Common paraneoplastic syndromes include hypercalcemia which can cause altered mental state, constipation and dehydration, or hyponatremia that can also cause altered mental status, vomiting, headache or seizures.

Furosemide

LasixDiucardinFlüssen
Treatment may include intravenous fluids, furosemide, calcitonin or pamidronate in addition to treating the underlying cause.
Furosemide is also used for liver cirrhosis, kidney impairment, nephrotic syndrome, in adjunct therapy for swelling of the brain or lungs where rapid diuresis is required (IV injection), and in the management of severe hypercalcemia in combination with adequate rehydration.

Pamidronic acid

pamidronateArediaAminohydroxypropylidene bisphosphonate (APD, Aredia)
Treatment may include intravenous fluids, furosemide, calcitonin or pamidronate in addition to treating the underlying cause.
Due to its ability to sequester calcium in bone, it is also used to treat high calcium levels.

Calcitonin

CALCAMiacalcinCalcimar
Treatment may include intravenous fluids, furosemide, calcitonin or pamidronate in addition to treating the underlying cause.
Other effects are in preventing postprandial hypercalcemia resulting from absorption of Ca 2+.

Hydrochlorothiazide

HydrodiurilOreticApresazide
Other causes include sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Paget disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), vitamin D toxicity, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia and certain medications such as lithium and hydrochlorothiazide.

Hyperparathyroidism

footnoteH'''yperparathyroidism
After recognition, primary hyperparathyroidism should be proved or excluded.
When symptoms occur, they are due to elevated blood calcium.

Reference ranges for blood tests

reference rangeblood valuesblood levels
Symptoms are more common at high calcium blood values (12.0 mg/dl or 3 mmol/l).

Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia

familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemiaFamilial benign hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia
Other causes include sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Paget disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), vitamin D toxicity, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia and certain medications such as lithium and hydrochlorothiazide.
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is an inherited condition that can cause hypercalcemia, a serum calcium level typically above 10.2 mg/dL.

Nephrocalcinosis

Though this condition is usually asymptomatic, if symptoms are present they are usually related to the causative process, (e.g. hypercalcemia).

Constipation

constipatedobstipationchronic constipation
In the gut this causes constipation.
Metabolic and endocrine problems which may lead to constipation include: hypercalcemia, hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, porphyria, chronic kidney disease, pan-hypopituitarism, diabetes mellitus, and cystic fibrosis.

Lung cancer

lungbronchogenic carcinomalungs
In lung cancer, these phenomena may include hypercalcemia, syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH, abnormally concentrated urine and diluted blood), ectopic ACTH production, or Lambert–Eaton myasthenic syndrome (muscle weakness due to autoantibodies).

Renal cell carcinoma

renal cell cancerrenal carcinomakidney cancer
The most common PNSs seen in people with RCC are: high blood calcium levels, high red blood cell count, high platelet count and secondary amyloidosis.

Heart rate

heartbeatresting heart ratemaximum heart rate
Hypercalcemia can result in an increase in heart rate and a positive inotropic effect (increase in contractility).
High levels of calcium ions result in hypercalcemia and excessive levels can induce cardiac arrest.

Hypervitaminosis D

Vitamin D intoxicationvitamin D poisoningvitamin D toxicity
Other causes include sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, Paget disease, multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN), vitamin D toxicity, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia and certain medications such as lithium and hydrochlorothiazide.
An excess of vitamin D causes abnormally high blood concentrations of calcium, which can cause overcalcification of the bones, soft tissues, heart and kidneys.

Multiple myeloma

myelomabone-marrow cancerbone marrow cancer
Another common finding is high blood calcium levels.

Somnolence

drowsinesssleepinessDrowsy
The sluggish nerves also explain drowsiness, confusion, hallucinations, stupor or coma.

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus

DI due to the kidneysdiabetes insipidus is due to kidney problemsDiabetes insipidus, nephrogenic type 1
The major causes of acquired NDI that produce clinical symptoms (e.g. polyuria) in the adult are lithium toxicity and high blood calcium.

Ileus

paralytic ileusintestinal obstructionbowel paralysis

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ions
Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca 2+ ) level in the blood serum.
Excess intake of calcium may cause hypercalcemia.

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma

non-small cell lung cancernon-small-cell lung cancernon-small cell lung carcinoma
Signs of more advanced cases include bone pain, nervous system changes (headache, weakness, dizziness, balance problems, seizures), jaundice, lumps near the surface of the body, numbness of extremities due to Pancoast Syndrome, and nausea, vomiting and constipation brought on by hypercalcemia.

Kidney stone disease

kidney stonekidney stonesnephrolithiasis
In those with greater levels or rapid onset, symptoms may include abdominal pain, bone pain, confusion, depression, weakness, kidney stones or an abnormal heart rhythm including cardiac arrest.