Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemiaelevated cholesterolhigh cholesterol levelselevated blood cholesterol levelselevated cholesterol levelshigh levels of cholesterolcholesterolcholesterol screening
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.wikipedia
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Hyperlipidemia

hyperlipoproteinemiahyperlipidaemiahyperlipemia
It is a form of hyperlipidemia, high blood lipids, and hyperlipoproteinemia (elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood).
Hyperlipidemias are also classified according to which types of lipids are elevated, that is hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia or both in combined hyperlipidemia.

Obesity

obesemorbidly obeseoverweight
Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as type 2 diabetes and an underactive thyroid. A number of other conditions can also increase cholesterol levels including diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity, alcohol use, monoclonal gammopathy, dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, anorexia nervosa, medications (e.g., thiazide diuretics, ciclosporin, glucocorticoids, beta blockers, retinoic acid, antipsychotics).
These comorbidities are most commonly shown in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type 2, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels.

Coronary artery disease

coronary heart diseaseischemic heart diseaseischaemic heart disease
All the lipoproteins carry cholesterol, but elevated levels of the lipoproteins other than HDL (termed non-HDL cholesterol), particularly LDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, depression, and excessive alcohol.

Myocardial infarction

heart attackheart attacksacute myocardial infarction
A sudden blockage of a coronary artery may result in a heart attack.
Risk factors include high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol intake, among others.

Stroke

strokesischemic strokecerebrovascular accident
A blockage of an artery supplying the brain can cause a stroke.
Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, and atrial fibrillation.

Cholesterol

serum cholesteroldietary cholesterolcholesterol level
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Based on this evidence, along with other claims implicating low HDL and high LDL levels in cardiovascular disease, many health authorities advocate reducing LDL-cholesterol through changes in diet in addition to other lifestyle modifications.

Arcus senilis

arcus senilis corneaecorneal arcuscorneal arcus juvenilis
For example, familial hypercholesterolemia (Type IIa hyperlipoproteinemia) may be associated with xanthelasma palpebrarum (yellowish patches underneath the skin around the eyelids), arcus senilis (white or gray discoloration of the peripheral cornea), and xanthomata (deposition of yellowish cholesterol-rich material) of the tendons, especially of the fingers.
It can also appear earlier in life as a result of hypercholesterolemia.

Diabetes mellitus type 2

type 2 diabetestype II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as type 2 diabetes and an underactive thyroid. A number of other conditions can also increase cholesterol levels including diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity, alcohol use, monoclonal gammopathy, dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, anorexia nervosa, medications (e.g., thiazide diuretics, ciclosporin, glucocorticoids, beta blockers, retinoic acid, antipsychotics).
Managing other cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, improves a person's life expectancy.

Familial hypercholesterolemia

familial hypercholesterolaemiahypercholesterolemia, familialAutosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia
Elevated levels of non-HDL cholesterol and LDL in the blood may be a consequence of diet, obesity, inherited (genetic) diseases (such as LDL receptor mutations in familial hypercholesterolemia), or the presence of other diseases such as type 2 diabetes and an underactive thyroid. Genetic abnormalities are in some cases completely responsible for hypercholesterolemia, such as in familial hypercholesterolemia, where one or more genetic mutations in the autosomal dominant APOB gene exist, the autosomal recessive LDLRAP1 gene, autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia (HCHOLA3) variant of the PCSK9 gene, or the LDL receptor gene.
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by high cholesterol levels, specifically very high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, "bad cholesterol"), in the blood and early cardiovascular disease.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
All the lipoproteins carry cholesterol, but elevated levels of the lipoproteins other than HDL (termed non-HDL cholesterol), particularly LDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.
They have shown benefit in reducing cardiovascular disease and mortality in those with high cholesterol with few side effects.

Ciclosporin

cyclosporinecyclosporincyclosporine A
A number of other conditions can also increase cholesterol levels including diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity, alcohol use, monoclonal gammopathy, dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, anorexia nervosa, medications (e.g., thiazide diuretics, ciclosporin, glucocorticoids, beta blockers, retinoic acid, antipsychotics).
Side effects of ciclosporin can include gum enlargement, increased hair growth, convulsions, peptic ulcers, pancreatitis, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, increased cholesterol, trouble breathing, numbness and tingling (particularly of the lips), itchiness, high blood pressure, potassium retention (possibly leading to hyperkalemia), kidney and liver dysfunction, burning sensations at finger tips, and an increased vulnerability to opportunistic fungal and viral infections.

Stress (biology)

stressenvironmental stressstresses
Environmental factors include weight, diet, and stress.
Specifically, acute and chronic stress have been shown to raise serum lipids and are associated with clinical coronary events.

Apolipoprotein B

ApoBapolipoprotein B-100apolipoprotein B-48
Genetic abnormalities are in some cases completely responsible for hypercholesterolemia, such as in familial hypercholesterolemia, where one or more genetic mutations in the autosomal dominant APOB gene exist, the autosomal recessive LDLRAP1 gene, autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia (HCHOLA3) variant of the PCSK9 gene, or the LDL receptor gene.
Mutations in gene APOB100 can also cause familial hypercholesterolemia, a hereditary (autosomal dominant) form of metabolic disorder Hypercholesterolemia.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
A number of other conditions can also increase cholesterol levels including diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity, alcohol use, monoclonal gammopathy, dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, anorexia nervosa, medications (e.g., thiazide diuretics, ciclosporin, glucocorticoids, beta blockers, retinoic acid, antipsychotics).
A lipid profile will also be carried out as high levels of cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), specifically elevated LDL, usually with concomitantly elevated VLDL, is indicative of nephrotic syndrome.

Niacin

nicotinic acidnicotinatevitamin B 3
Other agents that may be used include: fibrates, nicotinic acid, and cholestyramine.
Medication and supplemental niacin are primarily used to treat high blood cholesterol and pellagra (niacin deficiency).

Cushing's syndrome

hyperadrenocorticismhypercortisolismCushing syndrome
A number of other conditions can also increase cholesterol levels including diabetes mellitus type 2, obesity, alcohol use, monoclonal gammopathy, dialysis, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism, Cushing’s syndrome, anorexia nervosa, medications (e.g., thiazide diuretics, ciclosporin, glucocorticoids, beta blockers, retinoic acid, antipsychotics).
Hypercholesterolemia

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
A 2015 Cochrane review found replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat resulted in a small decrease in cardiovascular disease by decreasing blood cholesterol.
This may be caused by high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes mellitus, lack of exercise, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, and excessive alcohol consumption, among others.

Fibrate

fibratesFibric acid derivativesfibric acids
Other agents that may be used include: fibrates, nicotinic acid, and cholestyramine.
They are used for a range of metabolic disorders, mainly hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), and are therefore hypolipidemic agents.

PCSK9

a series of discoveriesdrug that inhibits PCSK9proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9)
Genetic abnormalities are in some cases completely responsible for hypercholesterolemia, such as in familial hypercholesterolemia, where one or more genetic mutations in the autosomal dominant APOB gene exist, the autosomal recessive LDLRAP1 gene, autosomal dominant familial hypercholesterolemia (HCHOLA3) variant of the PCSK9 gene, or the LDL receptor gene. Injectable antibodies against the protein PCSK9 (evolocumab, bococizumab, alirocumab) can reduce LDL cholesterol and have been shown to reduce mortality.
Reduced LDLR levels result in decreased metabolism of LDL-particles, which could lead to hypercholesterolemia.

Alirocumab

Antibodies targeting PCSK9
Injectable antibodies against the protein PCSK9 (evolocumab, bococizumab, alirocumab) can reduce LDL cholesterol and have been shown to reduce mortality.
Alirocumab (trade name Praluent) is a biopharmaceutical drug approved by the FDA on July 24, 2015 as a second line treatment for high cholesterol for adults whose cholesterol is not controlled by diet and statin treatment.

Colestyramine

cholestyramine
Other agents that may be used include: fibrates, nicotinic acid, and cholestyramine.
Bile acid sequestrants such as colestyramine were first used to treat hypercholesterolemia, but since the introduction of statins, now have only a minor role for this indication.

Statin

statinsdrug interactionsHMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor
For those at high risk, a combination of lifestyle modification and statins has been shown to decrease mortality.
Most evidence suggests that statins are effective in preventing heart disease in those with high cholesterol, but no history of heart disease.

Low-density lipoprotein

LDLlow density lipoproteinLDL cholesterol
Lipoproteins are classified by their density: very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL).
Over time, with more clinical research, these recommended levels keep being reduced because LDL reduction, including to abnormally low levels, was the most effective strategy for reducing cardiovascular death rates in one large double blind, randomized clinical trial of men with hypercholesterolemia; far more effective than coronary angioplasty/stenting or bypass surgery

Angina

angina pectorischest painstable angina
Insufficient blood supply to the heart may cause chest pain, and ischemia of the eye may manifest as transient visual loss in one eye.
Major risk factors for angina include cigarette smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, sedentary lifestyle, and family history of premature heart disease.

National Cholesterol Education Program

NCEP
The National Cholesterol Education Program revised their guidelines; however, their 2004 revisions have been criticized for use of nonrandomized, observational data.
The National Cholesterol Education Program is a program managed by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, a division of the National Institutes of Health. Its goal is to reduce increased cardiovascular disease rates due to hypercholesterolemia (elevated cholesterol levels) in the United States of America.