A report on Hypertension and Stimulant

Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)
Ritalin: 20 mg sustained-release (SR) tablets
Determinants of mean arterial pressure
A chart comparing the chemical structures of different amphetamine derivatives
Illustration depicting the effects of high blood pressure
Roasted coffee beans, a common source of caffeine.
Rates of hypertension in adult men in 2014.
Tablets containing MDMA
Diagram illustrating the main complications of persistent high blood pressure
Lines of illicit cocaine, used as a recreational stimulant
Image of veins from Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus
Catha edulis
Graph showing, prevalence of awareness, treatment and control of hypertension compared between the four studies of NHANES

When these changes become pathological, they are called arrhythmia, hypertension, and hyperthermia, and may lead to rhabdomyolysis, stroke, cardiac arrest, or seizures.

- Stimulant

Other causes of secondary hypertension include obesity, sleep apnea, pregnancy, coarctation of the aorta, excessive eating of liquorice, excessive drinking of alcohol, certain prescription medicines, herbal remedies, and stimulants such as coffee, cocaine and methamphetamine.

- Hypertension
Automated arm blood pressure meter showing arterial hypertension (shown by a systolic blood pressure 158 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure 99 mmHg and heart rate of 80 beats per minute)

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Cocaine

2 links

Cocaine hydrochloride
Lines of cocaine prepared for snorting
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Crack cocaine and cocaine was found to be the third and fifth overall most dangerous drugs respectively.
Side effects of chronic cocaine use
A pile of cocaine hydrochloride
A piece of compressed cocaine powder
A woman smoking crack cocaine
"Rocks" of crack cocaine
Biological source of cocaine molecule in the context of the tropane class of molecules. The biological source of each tropane alkaloid is indicated by species, and below that a phylogenetic map is provided.
Biosynthesis of N-methyl-pyrrolinium cation
Biosynthesis of cocaine
Robinson biosynthesis of tropane
Reduction of tropinone
Coca leaf in Bolivia
"Cocaine toothache drops", 1885 advertisement of cocaine for dental pain in children
Advertisement in the January 1896 issue of McClure's Magazine for Burnett's Cocaine "for the hair".
Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hip flask of the coca-treated Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani.
In this 1904 advice column from the Tacoma Times, "Madame Falloppe" recommended that cold sores be treated with a solution of borax, cocaine, and morphine.
Women purchase cocaine capsules in Berlin, 1929
D.C. Mayor Marion Barry captured on a surveillance camera smoking crack cocaine during a sting operation by the FBI and D.C. Police.
Drug overdoses killed more than 70,200 Americans in 2017, with cocaine overdoses making up 13,942 of those deaths.
United States CBP police inspect a seized shipment of cocaine
The U.S. Coast Guard in Miami offloading confiscated cocaine
Cocaine smuggled in a charango, 2008
Cocaine adulterated with fruit flavoring
Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. The green line is cocaine and any opioid (top line in 2017). The gray line is cocaine without any opioids (bottom line in 2017). The yellow line is cocaine and other (middle line in 2017).<ref name=NIDA-deaths>{{cite web | url = https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | title = Overdose Death Rates | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20151128091723/https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates| archive-date=28 November 2015 | work =  By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) }}</ref>
Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion. Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm.<ref name="Lancet">{{cite journal|vauthors = Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C|title = Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|journal = Lancet|volume = 369|issue = 9566|pages = 1047–53|date = March 2007|pmid = 17382831|doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|s2cid = 5903121|author-link4 = Colin Blakemore|author-link1 = David Nutt }}</ref>
Bottle of cocaine solution, Germany, circa 1915

Cocaine (from cocaïne, from coca, ultimately from Quechua: kúka) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant obtained from the leaves of two Coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense.

High doses can result in high blood pressure or high body temperature.

CT scan of the brain showing a prior right-sided ischemic stroke from blockage of an artery. Changes on a CT may not be visible early on.

Stroke

1 links

Medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain causes cell death.

Medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain causes cell death.

CT scan of the brain showing a prior right-sided ischemic stroke from blockage of an artery. Changes on a CT may not be visible early on.
There are two main categories of strokes. Ischemic (top), typically caused by a blood clot in an artery (1a) resulting in brain death to the affected area (2a). Hemorrhagic (bottom), caused by blood leaking into or around the brain from a ruptured blood vessel (1b) allowing blood to pool in the affected area (2b) thus increasing the pressure on the brain.
A slice of brain from the autopsy of a person who had an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke
CT scan of an intraparenchymal bleed (bottom arrow) with surrounding edema (top arrow)
Illustration of an embolic stroke, showing a blockage lodged in a blood vessel.
Histopathology at high magnification of a normal neuron, and an ischemic stroke at approximately 24 hours on H&E stain: The neurons become hypereosinophilic and there is an infiltrate of neutrophils. There is slight edema and loss of normal architecture in the surrounding neuropil.
A CT showing early signs of a middle cerebral artery stroke with loss of definition of the gyri and grey white boundary
Dens media sign in a patient with middle cerebral artery infarction shown on the left. Right image after 7 hours.
12-lead ECG of a patient with a stroke, showing large deeply inverted T-waves. Various ECG changes may occur in people with strokes and other brain disorders.
Walking with an orthosis after a stroke
Stroke deaths per million persons in 2012
Hippocrates first described the sudden paralysis that is often associated with stroke.

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure.

Users of stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine are at a high risk for ischemic strokes.

Methamphetamine

1 links

Desoxyn (Methamphetamine Hydrochloride) 100 tablets.
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Methamphetamine was found to be the fourth most damaging to society.
A suspected case of meth mouth
This diagram depicts the neuroimmune mechanisms that mediate methamphetamine-induced neurodegeneration in the human brain. The NF-κB-mediated neuroimmune response to methamphetamine use which results in the increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier arises through its binding at and activation of sigma receptors, the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs), the dysregulation of glutamate transporters (specifically, EAAT1 and EAAT2) and glucose metabolism, and excessive Ca2+ ion influx in glial cells and dopamine neurons.
This illustration depicts the normal operation of the dopaminergic terminal to the left, and the dopaminergic terminal in the presence of methamphetamine to the right. Methamphetamine reverses the action of the dopamine transporter (DAT) by activating TAAR1 (not shown). TAAR1 activation also causes some of the dopamine transporters to move into the presynaptic neuron and cease transport (not shown). At VMAT2 (labeled VMAT), methamphetamine causes dopamine efflux (release).
Shards of pure methamphetamine hydrochloride, also known as crystal meth
Pervitin, a methamphetamine brand used by German soldiers during World War II, was dispensed in these tablet containers.
U.S. drug overdose related fatalities in 2017 were 70,200, including 10,333 of those related to psychostimulants (including methamphetamine).

Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity.

Methamphetamine is contraindicated in individuals with a history of substance use disorder, heart disease, or severe agitation or anxiety, or in individuals currently experiencing arteriosclerosis, glaucoma, hyperthyroidism, or severe hypertension.

Black coffee in a cup on a saucer, with a spoon

Coffee

0 links

Brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain flowering plants in the Coffea genus.

Brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, the seeds of berries from certain flowering plants in the Coffea genus.

Black coffee in a cup on a saucer, with a spoon
Green coffee describes the beans before roasting.
View of Mocha, Yemen during the second half of the 17th century
18th century French plan of Mocha, Yemen. The Somali, Jewish and European quarters are located outside the citadel. The Dutch, English, Turkish and French trading posts are inside the city walls.
Over the door of a Leipzig coffeeshop is a sculptural representation of a man in Turkish dress, receiving a cup of coffee from a boy.
A coffee can from the first half of the 20th century. From the Museo del Objeto del Objeto collection.
Illustration of Coffea arabica plant and seeds
Coffee production map
Roasted coffee beans
Coffee "cuppers", or professional tasters, grade the coffee.
Coffee container
A contemporary automatic coffeemaker
Enjoying coffee, painting by unknown artist in the Pera Museum
Instant coffee
Brazilian coffee sacks
Coffee consumption (kg. per capita and year)
Skeletal formula of a caffeine molecule
A coffeehouse in Cairo, 18th century
Coffee is an important part of Bosnian culture, and was a major part of its economy in the past.
Café Central in Vienna, Austria. A staple of the Viennese coffee house tradition, it has remained open since 1876.
First patent for the espresso machine, Angelo Moriondo (1884)
Davoser Café by Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, 1928
The Coffee Bearer, Orientalist painting by John Frederick Lewis (1857)
Café Zimmermann, a Leipzig coffeehouse frequented by Bach.
Map of coffee areas in Brazil

Coffee is darkly colored, bitter, slightly acidic and has a stimulating effect in humans, primarily due to its caffeine content.

The effect of no or moderate daily consumption of coffee on risk for developing hypertension has been assessed in several reviews during the 21st century.