Hypnotic

sleeping pillssleeping pillsoporifichypnoticssleeping tabletsleeping tabletshypnotic drugspro-sleep sleeping pillshypnotic drug
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or for surgical anesthesia.wikipedia
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Anesthesia

anaesthesiaanestheticanesthetized
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or for surgical anesthesia.
The types of drugs used include general anesthetics, local anesthetics, hypnotics, sedatives, neuromuscular-blocking drugs, narcotics, and analgesics.

Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleeping
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or for surgical anesthesia.
While sleeping pills may help, they are associated with injuries, dementia, and addiction.

Barbiturate

barbituratesbarbiturate withdrawalgoofballs
Early classes of drugs, such as barbiturates, have fallen out of use in most practices but are still prescribed for some patients.
Barbiturates are effective as anxiolytics, hypnotics, and anticonvulsants, but have physical and psychological addiction potential.

Psychoactive drug

psychoactivepsychotropicdrug
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or for surgical anesthesia.
Depressants ("downers"), including sedatives, hypnotics, and opioids. This category includes all of the calmative, sleep-inducing, anxiety-reducing, anesthetizing substances, which sometimes induce perceptual changes, such as dream images, and also often evoke feelings of euphoria.

Sedative

sedativessedative-hypnoticsedating
This group is related to sedatives. Whereas the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic generally describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep.
Doses of sedatives such as benzodiazepines, when used as a hypnotic to induce sleep, tend to be higher than amounts used to relieve anxiety, whereas only low doses are needed to provide a peaceful effect.

Anxiolytic

anti-anxietyanxiolysisanxiolytics
This group is related to sedatives. Whereas the term sedative describes drugs that serve to calm or relieve anxiety, the term hypnotic generally describes drugs whose main purpose is to initiate, sustain, or lengthen sleep.
At higher dosage hypnotic properties occur.

Sulfonmethane

sulfonalsulphonal
Hypnotica was a class of somniferous drugs and substances tested in medicine of the 1890s and later, including: Urethan, Acetal, Methylal, Sulfonal, paraldehyde, Amylenhydrate, Hypnon, Chloralurethan and Ohloralamid or Chloralimid.
Sulfonmethane (Sulfonomethane, Sulfonal, Acetone diethyl sulfone) is a chemical compound first synthesized by Eugen Baumann in 1888 and introduced as a hypnotic drug by Alfred Kast later on, but now superseded by newer and safer sedatives.

Chloral hydrate

chloralHoyer's mounting mediumKnock-Out Drops
Treatment for insomnia in psychiatry dates back to 1869 when chloral hydrate was first used as a soporific.
It has limited use as a sedative and hypnotic pharmaceutical drug.

Melatonin

melatonergicmelatonin)
Falling outside the above-mentioned categories, the neuro-hormone melatonin has a hypnotic function.
Low-doses of melatonin are usually sufficient to produce a hypnotic effect in most people.

Z-drug

z-drugs
A review of the literature regarding benzodiazepine hypnotics and Z-drugs concluded that these drugs can have adverse effects, such as dependence and accidents, and that optimal treatment uses the lowest effective dose for the shortest therapeutic time period, with gradual discontinuation in order to improve health without worsening of sleep.
It is thought that the primary mode of action utilized by Z-drugs is selective, and carries a high affinity for the a1 hypnotic-inducing site on the benzodiazepine subunit within the GABA A receptor.

Substance dependence

addictiondependencedrug dependence
A review of the literature regarding benzodiazepine hypnotics and Z-drugs concluded that these drugs can have adverse effects, such as dependence and accidents, and that optimal treatment uses the lowest effective dose for the shortest therapeutic time period, with gradual discontinuation in order to improve health without worsening of sleep. Benzodiazepines are not without their drawbacks; substance dependence is possible, and deaths from overdoses sometimes occur, especially in combination with alcohol and/or other depressants.
304.10 Sedative, hypnotic, or anxiolytic dependence (including benzodiazepine dependence and barbiturate dependence)

Paraldehyde

trioxane
Hypnotica was a class of somniferous drugs and substances tested in medicine of the 1890s and later, including: Urethan, Acetal, Methylal, Sulfonal, paraldehyde, Amylenhydrate, Hypnon, Chloralurethan and Ohloralamid or Chloralimid.
It is a central nervous system depressant and was soon found to be an effective anticonvulsant, hypnotic and sedative.

Amobarbital

sodium amytalamobarbitasodium amobarbital
Examples include amobarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and sodium thiopental.
It has sedative-hypnotic properties.

Drug overdose

overdoseoverdosingoverdosed
Although the best drug family at the time (less toxic and with fewer side effects) they were dangerous in overdose and tended to cause physical and psychological dependence.
Among sedative-hypnotics (F13)

Methaqualone

quaaludesQuaaludeMandrax
Examples of quinazolinones include cloroqualone, diproqualone, etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone, Ethinazone), mebroqualone, mecloqualone (Nubarene, Casfen), and methaqualone (Quaalude).
Methaqualone, formerly sold under the brand name Quaalude and Mandrax, was a sedative and hypnotic medication.

Nitrazepam

Mogadonserum
Longer-acting benzodiazepines such as nitrazepam and diazepam have residual effects that may persist into the next day and are, in general, not recommended.
Nitrazepam (brand names Alodorm and Mogadon, among others) is a hypnotic drug of the benzodiazepine class used for short-term relief from severe, disabling anxiety and insomnia.

Secobarbital

SeconalQuinalbarbitonesecobarbitol
Examples include amobarbital, pentobarbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital, and sodium thiopental.
It possesses anaesthetic, anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, and hypnotic properties.

Quinazolinone

quinazolone
During the 1970s, quinazolinones and benzodiazepines were introduced as safer alternatives to replace barbiturates; by the late 1970s benzodiazepines emerged as the safer drug.
Quinazolinone drugs that function as hypnotic/sedatives usually contain a 4-quinazolinone core with a 2-substituted phenyl group at nitrogen atom 3.

Nonbenzodiazepine

nonbenzodiazepinesbenzodiazepine-likenon-benzodiazepine
Nonbenzodiazepines are the most recent development (1990s–present).
Many of these compounds are subtype selective providing novel anxiolytics with little to no hypnotic and amnesiac effects and novel hypnotics with little or no anxiolytic effects.

Sleep hygiene

careful daily sleep practices
Many hypnotic drugs are habit-forming and, due to a large number of factors known to disturb the human sleep pattern, a physician may instead recommend changes in the environment before and during sleep, better sleep hygiene, the avoidance of caffeine or other stimulating substances, or behavioral interventions such as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) before prescribing medication for sleep.
For example, advice to simply avoid sleeping pills was included in early sets of recommendations, but as more drugs to help with sleep have been introduced, recommendations concerning their use have become more complex.

Zopiclone

Examples include zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane), eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), and zolpidem (Ambien, Stilnox, Stilnoct).
Zopiclone (brand names Imovane, Zimovane, and Dopareel) is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.

Zaleplon

SonataZaleplon,
Examples include zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane), eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), and zolpidem (Ambien, Stilnox, Stilnoct).
Zaleplon (marketed under the brand names Sonata, Starnoc, and Andante) is a sedative-hypnotic, almost entirely used for the management/treatment of insomnia.

Eszopiclone

Examples include zopiclone (Imovane, Zimovane), eszopiclone (Lunesta), zaleplon (Sonata), and zolpidem (Ambien, Stilnox, Stilnoct).
Eszopiclone, marketed by Sunovion under the brand-name Lunesta, is a nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic agent used in the treatment of insomnia.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
Benzodiazepines are not without their drawbacks; substance dependence is possible, and deaths from overdoses sometimes occur, especially in combination with alcohol and/or other depressants.
Benzodiazepines enhance the effect of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the GABA A receptor, resulting in sedative, hypnotic (sleep-inducing), anxiolytic (anti-anxiety), anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties; also seen in the applied pharmacology of high doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines are amnesic-dissociative actions.

Etaqualone

Examples of quinazolinones include cloroqualone, diproqualone, etaqualone (Aolan, Athinazone, Ethinazone), mebroqualone, mecloqualone (Nubarene, Casfen), and methaqualone (Quaalude).
It has sedative, hypnotic, muscle relaxant and central nervous system depressant properties resulting from its agonist activity at the β-subtype of the GABA A receptor, and was used for the treatment of insomnia.