A report on Hypertext

Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.
Engineer Vannevar Bush wrote "As We May Think" in 1945 in which he described the Memex, a theoretical proto-hypertext device which in turn helped inspire the subsequent invention of hypertext.
Douglas Engelbart in 2009, at the 40th anniversary celebrations of "The Mother of All Demos" in San Francisco, a 90-minute 1968 presentation of the NLS computer system which was a combination of hardware and software that demonstrated many hypertext ideas.
Ted Nelson gives a presentation on Project Xanadu, a theoretical hypertext model conceived in the 1960s whose first and incomplete implementation was first published in 1998.
Hypertext Editing System (HES) IBM 2250 Display console – Brown University 1969

Text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references to other text that the reader can immediately access.

- Hypertext
Documents that are connected by hyperlinks.

47 related topics with Alpha

Overall

An example of a hyperlink as commonly seen in a web browser, with a mouse pointer hovering above it

Hyperlink

7 links

Reference to data that the user can follow by clicking or tapping.

Reference to data that the user can follow by clicking or tapping.

An example of a hyperlink as commonly seen in a web browser, with a mouse pointer hovering above it
Several documents being connected by hyperlinks
How internal MediaWiki links work when one wants to create a link that displays words different from the linked page's title.
Douglas Engelbart and his team at SRI, 1969

Hypertext is text with hyperlinks.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel

Internet

6 links

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

Global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices.

The Internet Messenger by Buky Schwartz, located in Holon, Israel
T3 NSFNET Backbone, c. 1992.
ICANN headquarters in the Playa Vista neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, United States.
2007 map showing submarine fiberoptic telecommunication cables around the world.
Packet routing across the Internet involves several tiers of Internet service providers.
Number of mobile cellular subscriptions 2012–2016
As user data is processed through the protocol stack, each abstraction layer adds encapsulation information at the sending host. Data is transmitted over the wire at the link level between hosts and routers. Encapsulation is removed by the receiving host. Intermediate relays update link encapsulation at each hop, and inspect the IP layer for routing purposes.
Conceptual data flow in a simple network topology of two hosts (A and B) connected by a link between their respective routers. The application on each host executes read and write operations as if the processes were directly connected to each other by some kind of data pipe. After the establishment of this pipe, most details of the communication are hidden from each process, as the underlying principles of communication are implemented in the lower protocol layers. In analogy, at the transport layer the communication appears as host-to-host, without knowledge of the application data structures and the connecting routers, while at the internetworking layer, individual network boundaries are traversed at each router.
A DNS resolver consults three name servers to resolve the domain name user-visible "www.wikipedia.org" to determine the IPV4 Address 207.142.131.234
Creating a subnet by dividing the host identifier
This NeXT Computer was used by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
Share of population using the Internet. See or edit source data.
Internet users per 100 population members and GDP per capita for selected countries.
Internet users per 100 inhabitants Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Internet users in 2015 as a percentage of a country's population Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Fixed broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
'''Mobile broadband Internet subscriptions in 2012
as a percentage of a country's population''' Source: International Telecommunication Union.
Banner in Bangkok during the 2014 Thai coup d'état, informing the Thai public that 'like' or 'share' activities on social media could result in imprisonment (observed 30 June 2014).
Internet users by language<ref name=NIUBL-IWS>{{cite web|url=http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|title=Number of Internet Users by Language|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426122721/http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats7.htm|archive-date=26 April 2012|website=Internet World Stats, Miniwatts Marketing Group|date=31 May 2011|access-date=22 April 2012}}</ref>
Website content languages<ref name=UofCLBWApril2013>{{cite web|title=Usage of content languages for websites|url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|work=W3Techs.com|access-date=26 April 2013|archive-url=https://www.webcitation.org/66ZQzUXh6?url=http://w3techs.com/technologies/overview/content_language/all|archive-date=31 March 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>

The Internet carries a vast range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents and applications of the World Wide Web (WWW), electronic mail, telephony, and file sharing.

Douglas Engelbart in 2008

Douglas Engelbart

6 links

Engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.

Engineer and inventor, and an early computer and Internet pioneer.

Douglas Engelbart in 2008
Engelbart's prototype of a computer mouse, as designed by Bill English from Engelbart's sketches.
Two Apple Macintosh Plus mice, 1986

He is best known for his work on founding the field of human–computer interaction, particularly while at his Augmentation Research Center Lab in SRI International, which resulted in creation of the computer mouse, and the development of hypertext, networked computers, and precursors to graphical user interfaces.

The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.

World Wide Web

6 links

Information system enabling documents and other web resources to be accessed over the Internet.

Information system enabling documents and other web resources to be accessed over the Internet.

The historic World Wide Web logo, designed by Robert Cailliau.
A web page displayed in a web browser
A global map of the Web Index for countries in 2014
This NeXT Computer was used by Sir Tim Berners-Lee at CERN and became the world's first Web server.
The World Wide Web functions as an application layer protocol that is run "on top of" (figuratively) the Internet, helping to make it more functional. The advent of the Mosaic web browser helped to make the web much more usable, to include the display of images and moving images (GIFs).
Graphic representation of a minute fraction of the WWW, demonstrating hyperlinks
A screenshot of a web page on Wikimedia Commons
Dynamic web page: example of server-side scripting (PHP and MySQL)
The usap.gov website
The inside and front of a Dell PowerEdge web server, a computer designed for rack mounting
Multiple web servers may be used for a high traffic website; here, Dell servers are installed together to be used for the Wikimedia Foundation.
The results of a search for the term "lunar eclipse" in a web-based image search engine

The term web page usually refers to what is visible, but may also refer to the contents of the computer file itself, which is usually a text file containing hypertext written in HTML or a comparable markup language.

Nelson speaking at the Tech Museum of Innovation in 2011

Ted Nelson

7 links

American pioneer of information technology, philosopher, and sociologist.

American pioneer of information technology, philosopher, and sociologist.

Nelson speaking at the Tech Museum of Innovation in 2011

He coined the terms hypertext and hypermedia in 1963 and published them in 1965.

The home page of a website displayed in a web browser

Web page

4 links

The home page of a website displayed in a web browser

A web page (or webpage) is a hypertext document on the World Wide Web.

Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009

HTML

4 links

Standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

Standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser.

Tim Berners-Lee in April 2009
Logo of HTML5
HTML element content categories

In 1989, Berners-Lee wrote a memo proposing an Internet-based hypertext system.

Vannevar Bush

4 links

American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including important developments in radar and the initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.

American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including important developments in radar and the initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.

Differential analyzer in use at the Cambridge University Mathematics Laboratory, 1938.
Bush attending a meeting at the University of California, Berkeley in 1940. From left to right: Ernest O. Lawrence, Arthur H. Compton, Bush, James B. Conant, Karl T. Compton, and Alfred L. Loomis
Cut away diagram of the proximity fuze Mark 53
Left to right: Vannevar Bush, James B. Conant, Major General Leslie Groves and Colonel Franklin Matthias at the Hanford Site in July 1945
Bush conceived the encyclopedia of the future as having a mesh of associative trails running through it, akin to hyperlinks, stored in a memex system.
Bush (left) with Harry S. Truman (center) and James B. Conant (right)
From left to right in a November 1969 photo, Dr. Glenn Seaborg, President Richard Nixon, and the three awardees of the Atomic Pioneers Award: Dr. Vannevar Bush, Dr. James B. Conant, and Gen. Leslie Groves.
This inscription honoring Vannevar Bush is in the lobby of MIT's Building 13, which is named after him, and is the home of the Center for Materials Science and Engineering.

The memex, which he began developing in the 1930s (heavily influenced by Emanuel Goldberg's "Statistical Machine" from 1928) was a hypothetical adjustable microfilm viewer with a structure analogous to that of hypertext.

As We May Think

5 links

1945 essay by Vannevar Bush which has been described as visionary and influential, anticipating many aspects of information society.

1945 essay by Vannevar Bush which has been described as visionary and influential, anticipating many aspects of information society.

Vannevar Bush

"As We May Think" predicted (to some extent) many kinds of technology invented after its publication, including hypertext, personal computers, the Internet, the World Wide Web, speech recognition, and online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia: "Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready-made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified."

Hypertext Editing System (HES) IBM 2250 display console, with lightpen – Chris Braun, Brown University, 1969

Hypertext Editing System

4 links

Hypertext Editing System (HES) IBM 2250 display console, with lightpen – Chris Braun, Brown University, 1969

The Hypertext Editing System, or HES, was an early hypertext research project conducted at Brown University in 1967 by Andries van Dam, Ted Nelson, and several Brown students.