Hypertext

hypertextualityhypertext markupmetatextHistory of hypertexthypertext linkinghypertextualmeta-textwebtext
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access.wikipedia
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World Wide Web

WebWWWthe web
Hypertext is one of the key underlying concepts of the World Wide Web, where Web pages are often written in the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs, such as ), which may be interlinked by hypertext, and are accessible over the Internet.

Internet

onlinethe Internetweb
As implemented on the Web, hypertext enables the easy-to-use publication of information over the Internet.
The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Hypermedia

hypermedia.media
The term "hypertext" is often used where the term "hypermedia" might seem appropriate.
Hypermedia, an extension of the term hypertext, is a nonlinear medium of information that includes graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks.

Ted Nelson

Geeks Bearing GiftsTheodor NelsonThe Curse of Xanadu
In 1992, author Ted Nelson – who coined both terms in 1963 – wrote:
He coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia in 1963 and published them in 1965.

Hyperlink

linkshyperlinkslink
Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access.
Hypertext is text with hyperlinks.

Transclusion

transcludedtranscludingincluded
Some implementations support transclusion, where text or other content is included by reference and automatically rendered in place.
In computer science, transclusion is the inclusion of part or all of an electronic document into one or more other documents by hypertext reference.

Vannevar Bush

Bush, VannevarBushV. Bush
In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex.
The memex, which he began developing in the 1930s, was a hypothetical adjustable microfilm viewer with a structure analogous to that of hypertext.

Dynamic web page

client-side scriptingdynamic contentdynamic web content
Hypertext documents can either be static (prepared and stored in advance) or dynamic (continually changing in response to user input, such as dynamic web pages).
Classical hypertext navigation, with HTML or XHTML alone, provides "static" content, meaning that the user requests a web page and simply views the page and the information on that page.

StretchText

A lesser known feature is StretchText, which expands or contracts the content in place, thereby giving more control to the reader in determining the level of detail of the displayed document.
StretchText is a hypertext feature that has not gained mass adoption in systems like the World Wide Web, but gives more control to the reader in determining what level of detail to read at.

Memex

DARPA's MemexDARPA's Memex programhypertext system
In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex.
The concept of the memex influenced the development of early hypertext systems (eventually leading to the creation of the World Wide Web) and personal knowledge base software.

Hypertext Editing System

HES
He later worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System (text editing) in 1967 at Brown University.
The Hypertext Editing System, or HES, was an early hypertext research project conducted at Brown University in 1967 by Andries van Dam, Ted Nelson, and several Brown students.

File Retrieval and Editing System

FRESSFile Retrieval and Editing System (FRESS)
By 1976, its successor FRESS was used in a poetry class in which students could browse a hyperlinked set of poems and discussion by experts, faculty and other students, in what was arguably the world’s first online scholarly community which van Dam says "foreshadowed wikis, blogs and communal documents of all kinds".
The File Retrieval and Editing SyStem, or FRESS, was a hypertext system developed at Brown University starting in 1968 by Andries van Dam and his students, including Bob Wallace.

Project Xanadu

XanaduXanadu ProjectOpenXanadu
Ted Nelson said in the 1960s that he began implementation of a hypertext system he theorized, which was named Project Xanadu, but his first and incomplete public release was finished much later, in 1998.
Project Xanadu was the first hypertext project, founded in 1960 by Ted Nelson.

Douglas Engelbart

Doug EngelbartDouglas C. EngelbartDouglas Englebart
Douglas Engelbart independently began working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding, personnel, and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968.
He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction, particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, which resulted in creation of the computer mouse, and the development of hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces.

Andries van Dam

Andy van Damvan DamAndries "Andy" van Dam
He later worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System (text editing) in 1967 at Brown University.
Together with Ted Nelson he contributed to the first hypertext system, Hypertext Editing System (HES) in the late 1960s.

NLS (computer system)

NLSoN-Line SystemAugment
Douglas Engelbart independently began working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding, personnel, and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968.
Designed by Douglas Engelbart and implemented by researchers at the Augmentation Research Center (ARC) at the Stanford Research Institute (SRI), the NLS system was the first to employ the practical use of hypertext links, the mouse, raster-scan video monitors, information organized by relevance, screen windowing, presentation programs, and other modern computing concepts.

Guide (hypertext)

Guide
Guide, the first significant hypertext system for personal computers, was developed by Peter J. Brown at UKC in 1982.
Guide was a hypertext system developed by Peter J. Brown at the University of Kent in 1982.

The Mother of All Demos

Mother of All Demos1968 presentationdemonstrates
In December of that year, Engelbart demonstrated a 'hypertext' (meaning editing) interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos".
The 90-minute presentation essentially demonstrated almost all the fundamental elements of modern personal computing: windows, hypertext, graphics, efficient navigation and command input, video conferencing, the computer mouse, word processing, dynamic file linking, revision control, and a collaborative real-time editor (collaborative work).

As We May Think

In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex.
"As We May Think" predicted (to some extent) many kinds of technology invented after its publication, including hypertext, personal computers, the Internet, the World Wide Web, speech recognition, and online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia: "Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready-made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified."

ENQUIRE

In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system somewhat like a wiki but without hypertext punctuation, which was not invented until 1987.
It was a simple hypertext program that had some of the same ideas as the Web and the Semantic Web but was different in several important ways.

The Atlantic

The Atlantic MonthlyAtlantic MonthlyAtlantic
In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex.
The classic example is Vannevar Bush's essay "As We May Think" (July 1945), which inspired Douglas Engelbart and later Ted Nelson to develop the modern workstation and hypertext technology.

Brown University

BrownCollege in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence PlantationsBrown Association for Cooperative Housing
He later worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System (text editing) in 1967 at Brown University.
Nelson coined the word hypertext.

Personal computer

PCPCspersonal computers
Guide, the first significant hypertext system for personal computers, was developed by Peter J. Brown at UKC in 1982.
In what was later to be called the Mother of All Demos, SRI researcher Douglas Engelbart in 1968 gave a preview of features that would later become staples of personal computers: e-mail, hypertext, word processing, video conferencing, and the mouse.

The Interactive Encyclopedia System

HyperTIESTIES
In 1983, Ben Shneiderman at the University of Maryland Human - Computer Interaction Lab led a group that developed the HyperTies system that was commercialized by Cognetics Corporation.
The Interactive Encyclopedia System, or TIES, was a hypertext system developed in the University of Maryland Human-Computer Interaction Lab by Ben Shneiderman in 1983.

Wiki

wikiswiki markupWikitext
In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hypertext database system somewhat like a wiki but without hypertext punctuation, which was not invented until 1987.
Within the text of most pages, there are usually many hypertext links to other pages within the wiki.