Hyperlipidemia

hyperlipoproteinemiahyperlipidaemiahyperlipemiahigh blood lipidshyperlipoproteinaemialipemiahyperlipoproteinemia type IIhyperlipoproteinemia type iiihyperlipoproteinemia type ivhyperlipoproteinemia type v
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.wikipedia
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Dyslipidemia

dyslipidaemiaabnormal lipid levelsabnormal cholesterol levels
It is the most common form of dyslipidemia (which includes any abnormal lipid levels).
In developed countries, most dyslipidemias are hyperlipidemias; that is, an elevation of lipids in the blood.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities are common in the general population and are regarded as modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease due to their influence on atherosclerosis.
There are many risk factors for heart diseases: age, gender, tobacco use, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, obesity, genetic predisposition and family history of cardiovascular disease, raised blood pressure (hypertension), raised blood sugar (diabetes mellitus), raised blood cholesterol (hyperlipidemia), undiagnosed celiac disease, psychosocial factors, poverty and low educational status, and air pollution.

Combined hyperlipidemia

hyperlipidemia, familial combinedfamilial combined hyperlipidemiafamilial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL)
Hyperlipidemias are also classified according to which types of lipids are elevated, that is hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia or both in combined hyperlipidemia.
On lipoprotein electrophoresis (a test now rarely performed) it shows as a hyperlipoproteinemia type IIB.

Blood

human bloodhematologicalblood-forming
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.
Atherosclerosis reduces the flow of blood through arteries, because atheroma lines arteries and narrows them. Atheroma tends to increase with age, and its progression can be compounded by many causes including smoking, high blood pressure, excess circulating lipids (hyperlipidemia), and diabetes mellitus.

Xanthoma

xanthomatosisxanthomasdeposits of fat
The familial form is characterized by tendon xanthoma, xanthelasma, and premature cardiovascular disease.
They are associated with hyperlipidemias, both primary and secondary types.

Hypertriglyceridemia

High blood triglycerideshigh serum triglycerideshigh triglyceride levels
Hyperlipidemias are also classified according to which types of lipids are elevated, that is hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia or both in combined hyperlipidemia. They may result in increased risk of premature atherosclerosis or, when associated with marked hypertriglyceridemia, may lead to pancreatitis and other complications of the chylomicronemia syndrome.
Genetic predisposition; some forms of familial hyperlipidemia such as familial combined hyperlipidemia i.e. Type II hyperlipidemia

Donald S. Fredrickson

Fredrickson
Familial hyperlipidemias are classified according to the Fredrickson classification, which is based on the pattern of lipoproteins on electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation.
In 1967 Fredrickson co-authored the paper that described the classification of lipoprotein abnormalities in five types, depending on the pattern of lipoprotein electrophoresis; this became known as the Fredrickson classification.

Familial hypercholesterolemia

familial hypercholesterolaemiahypercholesterolemia, familialAutosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia
Cholesterol levels may be determined as part of health screening for health insurance or occupational health, when the external physical signs such as xanthelasma, xanthoma, arcus are noticed, symptoms of cardiovascular disease develop, or a family member has been found to have FH. A pattern compatible with hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa on the Fredrickson classification is typically found: raised level of total cholesterol, markedly raised level of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), normal level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and normal level of triglycerides.

Niacin

nicotinic acidnicotinatevitamin B 3
Treatment include diet control, fibrates and niacins. Other agents commonly added to statins are ezetimibe, niacin, and bile acid sequestrants.
The acute adverse effects of high-dose niacin therapy (1–3 grams/day) – which is commonly used in the treatment of hyperlipidemias – further include hypotension, fatigue, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, heartburn, blurred or impaired vision, and macular edema.

Pancreatitis

gallstone pancreatitisinflammation of the pancreaspancreatic inflammation
They may result in increased risk of premature atherosclerosis or, when associated with marked hypertriglyceridemia, may lead to pancreatitis and other complications of the chylomicronemia syndrome.
Other causes include high levels of blood fats, high blood calcium, some medications, and certain genetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis among others.

Hypercholesterolemia

high cholesterolhigh blood cholesterolhypercholesterolaemia
Hyperlipidemias are also classified according to which types of lipids are elevated, that is hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia or both in combined hyperlipidemia.
It is a form of hyperlipidemia, high blood lipids, and hyperlipoproteinemia (elevated levels of lipoproteins in the blood).

Fibrate

fibratesFibric acid derivativesfibric acids
Treatment include diet control, fibrates and niacins.
They are therefore used in many hyperlipidemias.

Arcus senilis

arcus senilis corneaecorneal arcuscorneal arcus juvenilis
It results from cholesterol deposits in or hyalinosis of the corneal stroma, and may be associated with ocular defects or with familial hyperlipidemia.

Nephrotic syndrome

a serious kidney disorderGlomerulosclerosisidiopathic nephrotic syndrome
Nephrotic syndrome
This includes protein in the urine, low blood albumin levels, high blood lipids, and significant swelling.

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency

chylomicronemia syndromelipoprotein lipase deficiency, familiala
They may result in increased risk of premature atherosclerosis or, when associated with marked hypertriglyceridemia, may lead to pancreatitis and other complications of the chylomicronemia syndrome. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency (type Ia), due to a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) or altered apolipoprotein C2, resulting in elevated chylomicrons, the particles that transfer fatty acids from the digestive tract to the liver
chylomicronemia syndrome, and hyperlipoproteinemia type Ia.

Statin

statinsdrug interactionsHMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR) inhibitor
Statins are not better than fibrates when lowering triglyceride levels.
In 2008, the JUPITER study showed benefit in those who had no history of high cholesterol or heart disease, but only elevated C-reactive protein levels.

Apolipoprotein E

APOEAPOE ε4ApoE4
Also known as broad beta disease or dysbetalipoproteinemia, the most common cause for this form is the presence of ApoE E2/E2 genotype.
Defects in APOE result in familial dysbetalipoproteinemia aka type III hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP III), in which increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides are the consequence of impaired clearance of chylomicron, VLDL and LDL remnants.

Familial hypertriglyceridemia

Familial hypertriglyceridemia is an autosomal dominant condition occurring in approximately 1% of the population.
Primary hyperlipoproteinemia

Ezetimibe

Other agents commonly added to statins are ezetimibe, niacin, and bile acid sequestrants.
reduce levels of certain lipids in people with primary hyperlipidemia, alone or with a statin;

Thiazide

thiazide diureticthiazide diureticsthiazides
Use of drugs such as thiazide diuretics, beta blockers, and estrogens
Hyperlipidemia

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XCardio metabolic riskinsulin resistance
Secondary combined hyperlipoproteinemia (usually in the context of metabolic syndrome, for which it is a diagnostic criterion)
In 1977, Haller used the term "metabolic syndrome" for associations of obesity, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, hyperuricemia, and hepatic steatosis when describing the additive effects of risk factors on atherosclerosis.

Lipid

lipidsglycerolipidfat
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood.

Lipoprotein

lipoproteinsbeta-lipoproteinscirculating cholesterol
Hyperlipidemia is abnormally elevated levels of any or all lipids or lipoproteins in the blood. Lipids (water-insoluble molecules) are transported in a protein capsule.

Apolipoprotein

apolipoproteinsapoproteinapo(a)
Lipids (water-insoluble molecules) are transported in a protein capsule.