Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertensionelevated blood pressureincreased blood pressurechronic hypertensionhighblood pressuresystemic hypertensionelevation of blood pressure
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.wikipedia
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Secondary hypertension

secondary
High blood pressure is classified as either primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension.
Secondary hypertension (or, less commonly, inessential hypertension) is a type of hypertension which by definition is caused by an identifiable underlying primary cause.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Common causes of heart failure include coronary artery disease, including a previous myocardial infarction (heart attack), high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, excess alcohol use, infection, and cardiomyopathy of an unknown cause.

Atrial fibrillation

atrial fibrilationparoxysmal atrial fibrillationAtrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
High blood pressure and valvular heart disease are the most common alterable risk factors for AF.

Chronic kidney disease

chronic renal failureend-stage renal diseasechronic kidney failure
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Complications include an increased risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, bone disease, and anemia.

Dementia

senilesenilitysenile dementia
Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia.
Efforts to prevent dementia include trying to decrease risk factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and obesity.

Chronic condition

chronicchronic diseasechronic diseases
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
For example, high blood pressure or hypertension is considered to be not only a chronic condition itself but also correlated to diseases such as heart attack or stroke.

Salt

table saltsalt productioncommon salt
Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, and alcohol use.
Excessive salt consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults.

Cushing's syndrome

Cushing syndromeCushing’s syndromehypercortisolism
For example, Cushing's syndrome frequently causes truncal obesity, glucose intolerance, moon face, a hump of fat behind the neck/shoulder (referred to as a buffalo hump), and purple abdominal stretch marks. Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
Signs and symptoms may include high blood pressure, abdominal obesity but with thin arms and legs, reddish stretch marks, a round red face, a fat lump between the shoulders, weak muscles, weak bones, acne, and fragile skin that heals poorly.

Weight loss

weight-losslose weightlosing weight
Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.
Weight loss can lead to a reduction in hypertension (high blood pressure), however whether this reduces hypertension-related harm is unclear.

Hypertensive emergency

malignant hypertensionhypertensive emergencieshypertensive crisis
Hypertensive crisis is categorized as either hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency, according to the absence or presence of end organ damage, respectively. Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss, brain swelling, seizures, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a blood clotting disorder).
A hypertensive emergency is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (brain, eyes, heart, aorta, or kidneys).

Hypertensive retinopathy

retinal arterial attenuation
The severity of the changes typical of hypertensive retinopathy is graded from I to IV; grades I and II may be difficult to differentiate.
Hypertensive retinopathy is damage to the retina and retinal circulation due to high blood pressure (i.e. hypertension).

Renal artery stenosis

renal artery obstructionAtherosclerotic renal artery stenosisbi-lateral renal artery stenosis
The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to an identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills. Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
This narrowing of the renal artery can impede blood flow to the target kidney, resulting in renovascular hypertension – a secondary type of high blood pressure.

Blood pressure measurement

blood pressureblood pressure measurementsoscillometric
Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement.
Hypertension refers to arterial pressure being abnormally high, as opposed to hypotension, when it is abnormally low.

Prediabetes

impaired glucose toleranceglucose intoleranceglucose tolerance
For example, Cushing's syndrome frequently causes truncal obesity, glucose intolerance, moon face, a hump of fat behind the neck/shoulder (referred to as a buffalo hump), and purple abdominal stretch marks.
It usually does not cause symptoms but people with prediabetes often have obesity (especially abdominal or visceral obesity), dyslipidemia with high triglycerides and/or low HDL cholesterol, and hypertension.

Gestational hypertension

pregnancy-induced hypertensionpregnancy induced hypertensionhypertension of pregnancy
High blood pressure in pregnancy can be classified as pre-existing hypertension, gestational hypertension, or pre-eclampsia.
Gestational hypertension or pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is the development of new hypertension in a pregnant woman after 20 weeks' gestation without the presence of protein in the urine or other signs of pre-eclampsia.

Health effects of salt

salt intakesodiumConsensus Action on Salt and Health
Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) states that excess sodium can increase blood pressure and the risk for heart disease and stroke in some individuals.

Pre-eclampsia

preeclampsiatoxemiatoxemia of pregnancy
High blood pressure in pregnancy can be classified as pre-existing hypertension, gestational hypertension, or pre-eclampsia.
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy characterized by the onset of high blood pressure and often a significant amount of protein in the urine.

Pheochromocytoma

phaeochromocytomapheochromocytomasadrenal cancers
Pheochromocytoma may cause abrupt ("paroxysmal") episodes of hypertension accompanied by headache, palpitations, pale appearance, and excessive sweating. Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
A pheochromocytoma can also cause resistant arterial hypertension.

Eclampsia

eclamptic psychosispre-eclampsia or eclampsiapregnancy-induced
Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss, brain swelling, seizures, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a blood clotting disorder).
Pre-eclampsia is a disorder of pregnancy in which there is high blood pressure and either large amounts of protein in the urine or other organ dysfunction.

Metabolic syndrome

syndrome XMetabolic syndrome XCardio metabolic risk
Insulin resistance, which is common in obesity and is a component of syndrome X (or the metabolic syndrome), is also thought to contribute to hypertension.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: central obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides, and low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Kidney failure

renal failurekidney problemsrenal impairment
Pre-eclampsia can occasionally progress to a life-threatening condition called eclampsia, which is a hypertensive emergency and has several serious complications including vision loss, brain swelling, seizures, kidney failure, pulmonary edema, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (a blood clotting disorder).
Complications of chronic failure also include heart disease, high blood pressure, and anemia.

Physical examination

physical exammedical examinationexamination
On physical examination, hypertension may be associated with the presence of changes in the optic fundus seen by ophthalmoscopy.
General health checks, including physical examinations performed when the patient reported no health concerns, often include medical screening for common conditions, such as high blood pressure.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

Atherosclerosis

atheroscleroticatherogenesisatherosclerotic plaques
Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
Risk factors include abnormal cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking, obesity, family history, and an unhealthy diet.

Acromegaly

acromegalicgrowth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomaacromegalia
Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, acromegaly, Conn's syndrome or hyperaldosteronism, renal artery stenosis (from atherosclerosis or fibromuscular dysplasia), hyperparathyroidism, and pheochromocytoma.
Complications of the disease may include type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.