Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertensionelevated blood pressureincreased blood pressureblood pressurehighchronic hypertensionelevation of blood pressureessential hypertension
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.wikipedia
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Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.

Atrial fibrillation

paroxysmal atrial fibrillationatrial fibrilationatrial arrhythmia
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
High blood pressure and valvular heart disease are the most common alterable risk factors for AF. Other heart-related risk factors include heart failure, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and congenital heart disease.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failurerenal insufficiencyend-stage renal disease
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Complications may include heart disease, high blood pressure, bone disease, or anemia.

Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementia
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and obesity.

Peripheral artery disease

peripheral vascular diseaseperipheral arterial diseasearterial insufficiency
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Other risk factors include diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney problems, and high blood cholesterol.

Chronic condition

chronicchronic diseasechronic diseases
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
For example, high blood pressure or hypertension is considered to be not only a chronic condition itself but also correlated to diseases such as heart attack or stroke.

Salt

table saltsalt productioncommon salt
Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use.
Excessive salt consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults.

Weight loss

weight-losslose weightlosing weight
Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.
Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.

Cushing's syndrome

hyperadrenocorticismhypercortisolismCushing syndrome
For example, Cushing's syndrome frequently causes truncal obesity, glucose intolerance, moon face, a hump of fat behind the neck/shoulder (referred to as a buffalo hump), and purple abdominal stretch marks. Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
Signs and symptoms may include high blood pressure, abdominal obesity but with thin arms and legs, reddish stretch marks, a round red face, a fat lump between the shoulders, weak muscles, weak bones, acne, and fragile skin that heals poorly.

Healthy diet

healthy eatingbalanced diethealthy
Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.
A healthy lifestyle may lower disease risks, such as obesity, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cancer.

Hypertensive emergency

malignant hypertensionhypertensive emergencieshypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crisis is categorized as either hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency, according to the absence or presence of end organ damage, respectively. Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss, brain swelling, seizures, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a blood clotting disorder).
A hypertensive emergency, formerly known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (brain, eyes, heart, aorta, or kidneys).

Hypertensive retinopathy

The severity of the changes typical of hypertensive retinopathy is graded from I to IV; grades I and II may be difficult to differentiate.
Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina and retinal circulation due to high blood pressure (i.e. hypertension).

Blood pressure measurement

Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement.
Hypertension refers to arterial pressure being abnormally high, as opposed to hypotension, when it is abnormally low.

Renal artery stenosis

renal artery obstructionkidney arteriesnarrowing of the renal artery
The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills. Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
This narrowing of the renal artery can impede blood flow to the target kidney, resulting in renovascular hypertension – a secondary type of high blood pressure.

Health effects of salt

sodiumsalt intakeConsensus Action on Salt and Health
Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that excess sodium can increase blood pressure and the risk for heart disease and stroke in some individuals.

Gestational hypertension

pregnancy-induced hypertensionpregnancy induced hypertensionhypertension
High blood pressure in pregnancy can be classified as pre-existing hypertension, gestational hypertension, or pre-eclampsia.
Gestational hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is the development of new hypertension (systolic above 145 or diastolic above 95 mmHg) in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks' gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of pre-eclampsia.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
High blood pressure in pregnancy can be classified as pre-existing hypertension, gestational hypertension, or pre-eclampsia.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

Eclampsia

eclamptic psychosispregnancy-induced
Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss, brain swelling, seizures, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a blood clotting disorder).
Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy in which there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine or other organ dysfunction.

Pheochromocytoma

phaeochromocytomapheochromocytomasadrenal cancers
Pheochromocytoma may cause abrupt ("paroxysmal") episodes of hypertension accompanied by headache, palpitations, pale appearance, and excessive sweating. Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
Elevated blood pressure, including paroxysmal (sporadic, episodic) high blood pressure, which sometimes can be more difficult to detect; another clue to the presence of pheochromocytoma is orthostatic hypotension (a fall in systolic blood pressure greater than 20 mmHg or a fall in diastolic blood pressure greater than 10 mmHg upon standing)

Physical examination

physical exammedical examinationexamination
On physical examination, hypertension may be associated with the presence of changes in the optic fundus seen by ophthalmoscopy.
General health checks, including physical examinations performed when the patient reported no health concerns, often include medical screening for common conditions, such as high blood pressure.

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XCardio metabolic riskinsulin resistance
Insulin resistance, which is common in obesity and is a component of syndrome X (or the metabolic syndrome), is also thought to contribute to hypertension.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: central obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss, brain swelling, seizures, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a blood clotting disorder).
Complications of chronic disease may include heart disease, high blood pressure, or anemia.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
A systemic disease is a disease that affects the entire body, such as influenza or high blood pressure.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
Risk factors include abnormal cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, family history, and an unhealthy diet.

Acromegaly

acromegalicgrowth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomaacromegalia
Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
Complications of the disease may include type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.