Hyperglycemia

high blood sugarhyperglycaemiahyperglycemichigh blood glucosehigh blood sugar levelselevated blood glucoseelevated blood sugarelevated fasting plasma glucoseelevations in blood sugarglycaemia
Hyperglycemia (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia), also known as high blood sugar, is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.wikipedia
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Diabetes mellitus type 1

type 1 diabetesjuvenile diabetestype 1
It is most often seen in persons who have uncontrolled insulin-dependent diabetes. In diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia is usually caused by low insulin levels (Diabetes mellitus type 1) and/or by resistance to insulin at the cellular level (Diabetes mellitus type 2), depending on the type and state of the disease.
Before treatment this results in high blood sugar levels in the body.

Blood sugar level

blood sugarblood glucoseblood glucose level
This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes.
A persistently high level is referred to as hyperglycemia; low levels are referred to as hypoglycemia.

Diabetic ketoacidosis

ketoacidosisacidosisDKA
Signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis may include:
DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.

Diabetic neuropathy

neuropathydiabetic neuropathiesdiabetes
Diabetic neuropathy may be a result of long-term hyperglycemia.
Sluggish movement of the small intestine can cause bacterial overgrowth, made worse by the presence of hyperglycemia.

Diabetes mellitus

diabetesdiabeticdiabetics
A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

Glucose

dextrose D -glucoseglucopyranose
Hyperglycemia (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia), also known as high blood sugar, is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Values over 180 mg/dl in venous whole blood are pathological and are termed hyperglycemia, values below 40 mg/dl are termed hypoglycaemia.

Diabetes mellitus type 2

type 2 diabetestype II diabetestype 2 diabetes mellitus
In diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemia is usually caused by low insulin levels (Diabetes mellitus type 1) and/or by resistance to insulin at the cellular level (Diabetes mellitus type 2), depending on the type and state of the disease.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

Insulin resistance

insulin sensitivityresistantinsulin resistant
Low insulin levels and/or insulin resistance prevent the body from converting glucose into glycogen (a starch-like source of energy stored mostly in the liver), which in turn makes it difficult or impossible to remove excess glucose from the blood.
To prevent hyperglycemia and noticeable organ damage over time, the body produces insulin when glucose starts to be released into the bloodstream, primarily from the digestion of carbohydrates in the diet.

Ketoacidosis

alcoholicKetoacidotic
Ketoacidosis
In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration.

Olanzapine

ZyprexaZyprexa (olanzapine)adverse effects
Some of the newer psychiatric medications, such as Zyprexa (Olanzapine) and Cymbalta (Duloxetine), can also cause significant hyperglycemia.
Other side effects include low blood pressure with standing, allergic reactions, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, high blood sugar, seizures, gynecomastia, and tardive dyskinesia.

Octreotide

octreotide)
Certain medications increase the risk of hyperglycemia, including corticosteroids, octreotide, beta blockers, epinephrine, thiazide diuretics, statins, niacin, pentamidine, protease inhibitors, L-asparaginase, and antipsychotics.
The most frequent adverse effects (more than 10% of patients) are headache, hypothyroidism, cardiac conduction changes, gastrointestinal reactions (including cramps, nausea/vomiting and diarrhoea or constipation), gallstones, reduction of insulin release, hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, and (usually transient) injection site reactions.

Diuretic

diureticsdiuresisdiuretic use
Certain medications increase the risk of hyperglycemia, including corticosteroids, octreotide, beta blockers, epinephrine, thiazide diuretics, statins, niacin, pentamidine, protease inhibitors, L-asparaginase, and antipsychotics.
However, in certain conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, the concentration of glucose in the blood (hyperglycemia) exceeds the maximum reabsorption capacity of the kidney.

Corticosteroid

corticosteroidssteroidssteroid
Certain medications increase the risk of hyperglycemia, including corticosteroids, octreotide, beta blockers, epinephrine, thiazide diuretics, statins, niacin, pentamidine, protease inhibitors, L-asparaginase, and antipsychotics.
Endocrine: By increasing the production of glucose from amino-acid breakdown and opposing the action of insulin, corticosteroids can cause hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

Thiazide

thiazide diureticthiazide diureticsthiazides
Certain medications increase the risk of hyperglycemia, including corticosteroids, octreotide, beta blockers, epinephrine, thiazide diuretics, statins, niacin, pentamidine, protease inhibitors, L-asparaginase, and antipsychotics.
Chronic administration is associated with hyperglycemia.

Sepsis

septicemiasepticaemiablood poisoning
1) Dysfunction of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands 2) Numerous diseases of the pancreas 3) Severe increases in blood glucose may be seen in sepsis and certain infections 4) Intracranial diseases (frequently overlooked) can also cause hyperglycemia.
Early signs include a rapid heart rate, decreased urination, and high blood sugar.

Kussmaul breathing

deep gasping breathingKussmaul respirationsKussmaul's respirations
Kussmaul hyperventilation (deep, rapid breathing)
Duration of fasting, presence or absence of liver enlargement and Kussmaul breathing provide clues to the differential diagnosis of high blood sugar in the inborn errors of metabolism.

Metformin

Avandametmetformin hydrochloridedimethylbiguanide
This is done by a combination of proper diet, regular exercise, and insulin or other medication such as metformin, etc.
The most common symptoms following overdose include vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, tachycardia, drowsiness, and, rarely, hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia.

Pancreas

pancreaticexocrine pancreashead of the pancreas
1) Dysfunction of the thyroid, adrenal, and pituitary glands 2) Numerous diseases of the pancreas 3) Severe increases in blood glucose may be seen in sepsis and certain infections 4) Intracranial diseases (frequently overlooked) can also cause hyperglycemia.
Insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels within optimal ranges, and its lack can lead to high blood sugar.

Prediabetes

pre-diabetespre-diabeticprediabetic
Prediabetes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of metabolic diseases that are characterised by hyperglycaemia and defects in insulin production in the pancreas and/or impaired tolerance to insulin effects.

Hypoglycemia

low blood sugarhypoglycemichypoglycaemia
The acute administration of stimulants such as amphetamines typically produces hyperglycemia; chronic use, however, produces hypoglycemia.
Hyperglycemia, a high blood sugar, is the opposite condition.

Glycated hemoglobin

hemoglobin A1CHbA1cglycosylated hemoglobin
Chronic hyperglycemia can be measured via the HbA1c test.
People with HbA 1c values at 64 mmol/mol or less should be provided additional testing to determine whether the HbA 1c values are due to averaging out high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) with low blood glucose (hypoglycemia) or the HbA 1c is more reflective of an elevated blood glucose that does not vary much throughout the day.

American and British English spelling differences

spelling differencesorsee spelling differences
Hyperglycemia (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia), also known as high blood sugar, is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

Blood plasma

plasmaserumblood serum
Hyperglycemia (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia), also known as high blood sugar, is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

American Diabetes Association

ADAADA Drive To Stop DiabetesAmerican Diabetes Alert Day
A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes.

Diabetic retinopathy

diabetic macular edemaretinopathydamage to the eyes
However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs.