Hyperkalemia

high blood potassiumhyperkalaemiahigh blood potassium levelsH'''yperkalemiahigh blood levels of potassiumhigh potassium levelshigh levels of potassium in the bloodpotassiumPseudohyperkalemiaabnormally high blood levels of potassium
Hyperkalemia is an elevated level of potassium (K + ) in the blood serum.wikipedia
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Spironolactone

AldactoneAldactazideSpironalactone
A number of medications can also cause high blood potassium including spironolactone, NSAIDs, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors.
Common side effects include electrolyte abnormalities, particularly high blood potassium, nausea, vomiting, headache, rashes, and a decreased desire for sex.

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Common causes include kidney failure, hypoaldosteronism, and rhabdomyolysis.
Complications of acute and chronic failure include uremia, high blood potassium, and volume overload.

Palpitations

palpitationheart palpitationsheart palpitation
Occasionally when severe it results in palpitations, muscle pain, muscle weakness, or numbness.
Palpitation may be associated with coronary heart disease, hyperthyroidism, diseases affecting cardiac muscle such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, diseases causing low blood oxygen such as asthma and emphysema; previous chest surgery; kidney disease; blood loss and pain; drugs such as antidepressants, statins, alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, cocaine and amphetamines; electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine and iron.

Rhabdomyolysis

muscle breakdownrapid muscle breakdownbreakdown of skeletal muscle
Common causes include kidney failure, hypoaldosteronism, and rhabdomyolysis. Increased tissue breakdown such as rhabdomyolysis, burns, or any cause of rapid tissue necrosis, including tumor lysis syndrome can cause the release of intracellular potassium into blood, causing hyperkalemia.
Complications may include high blood potassium, low blood calcium, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and compartment syndrome.

Polystyrene sulfonate

sodium polystyrene sulfonatePolystyrene sulfonic acidkayexalate
Measures to remove potassium from the body include furosemide, polystyrene sulfonate, and hemodialysis.
Polystyrene sulfonates are a group of medications used to treat high blood potassium.

Calcium gluconate

Ca(HOCH 2 (CHOH) 4 CO 2 ) 2
Initial treatment in those with ECG changes is calcium gluconate.
As a medication it is used by injection into a vein to treat low blood calcium, high blood potassium, and magnesium toxicity.

Salbutamol

albuterolVentolinSalbutamol (Albuterol)
Other medications used include dextrose with insulin, salbutamol, and sodium bicarbonate.
It may also be used to treat high blood potassium levels.

ACE inhibitor

ACE inhibitorsangiotensin converting enzyme inhibitorangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor
A number of medications can also cause high blood potassium including spironolactone, NSAIDs, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin and tacrolimus.
Common side effects include: low blood pressure, cough, hyperkalemia, headache, dizziness, fatigue, nausea, and kidney impairment.

Acute kidney injury

acute renal failureacute kidney failureuremic poisoning
This is especially pronounced in acute kidney injury where the glomerular filtration rate and tubular flow are markedly decreased, characterised by reduced urine output.
AKI may lead to a number of complications, including metabolic acidosis, high potassium levels, uremia, changes in body fluid balance, and effects on other organ systems, including death.

Amiloride

Midamor
For potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride and triamterene; both the drugs block epithelial sodium channels in the collecting tubules, thereby preventing potassium excretion into urine.
Common side effects include high blood potassium, vomiting, loss of appetite, rash, and headache.

Hypoaldosteronism

Hyporeninemic hypoaldosteronismhyporeninemic hypoaldosteronic statelow aldosterone states
Common causes include kidney failure, hypoaldosteronism, and rhabdomyolysis.
Hypoaldosteronism may result in high blood potassium and is the cause of 'type 4 renal tubular acidosis', sometimes referred to as hyperkalemic RTA or tubular hyperkalemia.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency

21-hydroxylase deficiency21-hydroxylasecongenital adrenal hyperplasia
Potassium and acid excretion are also impaired when mineralocorticoid activity is deficient, and hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis gradually develop.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
Decreased kidney function is a major cause of hyperkalemia.

Potassium

KK + potassium ion
Hyperkalemia is an elevated level of potassium (K + ) in the blood serum.
Since the kidneys are the site of potassium excretion, individuals with impaired kidney function are at risk for hyperkalemia if dietary potassium and supplements are not restricted.

Paresthesia

paraesthesiatinglingparesthesias
Occasionally when severe it results in palpitations, muscle pain, muscle weakness, or numbness.

Cardiac arrest

sudden cardiac deathsudden deathcardiopulmonary arrest
An abnormal heart rate can occur which can result in cardiac arrest and death.

Angiotensin II receptor blocker

angiotensin II receptor antagonistangiotensin receptor blockersangiotensin receptor blocker
Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin and tacrolimus.
Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) include: dizziness, headache, and/or hyperkalemia.

Ibuprofen

AdvilMotrinBrufen
NSAIDs such as ibuprofen, naproxen, or celecoxib inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, leading to reduced production of renin and aldosterone, causing potassium retention.
Infrequent adverse effects include esophageal ulceration, heart failure, high blood levels of potassium, kidney impairment, confusion, and bronchospasm.

Sodium bicarbonate

baking sodabicarbonate of sodaNaHCO 3
Other medications used include dextrose with insulin, salbutamol, and sodium bicarbonate.
HCO 3 − is used for treatment of hyperkalemia, as it will drive K + back into cells during periods of acidosis.

Triamterene

DyreniumDytac
For potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride and triamterene; both the drugs block epithelial sodium channels in the collecting tubules, thereby preventing potassium excretion into urine.
Triamterene is best avoided in patients with chronic kidney disease due to the possibility of hyperkalemia.

Ciclosporin

cyclosporinecyclosporincyclosporin A
Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin and tacrolimus.
Side effects of ciclosporin can include gum enlargement, increased hair growth, convulsions, peptic ulcers, pancreatitis, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, confusion, increased cholesterol, trouble breathing, numbness and tingling (particularly of the lips), itchiness, high blood pressure, potassium retention (possibly leading to hyperkalemia), kidney and liver dysfunction, burning sensations at finger tips, and an increased vulnerability to opportunistic fungal and viral infections.

Tacrolimus

FK506Prograftacrolimus binding protein 1a
Examples of medications that can cause hyperkalemia include ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressants such as ciclosporin and tacrolimus.
Side effects can be severe and include infection, cardiac damage, hypertension, blurred vision, liver and kidney problems (tacrolimus nephrotoxicity), hyperkalemia, hypomagnesemia, hyperglycemia, diabetes mellitus, itching, lung damage (sirolimus also causes lung damage), and various neuropsychiatric problems such as loss of appetite, insomnia, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, confusion, weakness, depression, vivid nightmares, cramps, neuropathy, seizures, tremors, and catatonia.

Tumor lysis syndrome

tumour lysis syndrome
Increased tissue breakdown such as rhabdomyolysis, burns, or any cause of rapid tissue necrosis, including tumor lysis syndrome can cause the release of intracellular potassium into blood, causing hyperkalemia.
Tumor lysis syndrome is characterized by high blood potassium (hyperkalemia), high blood phosphate (hyperphosphatemia), low blood calcium (hypocalcemia), high blood uric acid (hyperuricemia), and higher than normal levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and other nitrogen-containing compounds (azotemia).

Ketoacidosis

alcoholicKetoacidotic
However, in organic acidosis such as lactic acidosis, ketoacidosis, the effect on serum potassium levels are absent possibly because of the presence of organic ion-hydrogen ion co-transporter into the cells that minimises the displacement of potassium out of the cells.
Other electrolyte disturbances such as hyperkalemia and hyponatremia may also be present.

Renal tubular acidosis

acid excretiondistal renal tubular acidosiskidney problems
Its cardinal feature is hyperkalemia, and measured urinary acidification is normal, hence it is often called hyperkalemic RTA or tubular hyperkalemia.